Photo of UK police officers walking the streets

Understanding Implicit Bias and Policing Conference

Date: Monday 4 June - Tuesday 5 June 2018

The Centre for Criminological Research and the Law & Diversity Working Group of the University of Sheffield School of Law held a two-day research symposium exploring implicit bias and how it impacts policing policies and policing outcomes.

The symposium examined issues including:

  • What is the current state of implicit bias research?
  • What does empirical evidence on implicit bias mean for policing?
  • How can implicit bias research impact policing policies and policing outcomes?

This interdisciplinary symposium assembled a diverse group of scholars including criminologists, psychologists and legal scholars to examine issues related to implicit bias and policing

View the programme


Dr Evelyn Carter, Office of Equity, Diversity and Inclusion, UCLA

Evelyn CarterDr. Evelyn Carter is a social psychologist who studies how people detect cues to racial bias and discuss bias across group lines. She completed her BA in Psychology at Northwestern University, and holds a Masters from University of Illinois at Chicago, and a Ph.D. from Indiana University. Evelyn’s research has been funded by the National Science Foundation, and she has been published in journals such as Social Cognition, Social and Personality Psychology Compass, and Journal of Experimental Social Psychology. Evelyn is currently a Research Scientist in the BruinX division of the Office of Equity, Diversity and Inclusion, where her job entails using social science research to help create and sustain an inclusive climate at UCLA.

Professor Jack Glaser, Goldman School of Public Policy, UC Berkeley

Jack GlaserJack Glaser is a professor at the Goldman School of Public Policy at UC Berkeley. He is a social psychologist (PhD, Yale, 1999) whose primary research interest is in stereotyping, prejudice, and discrimination. In particular, he is interested in implicit bias (i.e., biases that operate largely outside of conscious awareness and control) and in bias in criminal justice. Professor Glaser is working with the Center for Policing Equity to build a National Justice Database of police stops and use of force incidents. His recent book, “Suspect Race: Causes and Consequences of Racial Profiling,” was published by Oxford University Press.

Dr Jules Holroyd, Dept. of Philosophy, University of Sheffield

Jules HolroydEducation

I received my BA in Philosophy from The University of Sheffield (2000-2003), where I also undertook my MA (2004) and PhD studies. During my PhD (2004-2008) I spent time as a visiting student at the Department of Linguistics and Philosophy, MIT, and also undertook a teaching fellowship in Philosophy at the Department of Sheffield. My thesis focused on the role of autonomy in social and political philosophy, with particular attention to the notion of relational autonomy, as developed by feminist philosophers.


In 2008 I took up a Junior Research Fellowship at Churchill College, Cambridge; followed by lectureships at Cardiff University (2009-2011), and the University of Nottingham (2012-2015).

During this time I was awarded an Early Career Researcher International Collaboration Award, from Cardiff University, to spend time visiting Witswatersrand University, South Africa (the fruits of which included a publication in a special issue of Philosophical Papers, on the retributive emotions).

Whilst at Nottingham, in 2013, I was awarded a Leverhulme Trust Project Grant to pursue research on Bias and Blame. This grant runs for three years from February 2014-2017, and involves collaborative work with colleagues in psychology at Sheffield, to investigate the impact of moral interactions on the expression of implicit bias (you can read more about the activities on the grant on the project blog). A draft of our first paper, that reports on the empirical findings of the project, can be found here.


My research focuses on topics in moral psychology and social philosophy. In particular, I am interested in the ways that our cognitions are influenced by, and complicit in, injustices that track social identity, such as gender and race. My current research looks at how interpersonal interactions can aid us in mitigating implicit bias. Future research will look at the relationship between individual agency and institutional change.

My recent work has focused on implicit racial bias. I am currently PI on a Leverhulme Trust project grant to pursue research on bias and blame: in particular whether communicating disapprobation for implicit bias makes people more or less likely to manifest implicit bias; and more or less likely to intend to modify their cognitions and behaviour. This grant runs for three years from February 2014-2017, and involves collaborative work with colleagues in psychology.

Emeritus Professor Delores Jones-Brown, Dept. of Law and Police Science, John Jay College, NY

Delores Jones BrownDr. Delores Jones-Brown, J.D., Ph.D. recently retired from the Department of Law and Police Science at John Jay College of Criminal Justice and the Criminal Justice Doctoral Program at the City University of New York. While at John Jay, she founded the College’s Center on Race, Crime and Justice, which she ran it for ten years. She currently serves on two consent decree monitoring teams appointed by the U.S. Department of Justice in the cities of Newark, New Jersey and Ferguson, Missouri. She is the author of an award-winning book, Race, Crime and Punishment and the co-author of a highly cited report on the stop-question-and-frisk practices of the New York City Police Department. The report was released by the Center on Race, Crime and Justice in 2010 and revised in 2013. As a former assistant prosecutor, her research interests continue to focus on police behavior. In 2015, she testified before President Barack Obama’s Task Force on 21st Century Policing. Her recent scholarly projects include a co-edited special issue on Youth and Policing for Race and Justice: An International Journal and, a student-lead analysis of youth killed by police in the U.S. since January 2013. Among her many honors and awards, she is the 2018 recipient of the Founder’s Award from the Western Society of Criminology. The award honors “a person who, through scholarship and/or activism, has significantly improved the quality of justice in the United States.”

Jenny Kodz, Professional Development and Integrity Faculty, College of Policing

Jenny KodzJenny has worked for the College of Policing, the professional body for the police service, as an Evidence and Evaluation advisor and previously for its precursor organisation, the NPIA and the Home Office as a Principal Research Officer, for 15 years. Prior to that Jenny was a Senior Research Fellow at the Institute for Employment Studies. Jenny is a member of the Government Social Research service and is currently leading research and evaluations relating to the development and implementation of the College of Policing Leadership Review. Jenny's particular research interests include the recruitment and career progression of a diverse workforce in policing.

Professor Christy Lopez, Faculty of Law, Georgetown University Christy Lopez

Christy E. Lopez is joined the faculty of Law at Georgetown University as a Distinguished Visitor from Practice. For the past six years, Professor Lopez served as a Deputy Chief in the Special Litigation Section of the Civil Rights Division at the U.S. Department of Justice. Professor Lopez led the Division’s group conducting pattern-or-practice investigations of police departments and other law enforcement agencies, including litigating and negotiating settlement agreements to resolve investigative findings. Professor Lopez also helped coordinate the Department’s broader efforts to ensure constitutional policing.

Professor Lopez directly led the team that investigated the Ferguson Police Department and was a primary drafter of the Ferguson Report and negotiator of the Ferguson consent decree. She also led investigations of many other law enforcement agencies, including the Chicago Police Department, the New Orleans Police Department, the Los Angeles Sheriff’s Department, the Newark (New Jersey) Police Department, and the Missoula, Montana investigation. The Missoula matter was the Division’s first pattern-or-practice investigation to focus on the collective law enforcement response to allegations of sexual assault, and the first to focus on a prosecutor’s office. Professor Lopez helped formulate and draft the DOJ statement of interest in the Floyd litigation, challenging the New York Police Department's stop-and-frisk practices, as well as DOJ guidance released in 2015 on preventing gender bias in the law enforcement response to sexual assault and domestic violence.

Professor Lopez’ career has been largely focused on criminal justice reform, and constitutional policing in particular. After clerking on the Alaska Supreme Court for Justice Robert L. Eastaugh, Professor Lopez began her civil rights career as an Honor’s Attorney in the Civil Rights Division from 1995-2000, investigating and litigating cases regarding jails, prisons, and police departments. Professor Lopez later served as a federal court monitor of the Oakland (California) Police Department for Senior District Judge Thelton E. Henderson of the Northern District of California. Throughout her career, Professor Lopez has been involved in police reform efforts at the state, local, and federal levels: she has conducted independent reviews of police shootings; served on the Maryland Attorney General’s Task Force on Electronic Weapons; was a contributing writer on the Prison Rape Elimination Act (PREA) Commission Report on sexual violence in prisons, jails, and lockups; and has served on various other commissions and working groups related to police standards.

In 2016, Professor Lopez was awarded the Flame Award by the National Association for Civilian Oversight of Law Enforcement (NACOLE) for her long-term commitment to police accountability and civilian oversight. In 2015, Professor Lopez was awarded the Department of Justice’s highest employee honor, the Attorney General’s Exceptional Service award, for her work leading the Ferguson Police Department pattern-or-practice investigation. In 2013, Professor Lopez was awarded the Attorney General’s John Marshall Award for her work leading the New Orleans Police Department investigation and consent decree negotiation.

Paul Quinton, Uniformed Policing Faculty, College of Policing

Paul QuintonPaul Quinton is currently an Evidence and Evaluation Advisor at the College of Policing. Paul’s career has spanned nearly 20 years, during which time he has published over 30 articles, book chapters and official reports mainly on stop and search, neighbourhood policing and public perceptions in the police. Since joining the College, Paul has been principal investigator on the Greater Manchester Police procedural justice training experiment and led the programme of research on police integrity. He received, with Ben Bradford, the 2014 British Society of Criminology policing network’s joint-author prize for their article on organisational justice and police culture. He has recently published on the relationship between stop and search and crime, and is currently planning an ethnographic study of police sergeants.

Professor Jennifer Saul, Dept. of Philosophy, University of Sheffield

Jennifer SaulMA, PhD Princeton; BA Rochester

Jenny's primary interests are in Philosophy of Language, Feminism, Philosophy of Race, and Philosophy of Psychology. She is currently working on racism in political speech, a topic which has kept her extremely busy recently. (In addition to academic papers (which can be found at her page, she has written many articles on this topic for a broader audience.)

Jenny's most recent book was Lying, Misleading and What is Said: An Exploration in Philosophy of Language and in Ethics (Oxford University Press 2012). This argues that considering the distinction between lying and misleading-- which seems to many an ethically significant one-- can help to shed new light on methodological disputes in philosophy of language over notions like what is said, semantic content, assertion, impliciture, and expliciture. She also argues that careful attention to the way that communication works can shed new light on the ethical issues. (And she considers some fascinating real-world cases, feeding her lifelong obsession with political scandals but also branching out into such excellent topics as the Jesuit doctrine of Mental Reservation.)

Jenny was Director of the (2011-2013) Leverhulme-funded Implicit Bias and Philosophy Project (link at the right). She has published two co-edited volumes on implicit bias with Michael Brownstein. and she continues to lecture widely on this topic to a range of audiences. She is especially interested in helping academic institutions find methods to combat both implicit and explicit biases, and she frequently advises on this topic.

With Helen Beebee, she published a report for the British Philosophical Association and SWIP UK entitled "Women in Philosophy in the UK: A Report". This report presents the first ever study of the gender imbalance in UK philosophy and provides a list of recommendations to combat it. You can download it at the right. Also with Helen Beebee, she authored guidelines for good practice on gender issues in philosophy-- these can be found at the BPA website, as the BPA/SWIP Good Practice Scheme.

Jenny is Director of the Society for Women in Philosophy UK and Co-Chair of the British Philosophical Association's Women in Philosophy Committee. She is on the Editorial Board for Symposia in Gender, Race, and Philosophy, and on the Analysis Committee.

Jenny has supervised PhD students working on names, implicature, gender, sexual objectification, vagueness, indexicals, reference, justice, cosmopolitanism and feminism, epistemic/communicative injustice, semantic minimalism, lying, feminist philosophy of science, the family, and autonomy. She loves attending the Feminism and Philosophy of Language reading groups, although she doesn't always manage it.

Jenny is honoured to have received the 2011 Distinguished Woman Philosopher Award in Washington, DC; and to have been chosen as Mind Association President for 2019-20. But her proudest accomplishment is nonetheless having been a consultant on a zombie movie script.