Professor Stephen A Billings

BEng, PhD, DEng, CEng, CMath, CSci, FIEE, FIMA

Department of Automatic Control and Systems Engineering

Emeritus Professor

Steve Billings profile photo
s.billings@sheffield.ac.uk

Full contact details

Professor Stephen A Billings
Department of Automatic Control and Systems Engineering
Amy Johnson Building
Portobello Street
Sheffield
S1 4DW
Profile

Stephen A Billings is a leading authority on nonlinear system identification, signal processing and analysis in the time, frequency, and spatio-temporal domains. As an original member of the list of the most Highly Cited Researchers in the world his work has been cited over 17,942 times with a h-index of 64, and he is ranked as the UK’s third most cited researcher across all engineering disciplines, based on information from the Web of Science. Google Scholar gives over 29,180 citations and an h-index of 77.

Research interests

Identification of nonlinear systems, NARMAX methods, signal and information processing for nonlinear systems, model validation, spectral analysis for nonlinear systems, nonlinear time series analysis and forecasting, machine learning and neural networks, wavelets, fractals, nonlinear filtering and smoothing, analysis and control of nonlinear and chaotic systems, self tuning, fault detection, dynamic modelling of nonlinear continuous time processes, adaptive noise cancellation, machine vision, mobile robots, cellular automata, spatio-temporal systems, neuro-imaging including fMRI and diffuse optical tomography, bio-imaging, financial modelling, modelling for biology, systems and synthetic biology, stem cell population dynamics, reaction-diffusion systems and crystal growth.

Centre for Signal Processing and Complex Systems

Publications

Books

  • Billings SA (2013) Nonlinear System Identification - NARMAX Methods in the Time, Frequency, and Spatio-Temporal Domains. Wiley. RIS download Bibtex download

Journal articles

Chapters

  • Guo Y, Guo LZ & Billings SA (2017) Volterra series and associated frequency domain representation of a class of bilinear partial differential equations, Nonlinear Systems: Design, Applications and Analysis (pp. 15-35). RIS download Bibtex download
  • Billings SA, Iglesias R, Nehmzow U & Kyriacou T (2006) Training and Analysis of Mobile Robot Behaviour Through System Identification, Current Topics in Artificial Intelligence: 11th Conference of the Spanish Association for Artificial Intelligence, CAEPIA 2005, Santiago de Compostela, Spain, November 16-18, 2005, Revised Selected Pa (pp. 470-479). Springer Verlag RIS download Bibtex download
  • Billings SA, Iglesias R, Nehmzow U & Kyriacou T (2006) Training and Analysis of Mobile Robot Behaviour Through System Identification, Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence (pp. 470-479). Springer RIS download Bibtex download
  • Yang J, Wongsa S, Kadirkamanathan V, Billings SA & Wright PC (2005) Differential evolution and its application to metabolic flux analysis (pp. 115-124). RIS download Bibtex download
  • Billings SA & Coca D (2002) Identification of narmax and related models, UNESCO Encylopedia of Life Support Systems EOLSS RIS download Bibtex download
  • Billings SA & Coca D (2002) System identification using wavelets, UNESCO Encylopedia of Life Support Systems EOLSS RIS download Bibtex download
  • Billings SA & Chen S (1998) The determination of multivariable nonlinear models for dynamic systems using neural networks In Leondes CT (Ed.), Neural Network System Techniques and Applications (pp. 231-278). RIS download Bibtex download
  • Billings SA & Chen S (1995) Neural Networks and System Identification In Irwin GW, Warwick K, Hunt KJ & Peregrinus P (Ed.), Neural Network Applications in Control (pp. 229-251). RIS download Bibtex download
  • Billings SA & Haynes BR (1993) Computer aided analysis of nonlinear systems In Linkens DA & Dekker M (Ed.), CAD for Control System Design (pp. 167-193). RIS download Bibtex download
  • Ellwood GJ, Zheng Y, Billings SA, Mayhew JEW & Frisby JP (1992) Ground Plane Motion Parameter Estimation For Non Circular Paths, BMVC92 (pp. 426-435). Springer London RIS download Bibtex download
  • Billings SA & Chen S (1992) Neural Networks and System Identification In Warwick K, Irwin GW, Hunt KJ & Peregrinus P (Ed.), Neural Networks for Systems and Control (pp. 181-205). RIS download Bibtex download
  • Billings SA (1981) Modelling and identification of a three-phase electric arc furnace In Nicholson H & Peregrinus P (Ed.), Modelling of Dynamical Systems (pp. 63-79). RIS download Bibtex download
  • Billings SA () SERC vacation school "signal processing for control" university of Warwick 15–20 September 1985, Signal Processing for Control (pp. 263-294). Springer-Verlag RIS download Bibtex download

Conference proceedings papers

  • Wei H & Billings S (2019) NARMAX Model as a Sparse, Interpretable and Transparent Machine Learning Approach for Big Medical and Healthcare Data Analysis. Proceedings of the 5th IEEE Int. Con. on Data Science and Systems (pp 2743-2750). Zhangjiajie, China, 10 August 2019 - 12 August 2019. View this article in WRRO RIS download Bibtex download
  • Blackburn D, Sarrigiannis P, Yifan Z, De Marco M, Bell S, Venneri A, Billings S, Farrow T, Fei H, Unwin Z , Blythe M et al (2017) A novel quantitative EEG approach to distiguish Alzheimer’s disease from fronto tempura dementia and healthy controls. Journal of the Neurological Sciences, Vol. 381 (pp 319-319) RIS download Bibtex download
  • Friederich U, Billings SA, Juusola M & Coca D (2013) We now know what fly photoreceptors compute. Computational Neuro Sciences Conf. Paris, France, 13 July 2013 - 18 July 2013. RIS download Bibtex download
  • Ho C, Lang ZQ & Billings SA (2012) The benefits of nonlinear cubic viscous damping on the force transmissibility of a Duffing-type vibration isolator. Proceedings of the 2012 UKACC International Conference on Control, CONTROL 2012 (pp 479-484) RIS download Bibtex download
  • Wei HL, Zhao Y, Billings SA & Zhao J (2012) Fractional power NARX model identification using a harmony search algorithm. CIMSA 2012 - 2012 IEEE International Conference on Computational Intelligence for Measurement Systems and Applications, Proceedings (pp 102-107) RIS download Bibtex download
  • Friederich U, Billings SA, Juusola MA & Coca D (2012) Reverse engineering gain adaptation in sensory systems. Proceedings of the 9th IASTED International Conference on Biomedical Engineering, BioMed 2012 (pp 420-425) RIS download Bibtex download
  • Chen S & Billings SA (2011) Submission for The Fourth International Conference on Modelling and Simulation. PROCEEDINGS OF THE FOURTH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE OF MODELLING AND SIMULATION (ICMS2011), VOL 2 (pp 200-200) RIS download Bibtex download
  • Friederich U, Coca D, Billings SA & Juusola M (2011) General processing strategies within the fly early visual system. Computational Neuro Sciences Conf. Salt Lake City, Utah, USA, 24 February 2011 - 27 February 2011. RIS download Bibtex download
  • Dau A, Coca D, Billings SA & Juusola M (2011) Anticipation and resolution of moving objects by fly photoreceptors. Computational Neuro Sciences Conf. Salt Lake City, Utah, USA, 24 February 2011 - 27 February 2011. RIS download Bibtex download
  • Song Z, Coca D, Billings SA & Juusola M (2011) Structural and stochastic mechanisms of light adaptation in Drosophila photoreceptors. Computational and System Neuroscience Conf. Salt Lake City, Utah, USA, 24 February 2011 - 27 February 2011. RIS download Bibtex download
  • Billings SA, Li Y & Wei HW (2011) A time varying model for the EEG Granger causality model. 4th Biennial Neuroscience Conf. Gottingen, Germany, 25 May 2011 - 28 May 2011. RIS download Bibtex download
  • Chen S & Billings SA (2011) A series method to analyze nonlinear Volterra systems under periodic excitation. Proceedings of the 13th IASTED International Conference on Control and Applications, CA 2011 (pp 1-6) RIS download Bibtex download
  • Vidal-Rosas EE, Billings SA, Coca D, Zheng Y, Mayhew JEW, Johnston D & Kennerly A (2011) Real-time Diffuse Optical Tomography using reduced-order light propagation models based on a priori anatomical and functional information. Proceedings of the 8th IASTED International Conference on Biomedical Engineering, Biomed 2011 (pp 378-385) RIS download Bibtex download
  • Li Y, Wei HW & Billings SA (2011) A time varying model for the EEG Granger causality model. 4th Biennial Neuroscience Conf. Gottingen, Germany, 25 May 2011 - 28 May 2011. RIS download Bibtex download
  • Billings SA, Akanyeti O & Florini P (2011) Studying robot environment interaction via transparent controllers. Int Conf Advanced Robotics. Tallinn, Estonia, 20 June 2011 - 23 June 2011. RIS download Bibtex download
  • Billings SA, Song Z, Postma M, Chen W, Coca D, Hardie RC, Juusola M & De Schutter E (2011) Does Calcium diffusional feedback lead to slow light adaptation in Drosophila photoreceptors—a 3D biophysical modelling approach. Computational and System Neuroscience Conf RIS download Bibtex download
  • Zheng Y, Vidal-Rosas EEE, Billings SA, Mayhew JEW, Johnston D, Kennerly A & Coca D (2010) REAL-TIME DIFFUSE OPTICAL TOMOGRAPHY USING REDUCED-ORDER LIGHT PROPAGATION MODELS. Biomedical Engineering RIS download Bibtex download
  • Li L & Billings SA (2010) On convergence of Volterra series response of quadratically nonlinear systems using a frequency domain analysis. IEEE Int Conf Signal Processing (pp 155-158). Beijing, China RIS download Bibtex download
  • Billings SA, Nehmzow U & McKerrow P (2010) Do empirical models of robot environment interaction have a meaning. 11th Int Conf on Sumulation of Adaptive Behaviour. Paris, France, 22 August 2010 - 28 August 2010. RIS download Bibtex download
  • Billings SA, Tomlinson GR, Zhang B & Lang ZQ (2010) Suppressing resonant and non resonant transmitted vibrations using a nonlinear damping approach. Int Union of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics Symposium. Aberdeen, UK, 27 July 2010 - 27 July 2010. RIS download Bibtex download
  • Li L & Billings SA (2010) On the convergence of the Volterra series response of quadratically nonlinear systems using a frequency domain analysis. International Conference on Signal Processing Proceedings, ICSP (pp 155-158) RIS download Bibtex download
  • Kerr D, Nehmzow U & Billings SA (2010) Towards automated code generation for autonomous mobile robots. Artificial General Intelligence - Proceedings of the Third Conference on Artificial General Intelligence, AGI 2010 (pp 55-60) RIS download Bibtex download
  • Pan Y, Zheng Y, Harris S, Coca D, Johnston D, Mayhew JEW & Billings SA (2009) Optimisation on the least squares identification of dynamical systems with application to hemodynamic modelling. 31st Annual International IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society Conference (pp 3251-3254). Minneapolis, USA RIS download Bibtex download
  • Billings SA, Vidal-Rosas E, Coca D, Zheng Y, Johnson D, Kennerly A & Mayhew JEW (2009) Three dimensional brain imaging of spatiotemporal changes in small animals using diffuse optical tomography. 4th IAPR International Conference on Pattern Recognition in Bioinformatics, Special Session: Bioimag. Sheffield, UK RIS download Bibtex download
  • Billings SA, Vidal-Rosas E, Coca D, Zheng Y, Johnston D & Mayhew JEW (2009) Three Dimensional Brain Imaging of Spatiotemporal Changes in Small Animals using Diffuse Optical Tomography. Special Session: Biomaging, 4-th IAPR International Conference on Pattern Recognition in Bioinfomati. Sheffield, UK RIS download Bibtex download
  • Billings SA, Li Y, Wei HW, Balikhin MA & Walker S (2009) A time varying model for disturbance storm time (Dst) index analysis. 9th UK CARE annual General Meeting. Salford, Manchester, UK RIS download Bibtex download
  • Billings SA, Song Z, Coca D, Postma M, Hardie RC & Juusola M (2009) Biophysical modelling of a Drosophila photoreceptor. 16-th International Conference on Neural Information Processing, ICONIP (pp 57-71). Bangkok, Thailand RIS download Bibtex download
  • Billings SA, Biga V, Coca D & Kadirkamanathan V (2009) An alternative region-based active contour model using Cauchy-Schwartz divergence. 14th International Congress on Computational and Applied Mathematics (ICCAM2009). Anatalia, Turkey, 29 September 2009 - 2 October 2009. RIS download Bibtex download
  • Billings SA, Zheng Y, Pan Y, Harris S, Coca D, Berwick J, Kennerley A, Johnston D & Mayhew JEW (2009) A mathematical model of the neurovasculature coupling suggesting both vasodilation and vasoconstriction. 24th Int Conf Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism (pp 519-520). Chicago, IL, USA RIS download Bibtex download
  • Billings SA, Friederich U, Coca D & Juusola M (2009) Data modelling for analysis of adaptive changes in fly photoreceptors. 16-th International Conference on Neural Information Processing, ICONIP (pp 34-48). Bangkok, Thailand RIS download Bibtex download
  • Billings SA, Nehmzow U & Kerr D (2009) Accurate robot simulation. TAROS View this article in WRRO RIS download Bibtex download
  • Billings SA, Friederich U, Coca D & Juusola M (2009) Data Modelling for Analysis of Adaptive Changes in Fly Photoreceptors. Neural Information Processing Pt 1: Lecture notes in Computer Science, Vol. 5863 (pp 34-48). Bangkok, Thailand, 1 December 2009 - 5 December 2009. View this article in WRRO RIS download Bibtex download
  • Billings SA, Song YZ, Coca D & Juusola M (2009) Biophysical modelling of Drosophila photoreceptor. Neural Information Processing Pt 1: Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Vol. 5863 (pp 57-71). Bangkok, Thailand, 1 December 2009 - 5 December 2009. View this article in WRRO RIS download Bibtex download
  • Billings SA, Pan Y, Zheng Y, Harris S, Coca D, Johnston D & Mayhew JEW (2009) Optimisation on the least squares identification of dynamical systems with application to hemodynamic modelling. 31st Annual International IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society Conference (pp 3251-3254). Minneapolis, USA RIS download Bibtex download
  • Olariu V, Coca D, Billings SA & Kadirkamanathan V (2009) Modelling Stem Cells Lineages with Markov Trees. PATTERN RECOGNITION IN BIOINFORMATICS, PROCEEDINGS, Vol. 5780 (pp 233-243) RIS download Bibtex download
  • Akanyeti O, Nehmzow U & Billings SA (2009) Complex robot training tasks through bootstrapping system identification. 2008 IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Biomimetics, ROBIO 2008 (pp 2168-2173) View this article in WRRO RIS download Bibtex download
  • Kyriacou T, Nehmzow U, Iglesias R & Billings SA (2008) Accurate robot simulation through system identification. ROBOTICS AND AUTONOMOUS SYSTEMS, Vol. 56(12) (pp 1082-1093) RIS download Bibtex download
  • Akanyeti O, Nehmzow U & Billings SA (2008) Robot training using system identification. ROBOTICS AND AUTONOMOUS SYSTEMS, Vol. 56(12) (pp 1027-1041) RIS download Bibtex download
  • Iglesias R, Nehmzow U & Billings SA (2008) Model identification and model analysis in robot training. ROBOTICS AND AUTONOMOUS SYSTEMS, Vol. 56(12) (pp 1061-1067) RIS download Bibtex download
  • Billings SA, Jing XJ & Lang ZQ (2008) New results on the generalised frequency response functions of nonlinear Volterra systems described by NARX models. Proc 17th IFAC World Congress (pp 15381-15386). Seoul, South Korea, 6 July 2008 - 11 July 2008. View this article in WRRO RIS download Bibtex download
  • Billings SA, Akenyeti O, Rano I & Nehmzow U (2008) A proposal of a methodology for the analysis of robot environment interaction through system identification. Towards Autonomous Robotot Systems Conf RIS download Bibtex download
  • Billings SA & Li L (2008) Sensitivity study of generalised frequency response functions. Int Conf Modelling, Identification and Control. Shanghai View this article in WRRO RIS download Bibtex download
  • Billings SA, Harris S, Zheng Y, Berwick J, Kennerley A, Martin C, Lefebvre V, Coca D & Mayhew JEW (2008) Sensory adaptation, latency shift and the recovery of evoked post-synaptic potentials in the cortex. Neuroscience 2008. Washington DC, USA, 15 November 2008 - 19 November 2008. RIS download Bibtex download
  • Billings SA, Akenyeti O, Nehmzow U, Weinrich C & Kyriacou T (2007) Programming mobile robots by demonstration through system identification. European Conference for Mobile Robots (ECMR) (pp 162-167) RIS download Bibtex download
  • Billings SA, Wongsa S, Kadirkamanathan V & Wright P (2007) Using ECM algorithm to estimate metabolic fluxes from incomplete data. 5th International Conference on Foundations of Systems biology and Engineering FOSBE. Stuttgart, Germany RIS download Bibtex download
  • Billings SA, Nehmzow U, Akanyeti O, Weinrich C & Kyriacou T (2007) Learning by observation through system identification. TAROS (pp 17-24). Aberystwyth, 3 September 2007 - 5 September 2007. View this article in WRRO RIS download Bibtex download
  • Billings SA, Nehmzow U & McKerrow P (2007) On the meaning of computer models of robot environment interaction. TAROS (pp 33-39) RIS download Bibtex download
  • Billings SA, Wang K, Zheng Y, Coca D & Mayhew JEW (2007) Estimating CBF changes from measurements of CBV changes: a linear dynamic modelling approach. Neuroscience 2007 (pp 753.17). San Diego, CA, USA RIS download Bibtex download
  • Billings SA, Iglesias R & Nehmzow U (2007) Model identification and analysis in robot training. TAROS (pp 40-47) RIS download Bibtex download
  • Billings SA, Zheng Y, Harris S, Berwick J, Martin C, Kennerley A, Lefebure V & Coca D (2007) Investigating the relationship between sensory adaptation and recovery of evoked neural activity in the cortex: the role of stimulation duration. NeuroScience Conf (pp 89.2). San Diego, CA, USA RIS download Bibtex download
  • Billings SA, Olariu V, Coca D, Kadirkamanathan V, Gokhale P, Tongue P & Andrews P (2007) Modelling the expression of marker antigen SSEA3 for embyonal carcinoma cells. Proc 5th Int Conf on Foundations of Systems Biology and Engineering FOSBE. Stuttgart, Germany, September 2007 - September 2007. RIS download Bibtex download
  • Nehmzow U, Akanyeti O, Weinrich C, Kyriacou T & Billings SA (2007) Robot programming by demonstration through system identification. IEEE International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems (pp 807-812) View this article in WRRO RIS download Bibtex download
  • Pichardo-Almarza C, Smallwood R & Billings SA (2007) Spatiotemporal analysis of an agent-based model of a colony of keratinocytes: A first approach for the development of validation methods. PROCEEDINGS OF THE 7TH IEEE INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON BIOINFORMATICS AND BIOENGINEERING, VOLS I AND II (pp 1173-1177) View this article in WRRO RIS download Bibtex download
  • Wu XF, Lang ZQ & Billings SA (2007) Output frequencies of nonlinear systems under a general input. 2007 IEEE INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON NETWORKING, SENSING, AND CONTROL, VOLS 1 AND 2 (pp 668-673) RIS download Bibtex download
  • Yang J, Kadirkamanathan V & Billings SA (2007) In vivo intracellular metabolite dynamics estimation by sequential Monte Carlo filter. 2007 IEEE Symposium on Computational Intelligence in Bioinformatics and Computational Biology (pp 387-394) RIS download Bibtex download
  • Wongsa S, Kadirkamanathan V, Billings SA & Wright PC (2007) Metabolic flux estimation from incomplete labelling measurements using the expectation/conditional-maximisation algorithm. 2007 IEEE Symposium on Computational Intelligence in Bioinformatics and Computational Biology (pp 410-417) RIS download Bibtex download
  • Nehmzow U, Iglesias R, Kyriacou T & Billings SA (2006) Robot learning through task identification. ROBOTICS AND AUTONOMOUS SYSTEMS, Vol. 54(9) (pp 766-778) RIS download Bibtex download
  • Billings SA, Kyriacou T, Akanyeti O, Nehmzow U & Iglesias R (2006) Visual Task Identification Using Polynomial Models. TAROS. Guildford, UK RIS download Bibtex download
  • Billings SA, Iglesias R, Kyriacou T & Nehmzow U (2006) Route training in mobile robotics through system identification. International Conference on Computational Behaviours View this article in WRRO RIS download Bibtex download
  • Billings SA, Chadwick MA & Kadirkamanathan V (2006) Nonlinear identification of a steer by wire system. UK Automatic Control Conference. Strathclyde, UK RIS download Bibtex download
  • Billings SA, Peng ZK & Lang ZQ (2006) A study of the resonance for a class of SDOF nonlinear systems. 13th International Congress on Sound and Vibration (ICSV13). Vienna, Austria, 3 July 2006 - 6 July 2006. RIS download Bibtex download
  • Billings SA, Wei H, Zhu D & Balikhin M (2006) Forecasting geomagnetic activity of the Dst index using radial basis functions. 36th COSPAR Scientific Assembly, Vol. D2 (pp 1-15). Beijing, China, 16 July 2006 - 23 July 2006. View this article in WRRO RIS download Bibtex download
  • Wu XF, Lang ZQ & Billings SA (2006) Output frequencies of a class of nonlinear systems. 2006 13TH IEEE INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON ELECTRONICS, CIRCUITS AND SYSTEMS, VOLS 1-3 (pp 744-747) RIS download Bibtex download
  • Nehmzow U, Akanyeti O, Iglesias R, Kyriacou T & Billings SA (2006) Comparing robot controllers through system identification. FROM ANIMALS TO ANIMATS 9, PROCEEDINGS, Vol. 4095 (pp 843-854) View this article in WRRO RIS download Bibtex download
  • Jing XJ, Lang ZQ & Billings SA (2006) Frequency domain analysis based nonlinear feedback control for suppressing periodic disturbance. Proceedings of the World Congress on Intelligent Control and Automation (WCICA), Vol. 1 (pp 1161-1165) RIS download Bibtex download
  • Billings SA, Li J, Lang ZQ & Tomlinson GR (2005) Analytical study of the frequence response function of a nonlinear spring damper system. 11th Annual Conference of Chinese Automation and Computing Society in the UK. Sheffield, UK, 10 September 2005 - 10 September 2005. View this article in WRRO RIS download Bibtex download
  • Billings SA, Nehmzow U, Kyriacou T & Iglesias R (2005) Self localisation through system identification. 2nd European Conference on Mobile Robots. Ancona, Italy, September 2005 - September 2005. RIS download Bibtex download
  • Billings SA & Wei HL (2005) Singularity and simlarity detection for systems using the wavelet transform. 11th Annual Conference of Chinese Automation and Computer Society in the UK (pp 25-30). Sheffield, UK, 10 September 2005 - 10 September 2005. RIS download Bibtex download
  • Billings SA, Wu XF & Lang ZQ (2005) Finite impulse response filter design using a forward orthogonal least squares algorithm. 11th Annual Conference of Chinese Automation and Computing Society in the UK. Sheffield, UK, 10 September 2005 - 10 September 2005. View this article in WRRO RIS download Bibtex download
  • Billings SA, Iglesias R, Nehmzow U & Kyriacou T (2005) Modelling and characterisation of a mobile robot's operation. CAEPIA 2005 - 11th conference of the Spanish association for Artificial Intelligence. Santiago de Compostela, Spain, November 2005 - November 2005. RIS download Bibtex download
  • Billings SA, Iglesias R, Kyriacou T & Nehmzow U (2005) Robot programming through a combination of manual training and system identification. 2nd European Conference on Mobile Robots. Ancona, Italy, September 2005 - September 2005. RIS download Bibtex download
  • Billings SA, Kyriacou T, Nehmzow U & Iglesias R (2005) Cross platform programming through system identification. Towards Autonomous Robot Systems TAROS. London, UK RIS download Bibtex download
  • Coca DS, Coca D & Billings SA (2005) An adaptive GPC approach to low-flow anaesthesia. IFAC Proceedings Volumes (IFAC-PapersOnline), Vol. 38(1) (pp 7-12) RIS download Bibtex download
  • Coca DS, Coca D & Billings SA (2005) Adaptive control of low-flow anaesthesia using a mixture of anaesthetic gases. IFAC Proceedings Volumes (IFAC-PapersOnline), Vol. 38(1) (pp 84-88) RIS download Bibtex download
  • Billings SA, Tomlinson GR, Lang ZQ & Xie F (2004) Energy transfer materials - one alternative to damping. ISMA 2004 (pp 1-23). Leuven, Belgium, September 2004 - September 2004. RIS download Bibtex download
  • Billings SA, Nehmzow U, Kyriacou T & Iglesias R (2004) RobotMODIC: modelling, identification and characterisation of mobile robots. Towards Autonomous Robot Systems TAROS-04 (pp 117-124). University of Essex, UK RIS download Bibtex download
  • Billings SA, Iglesias R, Kyriacou T & Nehmzow U (2004) Task identification and characterisation in mobile robots. Towards Autonomous Robot Systems TAROS-04 (pp 31-38). University of Essex, UK RIS download Bibtex download
  • Yang J, Wongsa S, Kadirkamanathan V, Billings SA & Wright PC (2004) Self-adaptive evolutionary algorithm based methods for quantification in metabolic systems. Proceedings of the 2004 IEEE Symposium on Computational Intelligence in Bioinformatics and Computational Biology, CIBCB'04 (pp 260-267) RIS download Bibtex download
  • Lang ZQ, Billings SA, Xie F & Tomlinson GR (2004) Accurate computation of output frequency responses of nonlinear systems. SIXTH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON VIBRATION MEASUREMENTS BY LASER TECHNIQUES: ADVANCES AND APPLICATIONS, Vol. 5503 (pp 131-142) RIS download Bibtex download
  • Billings SA & Coca D (2002) FINITE ELEMENT GALERKIN MODELS AND IDENTIFIED FINITE ELEMENT MODELS - A COMPARATIVE STUDY.. IFAC Proceedings Volumes, Vol. 35(1) (pp 307-312) RIS download Bibtex download
  • Coca D & Billings SA (2002) Identification of finite-dimensional models for distributed-parameter systems. IFAC Proceedings Volumes (IFAC-PapersOnline), Vol. 15(1) (pp 301-306) RIS download Bibtex download
  • Billings SA, Wei H & Balikhin MA (2002) Wavelet based non-parametric additive models for nonlinear system identification and prediction. Proc Chinese Automation and Computer Society Conference (pp 20-25). Beijing, China, 20 September 2002 - 21 September 2002. RIS download Bibtex download
  • Billings SA & Coca D (2002) Finite element Galerkin models and identified finite models - a comparative study. 15th IFAC World Congress (pp 2263-2268). Barcelona, Spain RIS download Bibtex download
  • Billings SA & Coca D (2002) Identification of finite dimensional models for distributed parameter systems. 15th IFAC World Congress (pp 2256-2261). Barcelona, Spain RIS download Bibtex download
  • Billings SA, Coca D, Balikhin M & Alleyne H (2001) Comparison of the dynamic properties in plasma turbulence observed in the high and low beta regions of the terrestrial foreshock. Wooliscroft Memorial Conf., European Space Agency (pp 69-72). Sheffield, UK, 24 April 2001 - 26 April 2001. RIS download Bibtex download
  • Coca D, Balikhin MA & Billings SA (2001) Comparison of the dynamical processes in plasma turbulence observed in the high- and low-β regions of the terrestrial foreshock. European Space Agency, (Special Publication) ESA SP(492) (pp 69-72) RIS download Bibtex download
  • Boaghe OM, Balikhin MA, Billings SA & Alleyne H (2001) Global nonlinear model for the evolution of the Dst index. European Space Agency, (Special Publication) ESA SP(492) (pp 157-161) RIS download Bibtex download
  • Billings SA, Boaghe OM, Balikhin M & Alleyne H (2000) Global nonlinear model for the evolution of Dst index. 33rd COSPAR Scientific Assembly on Space Weather. Warsaw, Poland, 16 July 2000 - 23 July 2000. RIS download Bibtex download
  • Coca D, Balikhin M, Billings SA, Alleyne HSCK, Dunlop M & Luhr H (2000) Time-domain identification of nonlinear processes in space plasma turbulence using multi-point measurements.. CLUSTER-II WORKSHOP MULTISCALE/MULTIPOINT PLASMA MEASUREMENTS, PROCEEDINGS, Vol. 449 (pp 111-118) RIS download Bibtex download
  • Billings SA & Lang ZQ (1999) Evaluation of a bound on nonlinear output frequency responses using a genetic algorithm. International Congress on Dynamics and Control of Systems (pp 1-15). Ottawa, Canada, 5 August 1999 - 7 August 1999. RIS download Bibtex download
  • Billings SA, Boaghe OM, Balikhin M & Alleyne H (1999) Narmax approach to magnetosphere dynamics. 1999 Spring Terrestrial (MIRT) Conference (pp 1-16). Ambleside, UK, 13 April 1999 - 15 April 1999. RIS download Bibtex download
  • Billings SA, Balikhin M, Boaghe OM & Alleyne H (1999) Identification of nonlinear processed in the magnetospheric dynamics and forecasting of Dst index. AGU Fall Meeting. California, USA, 13 December 1999 - 17 December 1999. RIS download Bibtex download
  • Billings SA, Liu GP & Kadirkamanathan V (1999) Nonlinear identification via variable wavelet networks. 14th IFAC World Congress, Vol. H (pp 109-114). Beijing, China, 5 July 1999 - 9 July 1999. RIS download Bibtex download
  • Billings SA, Coca D & Coca DS (1998) On feedback control of chaos. 6th Int Conf on Optimisation of Electical and Electronic Equipment (pp 1-6). Brasnov, Romania, 14 May 1998 - 15 May 1998. RIS download Bibtex download
  • Liu GP (1998) Nonlinear system identification using wavelet networks. UKACC International Conference on Control (CONTROL '98) RIS download Bibtex download
  • Liu GP, Kadirkamanathan V & Billings SA (1997) Variable structure control for nonlinear discrete systems using neural networks. ECC 1997 - European Control Conference (pp 423-428) RIS download Bibtex download
  • Liu GP, Kadirkamanathan V & Billings SA (1997) On-line identification of nonlinear systems using Volterra polynomial basis function neural networks. ECC 1997 - European Control Conference (pp 429-434) RIS download Bibtex download
  • Billings SA & Zhu QM (1997) Properties of higher order correlation function tests for nonlinear model validation. IEEE Industrial Electronics Society International Conference (IECON97) (pp 306-310). New Orleans, LA, USA, 9 November 1997 - 14 November 1997. RIS download Bibtex download
  • Billings SA, Wolters C, Pierce SG, Worden K & Tomlinson GR (1997) Model based fault detection using Lamb waves. Workshop on Intelligent NDE Sciences for Ageing and Futuristic Aircraft (pp 229-243), 30 September 1997 - 2 October 1997. RIS download Bibtex download
  • Billings SA, Wolters C, Pierce SG, Worden K & Tomlinson GR (1997) Model based fault detection using Lamb waves. Workshop on Intelligent NDE Sciences for Ageing and Futuristic Aircraft (pp 229-243), 30 September 1997 - 2 October 1997. RIS download Bibtex download
  • Billings SA, Liu GP & Kadirkamanathan V (1997) Variable structure control for nonlinear discrete systems using neural networks. 4th European Control Conference (pp 1-6). Brussels, Belgium, 1 July 1997 - 4 July 1997. RIS download Bibtex download
  • Billings SA, Liu GP & Kadirkamanathan V (1997) Online identification for nonlinear systems using Volterra polynomial basis function neural networks. 4th European Control Conference (pp 1-6). Brussels, Belgium, 1 July 1997 - 4 July 1997. RIS download Bibtex download
  • Billings SA & Tabrizi M (1997) Model estimation using identification techniques for a water treatment system. IASTED Int. Conf. on Modelling and Simulation (pp 117-120). Pittsburgh, PA, USA, 15 May 1997 - 17 May 1997. RIS download Bibtex download
  • Liu GP, Kadirkamanathan V & Billings SA (1997) Variable structure control for nonlinear discrete systems using neural networks. 1997 European Control Conference (ECC), 1 July 1997 - 7 July 1997. RIS download Bibtex download
  • Liu GP, Kadirkamanathan V & Billings SA (1997) On-line identification of nonlinear systems using volterra polynomial basis function neural networks. 1997 European Control Conference (ECC), 1 July 1997 - 7 July 1997. RIS download Bibtex download
  • Billings SA & Coca D (1996) Continuous time modelling of Chua's circuit from noisy measurements using wavelet decompositions. Int. Workshop on Nonlinear Dynamics of Electronic Systems (pp 271-276). Seville, Spain, 27 June 1996 - 28 June 1996. RIS download Bibtex download
  • Billings SA & Zhu QM (1996) Approximation to nonlinear equations using nonlinear rational models - Part II Applications. Int. Conf. Identification in Engineering Systems (pp 107-116). Swansea University, UK, March 1996 - March 1996. RIS download Bibtex download
  • Billings SA & Zhu QM (1996) Approximation to nonlinear equations using nonlinear rational models - Part 1 Theory. Int. Conf. Identification in Engineering Systems (pp 97-106). Swansea University, UK, March 1996 - March 1996. RIS download Bibtex download
  • Swain AK & Billings SA (1996) Nonlinear modeling of wave forces. FLOW MODELING AND TURBULENCE MEASURMENTS VI (pp 515-522) RIS download Bibtex download
  • Billings SA, Liu GP & Kadirkamanathan V (1995) Identification of nonlinear dynamical systems by growing radial basis function networks. 3rd European Control Conference (pp 2408-2413). Rome, Italy RIS download Bibtex download
  • Billings SA & Zhu QM (1994) Identification of polynomial and rational NARMAX models. 10th IFAC Symp. on System Identification (pp 295-300). Copenhagen, Denmark, 4 July 1994 - 6 July 1994. RIS download Bibtex download
  • Billings SA, Fonseca CM, Mendes EM & Fleming PJ (1993) Nonlinear model term selection with genetic algorithms. IEEE/IEE Workshop on Natural Algorithms in Signal Processing (pp 27/1-27/8), 14 November 1993 - 16 November 1993. RIS download Bibtex download
  • Billings SA, Mayhew JEW & Zheng Y (1992) Layered architecture for the control of micro saccadic tracking of a stereo camera head. British Machine Vision Conference (pp 377-386). Leeds, UK, 21 September 1992 - 24 September 1992. RIS download Bibtex download
  • Billings SA, Worden K, Stansby PK & Tomlinson GR (1992) On wave force analysis using system identification. Behaviour of Offshore Structures Conf. (pp 415-430). London, UK, 7 July 1992 - 10 July 1992. RIS download Bibtex download
  • Billings SA, Ellwood GJ, Zheng Y & Mayhew JEW (1992) Ground plane motion parameter estimation for non-circular paths. British Machine Vision Conference (pp 377-386). Leeds, UK, 21 September 1992 - 24 September 1992. RIS download Bibtex download
  • Billings SA & Tomlinson GR (1991) Higher frequency response functions in nonlinear system identification. Int. Forum on Aeroelasticity and Structural Dynamics. Aachen, Germany, 3 June 1991 - 6 June 1991. RIS download Bibtex download
  • Billings SA, Stansby PK, Worden K & Tomlinson GR (1991) Towards an improved wave force equation. 1st Int Offshore and Polar Eng Conf, Vol. 3 (pp 128-134). Edinburgh, UK, 11 August 1991 - 16 August 1991. RIS download Bibtex download
  • Billings SA, Jefferys ER, Jamalludin HB & Tomlinson GR (1991) A nonlinear discrete time model of the drift force. 6th Int. Workshop on Water Waves and Floating Bodies (pp 1-4). Woods Hole, MA, USA, 14 April 1991 - 17 April 1991. RIS download Bibtex download
  • Billings SA, Zheng Y, Jones DG, Mayhew JEW & Frisby JP (1989) SWITCHER: A stereo algorithm for ground plane obstacle detection. Fifth Alvey Vision Conf. (pp 91-96). University of Reading, UK, 25 September 1989 - 28 September 1989. RIS download Bibtex download
  • Billings SA, Curtis ARD & El-Hitmy M (1989) Adaptive nonlinear noise cancelling. IEEE Coll. 'Adaptive Algorithms for Signal Estimation and Control' (pp 2/1-2/6). University of Edinburgh, UK, 23 September 1989 - 23 September 1989. RIS download Bibtex download
  • Billings SA & Sales KR (1989) Minimum variance control of nonlinear systems. IEEE Coll. 'Adaptive Algorithms for Signal Estimation and Control' (pp 7/1-7/6). University of Edinburgh, 23 September 1989 - 23 September 1989. RIS download Bibtex download
  • Billings SA & Gan H (1989) A new decision rule for model structure identification of a class of nonlinear dynamical systems. Int. ASME Conf., Signals and Systems (pp 93-106). Brighton, UK RIS download Bibtex download
  • Billings SA, Tsang KM & Tomlinson GR (1988) Application of the NARMAX method to nonlinear frequency response estimation. 6th Int. Modal Analysis Conference (pp 1433-1438). Hyatt Orlando, FL, USA, 1 February 1988 - 4 February 1988. RIS download Bibtex download
  • Billings SA (1988) Mathematical modelling of power station plant, the role of stimulation. Computer Simulation Conf., The Society for Computer Simulation International (pp 419-423). Seattle, WA, USA RIS download Bibtex download
  • Billings SA & Tsang KM (1987) Estimating higher order spectra. 5th Int. Modal Analysis Conf (pp 601-607). Imperial College London, UK, 6 April 1987 - 9 April 1987. RIS download Bibtex download
  • Billings SA, Liu GP & Kadirkamanathan V (1986) Variable neural networks for nonlinear adaptive control. 13th IFAC World Congress, Vol. F (pp 181-186) RIS download Bibtex download
  • Billings SA & Cheetham RG (1986) Power system plant modelling from PRBS experiments. IEE Colloquium - System Identification for Control (pp 1-9). Durham University, UK, 26 September 1986 - 26 September 1986. RIS download Bibtex download
  • Billings SA & Leontaritis IJ (1983) PARAMETER ESTIMATION TECHNIQUES FOR NONLINEAR SYSTEMS., Vol. 1 (pp 505-510) RIS download Bibtex download
  • Billings SA & Leontaritis IJ (1982) Parameter estimation techniques for nonlinear systems. 6th IFAC Symp., Identification and System Parameter Estimation (pp 427-432). Washington DC, USA, June 1982 - June 1982. RIS download Bibtex download
  • Billings SA (1982) Some algorithms for the identification of nonlinear systems. IEEE Colloquium, 'The Identification of Nonlinear Systems' (pp 2.1-2.6). University of York, UK, 23 March 1982 - 23 March 1982. RIS download Bibtex download
  • Billings SA, Zinober ASI & El-Ghezawi OME (1981) Variable structure control of adaptive model following systems. IEE Conf., Control and its Applications (pp 123-127). University of Warwick, Coventry, UK, March 1981 - March 1981. View this article in WRRO RIS download Bibtex download
  • Billings SA & Leontaritis IJ (1981) Identification of nonlinear systems using parameter estimation techniques. IEE Conf., Control and its Applications (pp 183-187). University of Warwick, Coventry, UK, March 1981 - March 1981. RIS download Bibtex download
  • Billings SA, Pearlman JG & Crouch PE (1980) Theory and identification of polynomic systems: A review. IEE Colloq., Vol. 1980/10 (pp 31-40) RIS download Bibtex download
  • Billings SA (1980) Introduction to Kalman filters. IEE Colloq., Vol. 1980/64 (pp 1-7) RIS download Bibtex download
  • Billings SA & Fakhouri SY (1979) Identification of nonlinear unity feedback systems. 1978 IEEE Conference on Decision and Control including the 17th Symposium on Adaptive Processes, Vol. 17(1) (pp 255-260). San Diego, CA, USA RIS download Bibtex download
  • Billings SA & Fakhouri SY (1979) Identification of systems composed of linear dynamic and static nonlinear elements. 5th IFAC Symp. Syst. Par. Est. (pp 493-500). Darmstadt, West Germany View this article in WRRO RIS download Bibtex download
  • Billings SA & Fakhouri SY (1978) Identification of a class of nonlinear systems. IEE Colloq., Vol. 1978/31 (pp 91-96), May 1978 - May 1978. RIS download Bibtex download
  • Billings SA, Sterling MJH & Batey DJ (1977) SPAID - an interactive data analysis package and its application to the identification of an electric arc furnace control system. IEE Conf, Vol. 159 (pp 161-170) RIS download Bibtex download
  • Billings SA, Boland FM & Nicholson H (1977) Control of steelmaking in the electric arc furnace. 5th IFAC/IFIP Conf Digital Computer Appl. to Process Control (pp 189-196). The Hague, The Netherlands RIS download Bibtex download

Reports

  • Vidal Rosas EE, Coca D, Billings SA, Zheng Y, Mayhew JEW, Johnston D & Kennerley A (2010) Real-Time Diffuse Optical Tomography Using Reduced-Order Light Propagation Models Based on a priori Anatomical and Functional Information View this article in WRRO RIS download Bibtex download
Grants

(From 2000 onwards)

EPSRC, S A Billings and G R Tomlinson, `Estimation, Analysis and Synthesis of Nonlinear Systems´, 1.2.97 to 31.1.02, £131,535

EPSRC, Y Zheng, S A Billings, J E W Mayhew, P J Coffey, `Identification and Analysis of Spatio-Temporal Systems with Applications to Brain Imaging´, 1.7.97 to 30.6.02, £272,620

EPSRC, S A Billings, `Wavelet Modelling of Nonlinear Systems´, 22.02.99 to 21.02 2002, £134,156

EPSRC, S A Billings and G R Tomlinson, `Frequency Domain Estimation and Filtering for Nonlinear Systems´, 01.02.2000 to 31.01.2003, £167,637

EPSRC, S A Billings, `Identification of Spatio-Temporal Dynamical Systems´, 01.07.00 to 30.06.03, £212,573

EPSRC ROPA Award, G R Tomlinson, S A Billings and Z Q Lang, `A Novel Approach to Vibration Attenuation Exploiting Nonlinear Energy Transfer Concepts´, 01.10.02 to 31.09.04, £136,931

EPSRC, Y Zheng, S A Billings, and J E W Mayhew, `Identification and Modelling of Haemodynamic Response and Oxygen Delivery Brain´, 01.03.02 to 31.08.05, £223,788

EPSRC, S A Billings, `Identification of Engineering Systems that Exhibit Sub Harmonics´, 01.10.02 to 31.09.05, £208,476

EPSRC, S A Billings, `Identification and Analysis of Spatio Temporal Systems´, 01.08.03 to 31.07.06, £244,255

EPSRC, U Nehmzow and S A Billings, `Robot MODIC: Modelling Identification and Characterisation of Robot Environment Interaction´, 01.01.04 to 31.12.06, £193,722

SRIF Funding, J E W Mayhew et al, S A Billings, 'Neuroscience Imaging Initiative', 2005 to 2006, £1.08M

EPSRC Platform Grant, S A Billings, V Kadirkamanathan, Z Q Lang, D Coca, M Balikhin, `System Identification and Signal Processing for Complex Systems´, 03.01.05 to 02.01.10, £422,571

EPSRC, S A Billings, `Identification and Analysis of Nonlinear Systems in the Time and the Frequency Domain´, 01.10.05 to 31.03.09, £256,875

EPSRC, S A Billings, Y Zheng, J Martingdale, D Coca and J E W Mayhew, `System Identification and Signal Processing for Neuro-Imaging data Analysis´, 02.01.06 to 01.11.09, £264,277

EPSRC, S A Billings, D Coca, `System Identification and Model validation for Spatio-Temporal Dynamical Systems´, 01.08.06 to 31.07.09, £295,373

The Leverhulme Trust, U Nehmzow and S A Billings, `System Identification for Rapid Generation of Transparent, Analysable Control Code for Autonomous Mobile Robots´, 1.07.07 to 1.04.2011, £129,887

EPSRC, Z Q Lang, S A Billings, G R Tomlinson, 'New Generation Damping Technologies', 01.05.08 to 30.04.2011, £378,519

BBSRC, P Wright et al including S A Billings, 'Microbial Applications to Tissue Engineering: An Exemplar Network for Synthetic Biology', 01.06.08 to 31.05.2011, £135,520

BBSRC, S McNeil et al including ACSE staff S A Billings, V Kadirkamanathan, D Coca, 'Doctoral Training Grant for ten four-year PhD studentships at the interface between Medicine, the Life Sciences, Engineering and Chemistry', 2009-2013, £763,459

Advanced Investigator Grant of the European Research Council, S A Billings, 'Nonlinear Systems Identification and Analysis in the Time, Frequency, and Spatio-Temporal Domains', 1.04.2009 to 31.03.2014, 1,947,104

EPSRC, S A Billings, D Coca, 'Spatio-Temporal Systems Estimation, Modelling and Analysis', 02.02.2010 to 30.06.2014, £499,542

EPSRC Platform Grant, S A Billings, V Kadirkamanathan, Z Q Lang, D Coca, M Balikhin, H L Wei, `System Identification and Information Processing for Complex Systems´, 04.01.2010 to 30.06.2015, £1,205,632

BBSRC, D Coca, M Juusola, S A Billings, 'Reverse Engineering Drosophila's Retinal Networks' 01.08.2010 to 01.01.2014, £532,115

NERC, G R Bigg, E Hanna, V Kadirkamanathan, S A Billings, 'A century of variability in Greenland melting and iceberg calving' 02.01.2011 to 01.01.2014, £311,959

The Ryder Briggs Charity, PG Sarrigiannis, Y Zhao, H L Wei, F He, S A Billings, "The thalamic clock and the cortical focus theory in childhood absence epilepsy—an insight with a new approach of quantitative EEG analysis in the time domain: the error reduction ratio method”, 01.04.2013 to 30.03.2014, £8,378

BBSRC, Y Zheng, J Berwick, A J Kennerley, M Jones, S A Billings, D Coca, E Milne and P Redgrave, 'Understanding neural excitation and inhibition: Implications for the interpretation of extracellular field potentials and neurovascular coupling', 01.05.2013 to 31.04.2016, £615,105

EPSRC Frontier Engineering Award, M J Hounslow, D Lacroix, M Viceconti, S A Billings, V Kadirkamanathan, A Pavic, E McCloskey, T Skerry, 'Modelling Complex and Partially Identified Engineering Problems — Application to the Individualised Multi-scale Simulation of the Musculoskeletal System', 01.09.2013 to 31.08 2018, £6.7M

EU Horizon 2020, R Von Fay-Siebenburgen, S N Walker, M A Balikhin, S A Billings, H L Wei, V Fedun et al, 'Prediction of Grespace Radiation Environment and Solar Wind Parameters (PROGRESS)', 02.01.2015 to 01.01 2018, 2,358,232

Alzheimer's Research UK, D Blackburn, P Sarrigiannis, S A Billings, 'Developing a new biomarker for the early diagnosis of dementia; a novel nonlinear signal processing approach using resting state EEG', 01.10.2014 to 31.09.2015, £29,80

Professional activities
  • Member of the EPSRC College
  • Referee for several international funding bodies
  • Referee for many journals
  • International Program Committees
  • External Examiner for higher degrees
  • Advisor and consultant to several companies both in the UK and internationally
Chapter downloads

Chapter 3: Nonlinear system identification (PDF, 235 KB)