Armend Bekaj

Rearranging the puzzles of security in post-conflict democracies: a comparative study of the transformation and political integration of armed groups in Kosovo and FYR Macedonia

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Supervisors: Professor Paul Knepper


BA Hons on International Studies, University of Leeds; MA on Conflict Resolution, Peace Studies Department, University of Bradford. For the last fifteen years, Armend has worked for civil society and humanitarian organisations in England and the Western Balkans, as well as for various international organisations including the OSCE, USAID and UNDP.

Scope of Research

The focus of my research is the transformation and integration of former combatants into post-conflict security structures, and by consequence their political involvement in emerging democracies in Kosovo and FYR Macedonia. While they have played an important role in completing the puzzles of new security structures, the research will examine their legacy on the present, and their contribution in furthering, or hindering, democratic progress in the afore-mentioned countries.

Research Areas

Politics, security, criminology, democratization.

Research Centres

Centre for Criminological Research
Sheffield Centre for International and European Law


- Addressing truth and ethical challenges: observations from field research in Kosovo (author), in Shapland, Joanna, Jacques de Maillard, Stephen Farrall, Axel Groenemeyer & Paul Ponsaers (eds) Desistance, social order and responses to crime: today’s security issues, Anwerpen: Maklu (2014)

- Demobilising and Integrating a Liberation Army in the Context of State Formation: Kosovo’s Perspective on Security Transition (co-author), in Veronique Dudouet, Hans J. Giessmann, Katrin Planta (eds) Post-War Security Transitions: Participatory Peacebuilding after Asymmetric Conflicts, London: Routledge Studies in Peace and Conflict Resolution, 2012

- The KLA and the Kosovo War: From intra-state conflict to independent country, Berlin: Berghof Conflict Research, 2010, at (author)

- Civil Society and Development, UNDP Human Development Report, Kosovo 2008, Pristina, at (co-author)