Ice sheet reconstructions

Ice sheet (small)Ice sheet UK (small) Discovery that the beds of former ice sheets (ie whole of Canada) contain a complex and palimpsest record of former ice flow that be used to reconstruct the flow geometry and centres of mass of the ice sheets and how they evolved through time. This overturned the existing paradigm that viewed landforms as simply recording a single timeslice of activity or just retreat patterns.

I have made reconstructions for the ice sheets that covered whole of Canada, for Quebec, and for Britain and Ireland, and in Arctic and Far Eastern Russia .

It is now widely known that the centres of mass (ice divides) may migrate considerable (~1000 km) distances during growth and decay.

Some methodology papers on how to use RS/GIS to help

  • Greenwood, S.L, Clark, C.D. and Hughes, A.L.C. (2007). Formalising an inversion methodology for reconstructing ice-sheet retreat patterns from meltwater channels: application to the British Ice Sheet. Journal of Quaternary Science, 22(6), 637-645.
    doi:10.1002/jqs.1083
  • Clark, C.D., Greenwood, S.L. and Evans, D.J.A. (2006). Palaeo-glaciology of the last British-Irish Ice Sheet: challenges and some recent developments. In: Knight, P.G. (ed.) Glacier Science and Environmental Change, Blackwell, Oxford. 248-264.
  • Clark, C.D. (1997). Reconstructing the evolutionary dynamics of former ice sheets using multi-temporal evidence, remote sensing and GIS. Quaternary Science Reviews, 16(9), 1067-1092.
    doi:10.1016/S0277-3791(97)00037-1

And then application of such methods for a variety of ice sheets

  • Bigg, G. R., Clark, C. D., Levine R. C., Greenwood, S. L., Haflidason, H., Hughes, A. L. C., Nygård, A. and Sejrup H. P. (2012). Sensitivity of the North Atlantic circulation to break-up of the marine sectors of the NW European ice sheets during the last Glacial: a synthesis of modelling and palaeoceanography. Global and Planetary Change. 98-99, 153-165.
  • Chiverrell, R.C., Thrasher, I.M., Thomas, G.S.P., Lang, A., Scourse, J.D., Van Landeghem, K.J.J., McCarroll, D., Clark, C.D., Ó Cofaigh, C., Evans, D.J.A. and Ballantyne, C.K. (2013). Bayesian modelling the retreat of the Irish Sea Ice Stream. Journal of Quaternary Science, 28(2), 200-209.
  • Livingstone, S.J., Clark, C.D. and Tarasov, L. (2013) Modelling North American palaeo-subglacial lakes and their meltwater drainage pathways. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 375, 13 – 33.
  • Boulton, G.S. and Clark, C.D. (1990). A highly mobile Laurentide Ice Sheet revealed by satellite images of glacial lineations, Nature, 346, 813-817.
    doi:10.1038/346813a0
  • Boulton, G.S. and Clark, C.D. (1990). The Laurentide Ice Sheet through the last glacial cycle: the topology of drift lineations as a key to the dynamic behaviour of former ice sheets. Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh: Earth Sciences, 81, 327-347.
  • Mitchell, W.A., and Clark, C.D., (1994). The last ice sheet in Cumbria. In: Boardman, J. and Walden, J. (eds.), The Quaternary of Cumbria: Field Guide. Quaternary Research Association, Oxford, England. 4-14.
  • Clark, C.D., Knight, J.K. and Gray, J.T. (2000). Geomorphological reconstruction of the Labrador Sector of the Laurentide Ice Sheet. Quaternary Science Reviews, 19(13), 1343-1366.
    doi:10.1016/S0277-3791(99)00098-0
  • Clark, C.D. and Meehan, R.I. (2001). Subglacial bedform geomorphphology of the Irish Ice Sheet reveals major configuration changes during growth and decay. Journal of Quatenary Science, 16(5), 483–496.
  • Evans, D.J., Thomson, S.A. and Clark, C.D. (2001). The glacial history of East Yorkshire. In: Bateman, M.D. et al (eds), 2001. The Quaternary of East Yorkshire and North Lincolnshire. Field Guide, Quaternary Research Association, London. 1-12.
  • Clark, C.D., Gibbard, P.L. and Rose, J. (2004). Pleistocene glacial limits in England, Scotland and Wales. In: Ehlers, J. and Gibbard, P.L. (eds.) Quaternary Glaciations: Extent and Chronology, Part I; Europe. Developments in Quaternary Science, Elsevier. 47 - 82.
  • Clark, C.D., Sejrup, H.P., Bigg, G.R., Stoker, M., Lonergan, L., Raunholm, S. and Haflidison, H. (2004). Did the Punctuated demise of glacial ice in the North Sea affect the thermohaline circulation? Eos, Transactions, American Geophysical Union, 85(31), 293.
    doi:10.1029/2004EO310006
  • Clark, C.D., Evans, D.J.A., Khatwa, A., Bradwell, T., Jordan, C.J., Marsh, S.H., Mitchell, W.A. and. Bateman, M.D. (2004). Map and GIS database of landforms and features related to the last British Ice Sheet. Boreas, 33(4), 359-375.
    SHERPA Archive version (open access)
    doi:10.1080/03009480410001983
    BRITICE web site
  • Evans, D.J.A., Clark, C.D. and Mitchell, W.A. (2005). The last British Ice Sheet: A review of the evidence utilised in the compilation of the Glacial Map of Britain. Earth Science Reviews, 70(3-4), 253-312.
    SHERPA Archive version (open access)
    doi:10.1016/j.earscirev.2005.01.001
  • Hättestrand, C. and Clark, C.D. (2006). Reconstructing the pattern and style of deglaciation of Kola Peninsula, northeastern Fennoscandian Ice Sheet. In: Knight, P.G. (ed.) Glacier Science and Environmental Change, Blackwell, Oxford. 199-201.
  • Hättestrand, C. and Clark, C.D. (2006). The glacial geomorphology of Kola Peninsula and adjacent areas in the Murmansk Region, Russia. Journal of Maps, v2006, 30-42.
  • Stokes, C.R., Clark, C.D. and Winsborrow, M.C.M. (2006). Subglacial bedform evidence for a major palaeo-ice stream and its retreat phases in Amundsen Gulf, Canadian Arctic Archipelago. Journal of Quaternary Science, 21(4), 399-412.
    doi:10.1002/jqs.991
  • Bigg, G.R., Clark, C.D. and Hughes, A.L.C. (2008). A last glacial ice sheet on the Pacific Russian coast and catastrophic change arising from coupled ice–volcanic interaction. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 265(3-4), 559-570.
    doi:10.1016/j.epsl.2007.10.052
  • Greenwood, S.L. and Clark, C.D. (2008). Subglacial bedforms of the Irish Ice Sheet. Journal of Maps, v2008, 332-357.
  • Stokes, C.R., Clark, C.D. and Storrar, R. (2009). Major changes in ice stream dynamics during deglaciation of the north-western margin of the Laurentide Ice Sheet. Quaternary Science Reviews, 28(7-8), 721-738.
    doi:10.1016/j.quascirev.2008.07.019
  • Greenwood, S.L. and Clark, C.D. (2009). Reconstructing the last Irish Ice Sheet 1: changing flow geometries and ice flow dynamics deciphered from the glacial landform record. Quaternary Science Reviews, 28(27-28), 3085-3100.
    doi:10.1016/j.quascirev.2009.09.008
  • Greenwood, S.L. and Clark, C.D. (2009). Reconstructing the last Irish Ice Sheet 2: a geomorphologically-driven model of ice sheet growth, retreat and dynamics. Quaternary Science Reviews, 28(27-28), 3101-3123.
    doi:10.1016/j.quascirev.2009.09.014
  • Barr, I.D. and Clark, C.D. (2009). Distribution and pattern of moraines in Far NE Russia reveal former glacial extent. Journal of Maps, v2009, 186-193.
    doi:10.4113/jom.2009.1108
  • Bigg, G.R., Levine, R.C., Clark, C.D., Greenwood, S.L., Haflidason, H., Hughes, A.L.C., Nygård, A., and Sejrup, H.P. (2010). Last Glacial ice-rafted debris off south-western Europe: the role of the British-Irish Ice Sheet. Journal of Quaternary Science, 25(5), 689-699.
    doi:10.1002/jqs.1345
  • Hughes, A.L.C., Clark, C.D., and Jordan, C.J. (2010). Subglacial bedforms of the last British Ice Sheet. Journal of Maps, v2010, 543-563.
    doi:10.4113/jom.2010.1111
  • Clark, C.D., Hughes, A.L.C., Greenwood, S.L., Jordan, C.J. and Sejrup, H.P. (2012). Pattern and timing of retreat of the last British-Irish Ice Sheet. Quaternary Science Reviews, 44, 112-146.
    doi:10.1016/j.quascirev.2010.07.019
  • Barr, I.D. and Clark, C.D. (2012). Late Quaternary glaciations in Far NE Russia; combining moraines, topography and chronology to assess regional and global glaciation synchrony. Quaternary Science Reviews, 53, 72–87.
    doi:10.1016/j.quascirev.2012.08.004