Risk Assessment linked to Monitoring and Management.
Jos Brils, Damia Barcelo, Winfried Blum, Werner Brack, Bob Harris, Dietmar Mller, Philippe Negrel, Vala Ragnarsdottir, Wim Salomons, Thomas Track and Joop Vegter (2008) Chapter 7.1 in: The Water Framework Directive: Ecological and Chemical Status Monitoring ed by: Philippe Quevauviller et al., Wiley; ISBN 978-0-470-51836-6
Approaches to the management of water, water bodies and the wider environment across Europe have been radically altered with the introduction of the European Water Framework Directive and the subsidiary Groundwater Daughter Directive. The WFD promotes the integrated management of water resources based on the natural geographical and hydrological unit of the river basin rather than administrative or political boundaries. Whereas previous approaches would generally assess the chemical quality of a stretch of river or a water body such as a lake or an aquifer, the WFD and GWD have stipulated that environmental quality should be assessed holistically on a larger scale. Consequently, in order to achieve `good ecological status´ and `good chemical status´ for all waters and develop strategies for achieving these goals through River Basin Management Plans, it is now necessary to assess the whole biophysical river-groundwater-soil-sediment system in an integrated way.