Dr Hua-Liang Wei
Senior Lecturer

Dr Hua-Liang WeiAddress:
Dr H.L. Wei, BSc, MSc, PhD
Department of Automatic Control and Systems Engineering
University of Sheffield
S1 3JD
Tel: (+44) (0)114 222 5198(Office)
Fax: (+44) (0)114 222 5683
Email: w.hualiang@sheffield.ac.uk

Dr Wei is head of the following two Labs:

Research Interests

  • Identification and modelling for complex nonlinear systems
    • NARMAX methodology and applications.
    • Artificial neural networks (ANN), radial basis function networks (RBFN), wavelet neural networks and multiresolution wavelet models, computational statistics, machine learning, intelligent computation and data mining.
    • Regression analysis, parameter estimation and optimization, sparse representation.
    • Nonlinear and nonstationary (time-varying) signal processing, system identification and data modelling.
    • Spatio-temporal system identification and modelling.
  • Bioscience signal processing and data modelling
    • Neurophysiology and neuro-imaging data modelling and analysis.
    • EEG, fMRI and ECG data processing, modelling and analysis.
    • Data based classification, pattern recognition, anomaly detection, with applications in clinical and medical diagnosis and prognosis.
  • Forecasting and analysis of complex stochastic dynamical processes with applications in
    • Space weather systems.
    • Environmental systems.
    • Computational economics and finance.
  • New concepts and methodologies developments for the identification and analysis of nonlinear complex systems.
  • Applications and developments of signal processing, system identification and data modelling to control engineering, bioengineering, neuroscience, systems/synthetic biology, environments, space weather and other emerging areas.

Research Grants

EU Horizon 2020, Co-PI, `Prediction of Grespace Radiation Environment and Solar Wind Parameters (PROGRESS)´, 02/01/2015 to 01/01/2018 2018, €2,5M (Sheffield €700,000).

EPSRC Platform Grant, S A Billings, V Kadirkamanathan, Z Q Lang, D Coca, M Balikhin, H L Wei, `System Identification and Information Processing for Complex Systems´, 04/01/2010 to 03/01/2015, £1,21M

Royal Society Collaboration Grant, V. Kadirkamanathan and H. L. Wei, `Investigation of the control mechanism on co-culture bioethanol producing system´, 2010-2012, £11,950

EPSRC, H L Wei, `System Identification and Data Modelling of Complex Nonlinear and Nonstationary Processes´, 04/01/2011 to 31/03/2012, £101,004

The Ryder Briggs Charity, P.G. Sarrigiannis, Y. Zhao, H .L. Wei,  F. He, S. A. Billings, `The thalamic clock and the cortical focus theory in childhood absence epilepsy—an insight with a new approach of quantitative EEG analysis in the time domain: the error reduction ratio method´, 01/04/2013 to 30/03/2014, £8,378

Professional activities and recognition

  • Chair, Programme Committee - ICNC’10 (the 6th International Conference on Natural Computation 2010), Yantai, China, August 10-12, 2010.
  • Programme Committee member for a number of international conferences.
  • Reviewer for many international journals.
  • Reviewer for many international conferences.


  • Data Modelling and Analysis (UG)
  • Optimisation and Search (MEng)
  • Optimisation and Search (MSc)
  • Nonlinear Systems (MEng)
  • Advanced Controller Design (MEng)
  • State-Space, Optimal Control and Nonlinear Systems (MSc)

Selected Journal Publications


  1. Ayala Solares, J. R., Wei, H., & Billings, S. A. (2017). A novel logistic-NARX model as a classifier for dynamic binary classification. Neural Computing & Applications. doi:10.1007/s00521-017-2976-x
  2. Li, Y., Cui, W., Guo, Y., Huang, T., Yang, X., & Wei, H. (n.d.). Time-varying system identification using an ultra-orthogonal forward regression and multi-wavelet basis functions with applications to EEG. IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks and Learning Systems. [Online]
  3. Liu, Z. H., Wei, H., Zhong, Q. C., & Liu, K. (n.d.). GPU Implementation of DPSO-RE Algorithm for Parameters Identification of Surface PMSM Considering VSI Nonlinearity. IEEE Journal of Engineering and Selected Topics in Power Electronics. [Online]
  4. Senawi, A., Wei, H., & Billings, S. A. (2017). A new maximum relevance-minimum multicollinearity (MRmMC) method for feature selection and ranking. Pattern Recognition, 67, 47-61. doi:10.1016/j.patcog.2017.01.026
  5. Zuo, C., Wu, L., Zen, Z. -F., & Wei, H. (2017). Stochastic Fractal Based Multi-objective Fruit Fly Optimization. International Journal of Applied Mathematics and Computer Sciences. 27(2), 417-433. [Online]


  1. Ayala Solares, J. R., Wei, H., Boynton, R. J., Walker, S. N., & Billings, S. A. (2016). Modelling and Prediction of Global Magnetic Disturbance in Near-Earth Space: a Case Study for Kp Index using NARX Models. Space Weather. doi:10.1002/2016SW001463
  2. Guo, Y., Guo, L. Z., Billings, S. A., & Wei, H. -L. (2016). Identification of continuous-time models for nonlinear dynamic systems from discrete data. International Journal of Systems Science, 47(12), 3044-3054. doi:10.1080/00207721.2015.1069906
  3. Guo, Y., Guo, L. Z., Billings, S. A., & Wei, H. -L. (2016). Ultra-Orthogonal Forward Regression Algorithms for the Identification of Non-Linear Dynamic Systems. Neurocomputing, 173, 715-723. doi:10.1016/j.neucom.2015.08.022
  4. He, F., Sarrigiannis, P. G., Billings, S. A., Wei, H., Rowe, J., Romanowski, C., . . . Yianni, J. (2016). Nonlinear interactions in the thalamocortical loop in essential tremor: A model-based frequency domain analysis. Neuroscience, 324, 377-389. doi:10.1016/j.neuroscience.2016.03.028
  5. Jiang, R., Bouridane, A., Crookes, D., Celebi, M. E., & Wei, H. -L. (2016). Privacy-Protected Facial Biometric Verification Using Fuzzy Forest Learning. IEEE Transactions on Fuzzy Systems, 24(4), 779-790. doi:10.1109/TFUZZ.2015.2486803
  6. Liu, Z. -H., Wei, H. -L., Zhong, Q. -C., Liu, K., Xiao, X. -S., & Wu, L. -H. (2016). Parameter Estimation for VSI-Fed PMSM Based on a Dynamic PSO With Learning Strategies. IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics, 32(4), 3154-3165. doi:10.1109/TPEL.2016.2572186
  7. Marshall, A. M., Bigg, G. R., van Leeuwen, S. M., Pinnegar, J. K., Wei, H. -L., Webb, T. J., & Blanchard, J. L. (2016). Quantifying heterogeneous responses of fish community size structure using novel combined statistical techniques. Global Change Biology, 22(5), 1755-1768. doi:10.1111/gcb.13190
  8. Wu, L., Liu, Z. -H., Wei, H. -L., Zhong, Q. -C., & Xiao, X. -S. (2016). Parameter Identification of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Machine Based on an Adaptive Mutation Dynamic Differential Evolution. Journal of Dynamic Systems, Measurement, and Control. doi:10.1115/1.4035239
  9. Zhao, Y., Bigg, G. R., Billings, S. A., Hanna, E., Sole, A. J., Wei, H. -L., . . . Wilton, D. J. (2016). Inferring the variation of climatic and glaciological contributions to West Greenland iceberg discharge in the twentieth century. Cold Regions Science and Technology, 121, 167-178. doi:10.1016/j.coldregions.2015.08.006


  1. Ayala Solares, J. R., & Wei, H. -L. (2015). Nonlinear model structure detection and parameter estimation using a novel bagging method based on distance correlation metric. Nonlinear Dynamics, 82(1-2), 201-215. doi:10.1007/s11071-015-2149-3
  2. Guo, Y., Guo, L. Z., Billings, S. A., & Wei, H. -L. (2015). An iterative orthogonal forward regression algorithm. International Journal of Systems Science, 46(5), 776-789. doi:10.1080/00207721.2014.981237
  3. Guo, Y., Guo, L., Billings, S. A., & Wei, H. (2015). Identification of nonlinear systems with non-persistent excitation using an iterative forward orthogonal least squares regression Algorithm. International Journal of Modelling, Identification and Control, 23(1), 1. doi:10.1504/IJMIC.2015.06749610.1504/IJMIC.2015.067496
  4. Li, Y., Wei, H. -L., Billings, S. A., & Sarrigiannis, P. G. (2016). Identification of nonlinear time-varying systems using an online sliding-window and common model structure selection (CMSS) approach with applications to EEG. International Journal of Systems Science, 47(11), 2671-2681. doi:10.1080/00207721.2015.1014448


  1. Bigg, G. R., Wei, H. L., Wilton, D. J., Zhao, Y., Billings, S. A., Hanna, E., & Kadirkamanathan, V. (2014). A century of variation in the dependence of Greenland iceberg calving on ice sheet surface mass balance and regional climate change. Proceedings of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences, 470(2166). doi:10.1098/rspa.2013.0662
  2. Fei He., Hua-Liang Wei., Billings, S. A., & Sarrigiannis, P. G. (2014). A Nonlinear Generalization of Spectral Granger Causality. IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering, 61(6), 1693-1701. doi:10.1109/TBME.2014.2300636
  3. He, F., Billings, S. A., Wei, H. -L., & Sarrigiannis, P. G. (2014). A nonlinear causality measure in the frequency domain: Nonlinear partial directed coherence with applications to EEG. Journal of Neuroscience Methods, 225, 71-80. doi:10.1016/j.jneumeth.2014.01.013
  4. Sarrigiannis, P. G., Zhao, Y., He, F., Wei, H., Billings, S. A., Lawrence, S., . . . Yianni, J. (2015). Direct Functional Connectivity between the Thalamus (Vim) and the Contralateral Motor Cortex: Just a Single Case Observation or a Common Pathway in the Human Brain?. Brain Stimulation, 8(6), 1230-1233. doi:10.1016/j.brs.2015.08.006


  1. Zhao, Y., Billings, S. A., Wei, H.L., and Sarrigiannis, P.G., “A parametric method to measure time-varying linear and nonlinear causality with applications to EEG data”, IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering, 60(11), 3141-3148, 2013.
    [PDF] http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpls/abs_all.jsp?arnumber=6542649
  2. He, F., Billings, S. A., Wei, H.L., Sarrigiannis, P.G., and Zhao, Y., “Spectral analysis for nonstationary and nonlinear systems: a discrete-time model based approach”, IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering, 60(8), 2233-2241, 2013.
    [PDF] http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpls/abs_all.jsp?arnumber=6478782
  3. Wang, S., Wei, H. L., Coca, D., and Billings, S. A., “Model term selection for spatio-temporal system identification using mutual information”, Int. J. Systems Sci., 44(2), 223-231, 2013.
    [PDF] http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/pdf/10.1080/00207721.2011.600468
  4. Zhao, Y., Billings, S.A., Wei, H.L., He, F., and Sarrigiannis, P.G., “A new NARX-based Granger linear and nonlinear casual influence detection method with applications to EEG data”, J. Neurosci. Methods, 212(1), 79-86, 2013.
    [PDF] http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0165027012003913
  5. Billings, C. G., Wei, H. L., Thomas P., Linnane S. J., Hope-Gill, B. D. M., “The prediction of in-flight hypoxaemia using non-linear equations”, Respiratory Medicine, 107(6), 841-847, 2013.
    [PDF] http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0954611113000656
  6. Rastätter, L., Kuznetsova, M. M., Glocer, A., Welling, D., Meng, X., Raeder, J., Wiltberger, M., Jordanova, V. K., Yu, Y., Zaharia, S., Weigel, R. S., Sazykin, S., Boynton, R., Wei, H. L., Eccles, V., Horton, W., Mays, M. L., Gannon, J., “Geospace environment modeling 2008–2009 challenge: Dst index”, Space Weather, 11(4), 187-205, 2013.
    [PDF] http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/swe.20036/pdf
  7. Li, P., Wei, H. L., Billings, S. A., Balikhin, M. A., and Boynton, R., “Nonlinear model identification from multiple data sets using an orthogonal forward search algorithm”, Journal of Computational and Nonlinear Dynamics, 8(4), 041001, Mar 26, 2013 (10 pages).
    [PDF] http://computationalnonlinear.asmedigitalcollection.asme.org/article.aspx?articleid=1673045


  1. Zhao, Y., Billings, S.A., Wei, H. L., and Sarrigiannis, P.G., ”Tracking time-varying causality and directionality of information flow using an error reduction ratio test with applications to electroencephalography data”, Physical Review E., 86(5), art. no. 051919.
    [PDF] http://pre.aps.org/pdf/PRE/v86/i5/e051919
  2. Li, L., Wei, H. L., Billings, S.A., and Liao, X.F., “Time-varying linear and nonlinear parametric model for Granger causality analysis”, Physical Review E, 85(4), art. no. 041906, 2012.
    [PDF] http://pre.aps.org/pdf/PRE/v85/i4/e041906
  3. Zhao, Y., Wei, H. L., and Billings, S. A., “A new adaptive fast cellular automaton neighborhood detection and rule identification algorithm”, IEEE Trans Systems, Man, and Cybernetics, Part B: Cybernetics, 42(4), 1283-1287, 2012.
    [PDF] http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?tp=&arnumber=6213564


  1. Balikhin, M.A., Boynton, R.J., Walker, S.N., Borovsky, J.E., Billings, S.A., and Wei, H.L., “Using the NARMAX approach to model the evolution of energetic electrons fluxes at geostationary orbit”, Geophysical Research Letters, 38(18), art. no. L18105, 2011.
    [PDF] http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1029/2010JA015505/pdf
  2. Balikhin, M. A., Billings, S. A., Wei, H. L., Ganushkina, N., “Using the NARMAX OLS-ERR algorithm to obtain the most influential coupling functions that affect the evolution of the magnetosphere”, Journal of Geophysical Research, 116, A05218, May 2011.
    [PDF] http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1029/2010JA015505/pdf
  3. Li, L., Wei, H. L., Billings, S. A., and Sarrigiannis, P. G., “Time-varying model identification for time-frequency feature extraction from EEG data”, Journal of Neuroscience Methods, 196(1), pp.151-158, 2011.
    [PDF] http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0165027010006631
    [PDF] http://eprints.whiterose.ac.uk/74672/
  4. Wei, H. L., Billings, S. A., Sharma, A. S., Wing, S., Boynton, R. J., and Walker, S. N., “Forecasting Relativistic Electron Flux Using Dynamic Multiple Regression Models”, Annales Geophysicae, 29, pp415-420, 2011.
    [PDF] http://www.ann-geophys.net/29/415/2011/angeo-29-415-2011.pdf
  5. Li, Y., Wei, H. L., and Billings, S. A., “Identification of time-varying systems using multi-wavelet basis functions,” IEEE Transactions on Control Systems Technology, 19(3), pp656-663, 2011.
    [PDF] http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?tp=&arnumber=5499438
    [PDF] http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpls/abs_all.jsp?arnumber=5499438&tag=1


  1. Balikhin, M.A., Boynton, R.J., Billings, S. A., Gedalin, M., Ganushkina, N., Coca, D., and Wei, H.L., “Data based quest for solar wind-magnetosphere coupling function”, Geophysical Research Letters, 37, L24107, 2010.
    [Abstract] http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1029/2010GL045733/abstract
    [PDF] http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1029/2010GL045733/pdf
  2. Wei, H. L., Billings, S. A., Zhao, Y., and Guo, L. Z., “An adaptive wavelet neural network for spatio-temporal system identification”, Neural Networks, 23(10), pp.1286-1299, 2010.
    [PDF] http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0893608010001450
    [PDF] http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0893608010001450
  3. Wei, H. L., Billings, S. A. and Liu, J., “Time-varying parametric modelling and time-dependent spectral characterisation with applications to EEG signals using multiwavelets”, International Journal of Modelling, Identification and Control, 9(3), pp.215-224, 2010.
    [PDF] http://inderscience.metapress.com/index/GX482842150756R5.pdf
    [PDF] http://eprints.whiterose.ac.uk/74634/1/977.pdf


  1. Wei, H. L., Billings, S. A., Zhao, Y., and Guo, L. Z., “Lattice dynamical wavelet neural networks implemented using particle swarm optimization for spatio-temporal system identification”, IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks, 20(1), pp. 181-185, 2009.
    [PDF] http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?tp=&arnumber=4703194
    [PDF] http://eprints.whiterose.ac.uk/8553/2/Weihl3pdf.pdf
  2. Wei, H. L. and Billings, S. A., “Improved model identification for nonlinear systems using a random subsampling and multiple modelling (RSMM) approach”, International Journal of Control, 82(1), pp. 27-42, 2009.
    [PDF] http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/pdf/10.1080/00207170801955420
    [PDF] http://eprints.whiterose.ac.uk/8552/1/Wei_Improved_model.pdf
  3. Wei, H. L. and Billings, S. A., “Improved parameter estimates for non-linear dynamical models using a bootstrap method”, International Journal of Control, 82(11), pp. 1991-2001, 2009.
    [PDF] http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/pdf/10.1080/00207170902854118
  4. Wei, H. L., Zheng, Y., Pan, Y., Coca, D., Li, L. M., Mayhew, J. E. W., and Billings, S. A., “Model estimation of cerebral hemodynamics between blood flow and volume changes: A data-based modeling approach”, IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering, 56(6), pp. 1606-1616, 2009.
    [PDF] http://eprints.whiterose.ac.uk/8747/2/Wei_1.pdf
    [PDF] http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpls/abs_all.jsp?arnumber=4760267
  5. Wei, H. L. and Billings, S. A., “Power-law behaviour evaluation from foreign exchange market data using a wavelet transform method”, Physics Letters A, 373(37), pp3324-3329.
    [PDF] http://eprints.whiterose.ac.uk/9828/1/Wei1.pdf
    [PDF] http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0375960109008494


  1. Billings, S. A. and Wei, H. L., “An adaptive orthogonal search algorithm for model subset selection and nonlinear system identification”, International Journal of Control, 81(5), pp.714-724, 2008.
    [PDF] http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/pdf/10.1080/00207170701216311
    [PDF] http://eprints.whiterose.ac.uk/8555/2/weihl4.pdf
  2. Wei, H. L. and Billings, S. A., “Model structure selection using an integrated forward orthogonal search algorithm assisted by squared correlation and mutual information”, International journal of Modelling, Identification and Control, 3(4), pp. 341-356, 2008.
    [PDF] http://eprints.whiterose.ac.uk/8554/2/Weihl5.pdf
    [PDF] http://inderscience.metapress.com/index/C2T43L7231756852.pdf
  3. Wei, H. L., Lang, Z. Q., and Billings, S. A., “Constructing an overall dynamical model for a system with changing design parameter properties”, International Journal of Modelling, Identification and Control, 5(2), pp. 93-104, 2008.
    [PDF] http://eprints.whiterose.ac.uk/8550/2/weihl2.pdf
    [PDF] http://inderscience.metapress.com/index/0745142R32WQ5782.pdf
  4. Wei, H. L. and Billings, S. A., “Generalized cellular neural networks (GCNNs) constructed using particle swarm optimization for spatio-temporal evolutionary pattern identification”, International Journal of Bifurcation and Chaos, 18(12), pp. 3611-3624, 2008.
    [PDF] http://www.worldscientific.com/doi/abs/10.1142/S0218127408022585
    [PDF] http://eprints.whiterose.ac.uk/8551/2/Wei_Generalised.pdf


  1. Billings, S. A. and Wei, H. L., “Sparse model identification using a forward orthogonal regression algorithm aided by mutual information”, IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks, 18(1), pp. 306-310, 2007.
    [PDF] http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?tp=&arnumber=4049812
    [PDF] http://eprints.whiterose.ac.uk/1970/1/weihl5_IEEE2007-TNN-18%281%29p306-310w.pdf
  2. Billings, S. A., Wei, H. L. and Balikhin, M. A., “Generalised multiscale radial basis function networks”, Neural Networks, 20(10), pp.1081-1094, 2007.
    [PDF] http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0893608007001876
    [PDF] http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0893608007001876
  3. Wei, H. L. and Billings, S. A., “Feature subset selection and ranking for data dimensionality reduction”, IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, 29(1), pp.162-166, 2007.
    [PDF] http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?tp=&arnumber=4016558
    [PDF] http://eprints.whiterose.ac.uk/1947/1/weihl3.pdf
  4. Wei, H.L., Lang, Z. Q. and Billings, S. A., “An algorithm for determining the output frequency range of Volterra models with multiple inputs”, IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems-II. Express Briefs, 54(6), pp532-536, 2007.
    [PDF] http://eprints.whiterose.ac.uk/2666/1/langzq3.pdf
    [PDF] http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpls/abs_all.jsp?arnumber=4237378
  5. Wei, H. L., Zhu, D. Q., Billings, S. A., and Balikhin, M. A., “Forecasting the geomagnetic activity of the Dst index using multiscale radial basis function networks”, Advances in Space Research, 40(12), pp.1863-1870, 2007.
    [PDF] http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0273117707002086
    [PDF] http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0273117707002086
  6. Wei, H. L. and Billings, S. A., “A comparative study on global wavelet and polynomial models for non-linear regime-switching systems”, International Journal of Modelling, Identification and Control, 2(4), pp. 273-282, 2007.
    [PDF] http://dx.doi.org/10.1504/IJMIC.2007.016410
    [PDF] http://eprints.whiterose.ac.uk/8549/2/weihl1.pdf


  1. Billings, S. A., Guo, L. Z., and Wei, H. L., “Identification of coupled map lattice models for spatio-temporal patterns using wavelets”, Int. J. Syst. Sci., 37(14), pp.1021-1038, 2006.
    [PDF] http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/pdf/10.1080/00207720600963015
  2. Guo, L. Z., Billings, S. A., and Wei, H. L., “Estimation of spatial derivatives and identification of continuous spatio-temporal dynamical systems”, International Journal of Control, 79(9), pp.1118-1135, 2006.
    [PDF] http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/pdf/10.1080/00207170600804050
  3. Wei, H. L. and Billings, S. A., “Long term prediction of non-linear time series using multiresolution wavelet models”, International Journal of Control., 79(6), pp. 569-580, 2006.
    [PDF] http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/pdf/10.1080/00207170600621447
  4. Wei, H. L., Billings, S. A., and Balikhin, M. A., “Wavelet based nonparametric NARX models for nonlinear input-output system identification”, International Journal of Systems Science, 37(15), pp.1089-1096, 2006.
    [PDF] http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/pdf/10.1080/00207170600621447
    [PDF] http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/pdf/10.1080/00207720600903011
  5. Wei, H. L. and Billings, S. A., “An efficient nonlinear cardinal B-spline model for high tide forecasts at the Venice Lagoon”, Nonlinear Processes in Geophysics, 13(5), pp.577-584.
    [PDF] http://eprints.whiterose.ac.uk/1945
    [PDF] http://www.nonlin-processes-geophys.net/13/577/200


  1. Billings, S. A. and Wei, H. L., “A new class of wavelet networks for nonlinear system identification”, IEEE Trans. Neural Networks, 16(4), pp. 862-874, 2005.
    [PDF] http://eprints.whiterose.ac.uk/787/
  2. Billings S. A. and Wei H. L., “The wavelet-NARMAX representation: A hybrid model structure combining polynomial models with multiresolution wavelet decompositions”, International Journal of Systems Science, 36(3), pp. 137-152, 2005.
    [PDF] http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00207720512331338120
    [PDF] http://eprints.whiterose.ac.uk/1972/


  1. Wei, H. L., Billings, S. A., and Balikhin, M., “Prediction of the Dst index using multiresolution wavelet models”, J. Geophysical Research-Space Physics, 109(A7), Art. No. A07212, 2004.
    [PDF] http://www.agu.org/pubs/current/si/links/2003JA010332.pdf
  2. Wei, H. L., Billings, S. A., and Balikhin, M., “Analysis of the geomagnetic activity of the Dst index and self-affine fractals using wavelet transforms”, Nonlinear Processes in Geophysics, 11(3), pp. 303-312, 2004.
    [PDF] http://www.nonlin-processes-geophys.net/11/303/2004/npg-11-303-2004.pdf
  3. Wei, H. L., Billings, S. A., and Liu, J., “Term and variable selection for nonlinear system identification”, International Journal of Control, 77(1), pp.86-110, 2004.
    [PDF] http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/pdf/10.1080/00207170310001639640
  4. Wei, H. L. and Billings, S. A., “A unified wavelet-based modelling framework for nonlinear system identification: the WANARX model structure”, International Journal of Control, 77(4), pp.351-366, 2004