Professor Maureen Carroll FSAMaureen Carroll

Professor of Roman Archaeology

Senior Tutor

Course Director of the MA Archaeology of the Classical Mediterranean (semester 1)

BA Honours (first class) in Classical Studies, Brock University; MA Classical Archaeology, Indiana University; PhD Classical Archaeology, Indiana University and Freie Universität, Berlin

Email address
p.m.carroll@sheffield.ac.uk

Telephone
+44 (0)114-2222959

Department address
Department of Archaeology
University of Sheffield
Minalloy House
10 – 16 Regent Street
Sheffield
S1 3NJ
United Kingdom

Profile

Biography

I earned my degrees in Classics and Classical Archaeology in Canada, the U.S.A. and Germany, and upon completion of my PhD I worked in Germany for many years, leaving posts at the Römisch-Germanisches Museum in Cologne and at Cologne University to take up the position of lecturer in Roman archaeology at Sheffield in 1998.

I am a Fellow of the Society of Antiquaries of London. I have served on the council and the archaeology committee of the Society for the Promotion of Roman Studies and on the boards of various research funding bodies (Leverhulme Trust, Volkswagenstiftung, Fonds zur Förderung der Wissenschaftlichen Forschung (Austria), White Rose College of Arts and Humanities). I am a founding Member of the Sheffield Centre for the Archaeology of Childhood.

I have conducted numerous archaeological fieldwork projects in Italy (most recently at Vagnari and in Pompeii), Germany, Britain, North Africa, and Cyprus, and I am principal investigator or Co-PI on a number of current research projects (see below).


Professional Roles

Fellow of the Society of Antiquaries of London

Hugh Last Senior Research Fellow, British School at Rome, 2016

Balsdon Senior Research Fellow, British School at Rome, 2008

Member of the Archaeology Committee, Society for the Promotion of Roman Studies

Member of the Associazione Internazionale di Archeologia Classica (AIAC)

Member of the Classical Association

Research

Research interests

My research interests include:

  • Roman death, burial and commemoration
  • Latin funerary epigraphy
  • Roman imperial properties
  • Infancy and earliest childhood in the Roman world
  • Clothing, identity and self-presentation in the Roman empire
  • Greek and Roman gardens

Current research projects

The Imperial Roman Estate at Vagnari (Puglia)
This project, funded by the British Academy/the Leverhulme Trust, the Society for the Promotion of Roman Studies, and the Rust Family Foundation, has as its focus the archaeological exploration of the central agricultural and industrial village of an estate belonging to the Roman emperor since the early 1st century A.D. We are investigating the economy, the living conditions, and the role of slave labour in the village and the surrounding region, as well as exploring the pre-Roman settlement on which the central village of the imperial property was founded.

One of the new research projects that comes under the overall umbrella of my work at Vagnari is the project “Apulian Wine and Adriatic Trade in the early Roman Empire: A study of dolia as a physical medium for the production and long-range transport of Eastern Italian vintages”.  Funded by the British Academy/Leverhulme Trust, this project utilises archaeological and scientific methods to explore the historical and economic context of Roman wine production in eastern Italy and the role of bulk trade in this
commodity in connecting communities across the Adriatic. It focuses on the specialized ceramic vats (dolia defossa) of enormous capacity used to ferment and store wine for export that have been found at eastern Italian sites, including the Roman imperial estate at Vagnari, as well as in dolia stores and warehouses on the eastern Adriatic coast and as cargo containers on Adriatic shipwrecks of the first and second centuries A.D. Collaborators from the University of Palermo and Bradford University are conducting fabric and residue analyses of the Vagnari dolia as part of this project.

A second new project stemming from fieldwork at Vagnari is the project “Deadly Lead? An Interdisciplinary Study of Lead Production, Lead Exposure, and Health on an Imperial Roman Estate in Italy”. Tracy Prowse (McMaster University, Canada) and I are the recipients of an Insight Development Grant from the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada (SSHRC) for this research. This is the first study of its kind that investigates the archaeological evidence for lead production and use, along with the physical remains of the people who were exposed to this material on a regular basis. Research collaborators are Jane Evans, British Geological Survey, and Mike Inskip, McMaster University.

Mater Matuta and Related Goddesses: Guaranteeing Maternal Fertility and Infant Survival in Early Roman Italy
This research project, supported by the British School at Rome (Hugh Last Fellowship), explores the literary, historical, epigraphic and visual evidence for Mater Matuta and other related so-called fertility goddesses and the association of the divine with pregnancy, childbirth, and nursing in early Roman Italy, primarily the 4th to 1st centuries B.C. It assesses the religious context of these deities and examines aspects of their worship and veneration, including votive offerings, especially the stone statues of women holding swaddled infants at Capua.

Infancy and Earliest Childhood in the Roman World
This interdisciplinary project, funded by the Leverhulme Trust and the Society of Antiquaries, draws on archaeological, artefactual, osteological, epigraphic, artistic, legal and literary evidence to understand the role and significance of newborn children and infants in Roman families and societies throughout the empire. It explores distinctions of class and socio-cultural situations over time and the relations between the realities of and rhetoric about earliest childhood. A monograph, Infancy and Earliest Childhood in the Roman World: A Fragment of Time, Oxford University Press, will be out in the spring of 2018.


Research supervision

I supervise and co-supervise MA and PhD dissertations in Britain and abroad on a wide range of topics. Past thesis topics include the burial of the urban poor in Italy in the late Roman Republic and early Empire; migration in the Roman empire; the evidence for swaddling in neonatal burials in Roman Gaul; and elite societies in civilian settlements at legionary garrisons on the Rhine and Danube.

I am interested in supervising research students who have an interest in aspects of the following themes:

  • Roman burial practices
  • Roman funerary commemoration
  • Roman family and childhood studies
  • The archaeology and history of Graeco-Roman gardens


Current PhD Students

Natasha Andronikou, (Un)Dressing the female 'other' in Classical Greek Art (supervised with Jane Rempel)

Louis-Olivier Lortie, The metal economy of Roman South Yorkshire, 1st-2nd c. A.D. (supervised with Roger Doonan)

Sarah Poniros, Roman migration patterns based on skeletal, archaeological, and written evidence (supervised with Lizzy Craig-Atkins)

Beatrice Triozzi, A Biocultural Study of the Vestini population of Loreto Aprutino: Diet, Health, Status, and Identity in the 6th–4th centuries B.C. in Central-Southern Italy (supervised with Pia Nystrom)

Publications

Selected publications

‘The sacred places of the immortal ones’. Ancient Greek and Roman Sacred Groves, in J. Woudstra and C. Roth (eds.), A History of Groves. London: Routledge, 2017, 13-33

Projecting self-perception on the Roman frontiers: The evidence of dress and funerary portraits, in D.J. Breeze, R.H. Jones and I.A. Oltean (eds.), Understanding Roman Frontiers. Papers offered to Professor Bill Hanson on the occasion of his retirement. Edinburgh: John Donald, 2015, 154-166

M. Carroll and E-J. Graham (eds.), Infant Health and Death in Roman Italy and Beyond (Journal of Roman Archaeology Supplementary Volume 96), Portsmouth, R.I., 2014

‘The Insignia of Women’. Dress, Gender and Identity on the Roman funerary monument of Regina from Arbeia, The Archaeological Journal 169, 2013, 281-311

Ethnicity and Gender in Roman Funerary Commemoration: Case studies from the empire’s frontiers, in S. Tarlow and L. Nilsson Stutz (eds.), The Oxford Handbook of the Archaeology of Death and Burial, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2013, 559-579

Infant Death and Burial in Roman Italy, Journal of Roman Archaeology 24, 2011, 99-120

Exploring the Sanctuary of Venus and its sacred grove. Politics, cult and identity in Roman Pompeii, Papers of the British School at Rome 78, 2010, 63-106

‘Vox tua nempe mea est’. Dialogues with the dead in Roman funerary commemoration, Accordia Research Papers 11, 2007/2008, 37-80

Spirits of the Dead. Roman Funerary Commemoration in Western Europe. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2006

Full publications list

Books

• Infancy and Earliest Childhood in the Roman World. ‘A Fragment of Time’. Oxford: Oxford University Press, in press

Infant Health and Death in Roman Italy and Beyond (Journal of Roman Archaeology Supplementary Volume 96), Portsmouth, R.I., 2014 (with E.-J. Graham)

• Dressing the Dead in Classical Antiquity. Stroud: Amberley, 2012 (with J.P. Wild)

• Living through the Dead. Burial and commemoration in the Classical World. Oxford: Oxbow, 2011 (with J. Rempel)

• Spirits of the Dead. Roman Funerary Commemoration in Western Europe (Oxford Studies in Ancient Documents). Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2006; paperback 2011

• Consuming Passions. Dining from Antiquity to the Eighteenth Century. Stroud: Tempus, 2005 (with D. Hadley and H. Willmott)

• Earthly Paradises. Ancient gardens in History and Archaeology. London: British Museum Press, 2003

• Römer, Kelten und Germanen. Leben in den germanischen Provinzen Roms. Stuttgart: Theiss Verlag, 2003

• Romans, Celts and Germans: The German Provinces of Rome. Stroud: Tempus, 2001

• Der Garten von der Antike bis zum Mittelalter. Mainz: Von Zabern, 3rd Ed. 1998

• Archäologie am Düsseldorfer Rheinufer. Die Ausgrabungen 1985-1992. Düsseldorf: Beton Verlag, 1994

• Die Untersuchungen im Hof der Neuen Universität in Heidelberg (Materialhefte zur Archäologie in Baden-Württemberg 20). Stuttgart: Konrad Theiss Verlag, 1993

• ΚΗΠΟΣ: Der antike griechische Garten (Wohnen in der klassischen Polis, Vol. 3). Munich: Deutscher Kunstverlag, 1989

Papers

• ‘The sacred places of the immortal ones’. Ancient Greek and Roman Sacred Groves, in J. Woudstra and C. Roth (eds.), A History of Groves. London: Routledge, 2017, 13-33

• Genomic signals of migration and continuity in Britain before the Anglo-Saxons, Nature Communications, 2016 (NATURE COMMUNICATIONS | 7:10326 | DOI: 10.1038/ncomms10326 | www.nature.com/naturecommunications) (with R. Martiniano, A. Caffell, M. Holst, K. Hunter-Mann, J. Montgomery, G. Müldner, R.L. McLaughlin, M.D. Teasdale, W. van Rheenen, J.H. Veldink, L.H. van den Berg, O. Hardiman, S. Roskams, J. Oxley, C. Morgan, M.G. Thomas, I. Barnes, C. McDonnell, M.J. Collins, and D.G. Bradley)

• Research at the Roman Imperial Estate at Vagnari, Puglia (Comune di Gravina in Puglia, Provincia di Bari, Regione Puglia). Papers of the British School at Rome 84, 2016, 333-336 (with T. Prowse)

• Contextualising Art and Nature, in B.E. Borg (ed.), Blackwell’s Companion to Roman Art, London: Blackwell, 2015, 533-551

• Projecting Self-Perception on the Roman Frontiers: The Evidence of Dress and Funerary Portraits, in D.J. Breeze, R.H. Jones and I.A. Oltean (eds.), Understanding Roman Frontiers. A Celebration for Professor Bill Hanson, Edinburgh: John Donald / Birlinn, Edinburgh, 2015, 154-166

• Research at Vagnari (Comune di Gravina in Puglia, Provincia di Bari, Regione Puglia), Papers of the British School at Rome 83, 2015, 324-326 (with T. Prowse)

• Commemorating Military and Civilian Families on the Danube Limes, in L. Vagalinski and N. Sharankov (eds.), Limes XXII. Proceedings of the XXIInd International Congress of Roman Frontier Studies held in Ruse, Bulgaria (September 2012). Sofia: National Archaeological Institute, 2015, 501-509

• Mother and Infant in Roman Funerary Commemoration, in M. Carroll and E-J. Graham (eds.), Infant Health and Death in Roman Italy and Beyond (Journal of Roman Archaeology Supplementary Volume 96). Portsmouth, 2014, R.I., 159-178

• Exploring the vicus and the necropolis at the Roman Imperial estate at Vagnari (Comune di Gravina in Puglia, Provincia di Bari, Regione Puglia), Papers of the British School at Rome 82, 2014, 353-356 (with T. Prowse)

• Vagnari 2012: New work in the vicus by the University of Sheffield, in A.M. Small (ed.), Beyond Vagnari. New Themes in the Study of Roman South Italy. Bari: Edipuglia, 2014, 79-88

• Ethnicity and gender in Roman funerary commemoration: Case studies from the empire’s frontiers, in L. Nilsson Stutz and S. Tarlow (eds.), The Oxford Handbook of the Archaeology of Death and Burial, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2013, 559-579

• ‘The Insignia of Women’. Dress, Gender and Identity on the Roman funerary monument of Regina from Arbeia, The Archaeological Journal 169, 2013, 281-311

• Ethnische Tracht und römische Kleidung am Niederrhein, in A. Wieczorek, R. Schulz, and M. Tellenbach (eds.), Die Macht der Toga – Mode im römischen Weltreich. Exhibition Roemer und Pelizaeusmuseum Hildesheim. Regensburg: Verlag Schnell & Steiner, 2013, 223-228

• Die Kleidung der Eravisci und Azali an der Donau in römischer Zeit, in A. Wieczorek, R. Schulz, and M. Tellenbach (eds.), Die Macht der Toga – Mode im römischen Weltreich. Exhibition Roemer und Pelizaeusmuseum Hildesheim. Regensburg: Verlag Schnell & Steiner, 2013, 194-198

• The Roman child clothed in death, in M. Carroll and J.P. Wild (eds.), Dressing the Dead in Classical Antiquity, Stroud: Amberley Publishing, 2012, 134-147

• ‘No part in earthly things’. The death, burial and commemoration of newborn children and infants in Roman Italy, in L. Larsson Lovén and M. Harlow (eds.), The Familia and its Transformation from ancient Rome to Barbarian Europe (50-600 CE). London: Continuum Press, 2012, 41-63

• Infant Death and Burial in Roman Italy, Journal of Roman Archaeology 24, 2011, 99-120

• Memoria and Damnatio Memoriae. Preserving and erasing identities in Roman funerary commemoration, in M. Carroll and J. Rempel (eds.), Living through the Dead. Burial and commemoration in the Classical World. Oxford: Oxbow, 2011, 65-90

• ‘The mourning was very good’. Liberation and Liberality in Roman Funerary Commemoration, in V. Hope and J. Huskinson (eds.), Memory and Mourning: Studies on Roman Death, Oxford: Oxbow, 2011, 125-148

• Death and Society. Social and Economic Aspects of Death in the Roman World, in J. Andreu, D. Espinosa and S. Pastor (eds.), Mors Omnibus Instat: Aspectos de la Muerte en el Occidente Romano (Serie Bellatrix 1). Madrid: Liceus Ediciones, 2011, 23-49

• Exploring the Sanctuary of Venus and its sacred grove. Politics, cult and identity in Roman Pompeii, Papers of the British School at Rome 78, 2010, 63-106

• Götter, Sterbliche und ethnische Identität am Niederrhein: Die Aussage der römischen Weihedenkmäler, Mannheimer Geschichtsblätter 19, 2010, 97-106

• Vox tua nempe mea est. Dialogues with the dead in Roman funerary commemoration. Accordia Research Papers 11, 2007/2008, 37-80

• Dead soldiers on the move. Transporting bodies and commemorating men at home and abroad, in A. Morillo (ed.), Limes XX. XXth International Congress of Roman Frontier Studies. Léon 2006 (Anejos de Gladius 13). Madrid: Ediciones Polifemo, 2009, 823-832

• Nemus et Templum. Exploring the sacred grove at the Temple of Venus in Pompeii, in: P.G. Guzzo and M.P. Guidobaldi (eds.), Nuove ricerche archeologiche nell'area vesuviana (scavi 2003-2006). Atti del convegno, Roma 1-3 Febbraio 2007. Rome : L'Erma di Bretschneider, 2008, 37-45

• Boschetti sacri e giardini dei templi nella Grecia antica, in G. di Pasquale and F. Paolucci (eds.), Il Giardino antico da Babilonia a Roma. Florence: Sillabe, 2007, 44-49

• The preparation and consumption of food as a contributing factor towards communal identity in the Roman army, in: Z. Visy (ed.), Limes XIX. Acts of the XIXth International Congress of Roman Frontier Studies. Pécs: University of Pécs, 2005, 363-372

• The early Roman pottery industry in Cologne, Germany : a new kiln site in the Oppidum Ubiorum , Journal of Roman Pottery Studies 11, 2004, 77-90

• The Genesis of Roman Towns on the lower Rhine, in: P. Wilson (ed.), The Archaeology of Roman Towns: Studies in Honour of Professor John S. Wacher. Oxford: Oxbow, 2003, 22-30

• Measuring Time and Inventing Histories in the Early Empire: Roman and Germanic Perspectives, in L. Revell (ed.), TRAC 01. Proceedings of the Eleventh Annual Theoretical Roman Archaeology Conference 2001. Oxford: Oxbow, 2002, 104-112

• Supplying the Roman Fleet: Native Belgic, Frisian and Germanic pottery from Cologne, Journal of Roman Archaeology 14, 2001, 310-324

• The Sanctuary of Apollo at Pompeii: Reconsidering chronologies and excavation history, American Journal of Archaeology 104, 2000, 743-754

• New excavations at the base of the Classis Germanica in Cologne (Alteburg), in N. Gudea (ed.), Roman Frontier Studies. Proceedings of the XVIIth International Congress of Roman Frontier Studies. Zalau 1999, 317-324

• The late Roman frontier fort Divitia in Cologne-Deutz and its garrisons, in: W. Groenman-van Waateringe (ed.), Roman Frontier Studies XVI. Oxford: Oxbow, 1997, 143-149

• Das römische Militärlager Divitia in Köln-Deutz, Kölner Jahrbuch 26, 1993, 321-444

• The Gardens of Greece from Homeric to Roman Times, Journal of Garden History 12, 1992, 84-101

Teaching

Undergraduate

The Classical World and its Legacy

Rome: Capital, Hinterland and Periphery

MA level

Greeks, Romans and Others

Roman Italy

Funerary Archaeology

Research Design: Planning, Execution and Presentation

Administrative Duties

Administrative Duties

Senior Tutor

Acting Course Director of the MA Archaeology of the Classical Mediterranean