Epidemiology and public health

The focus of this theme is ‘big data’ in relation to patient numbers and populations, for example electronic health records as opposed to complex biological data-sets about single patients.

On

Infrastructure and Environment to support this NIHR Theme

The Public Health Section at ScHARR has diverse and well-established collaborations with policy makers, commissioners, service providers and communities in the NHS, local government, third sector and organisations in Sheffield, the United Kingdom and globally.

As a section we produce high impact applied public health research and knowledge exchange; we are successful in getting research evidence into practice, for example, developing public health guidance for NICE and Public Health England (PHE). The section supports public health research capacity development, and is host to: the Sheffield component of the School for Public Health Research (SPHR); the NIHR Public Health Research Review Team; Wellcome Trust Doctoral Training Centre for Public Health Economics and Decision Science; Sheffield Alcohol Research Group; and Applied Research Collaboration (ARC). We also work in partnership with the flagship University Research Institutes: Healthy Lifespan Institute and the Institute for Sustainable Food in developing collaborative research programmes, both locally and globally.

In the field of infectious diseases, the University of Sheffield performs a wide range of epidemiological and vaccine studies, with the aim of improving community health in the UK and overseas. Applying the data and clinical material collected in these studies to our high-throughput immunological screening and next generation sequencing pipelines we employ population level analytical tools to understand immunity, pathogen transmission and vaccine impact. Our current research focuses on assessing the impact of vaccines on antimicrobial resistance at an individual and host/pathogen population level.

This team also forms part of the cross-faculty Florey Institute, and actively partners with STH and the CTRU at ScHARR. Relevant external collaborators include the Universities of Oxford, Cambridge, LSHTM (Zimbabwe and AMR groups), and Imperial and we actively contribute to external groups including the WHO (VPD surveillance, vaccines for AMR).

Grant Income 

Infectious Diseases

  • £94k Post-hospitalisation COVID-19 study: a national consortium to understand and improve long-term health outcomes (PHOSP-COVID) UKRI
  • £400k Impact of a Typhoid Conjugate Vaccine Campaign on Antimicrobial Use in Harare, Zimbabwe Wellcome
  • £3.4M Developing new treatment strategies for patients with typhoid in Asia - MRC JGHT (co-I)
  • (£NA)  Assessing the effect of COVID-19 vaccination on antimicrobial use
  • £1M Evaluating household transmission of respiratory viruses in The Gambia (series of grants and fellowships)
  • £40k Exploring the transmission of a virulent PVL-MRSA clone in Sri Lanka (GCRF)
  • £160k Developing new vaccine candidates to prevent Staphylococcal infection (GSK
  • £1.4m NIHR AMR capital infrastructure award (NIHR).

ScHARR

  • £50,451 OUTLINE Tuberculosis Reduction through Expanded Anti-retroviral Treatment (TREAT) Trial MRC
  • £490,800 Mathematical modelling framework for tuberculosis burden estimate and economic evaluation of pharmaceutical interventions MRC
  • £22,550 South African Tuberculosis Incidence Gauge (STING) MRC
  • £295,618 nTRAIL - European & Developing Countries Clinical Trials Partnership

Publications

Publications

Infectious Diseases

Efficacy of ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 (AZD1222) vaccine against SARS-CoV-2 variant of concern 202012/01 (B.1.1.7): an exploratory analysis of a randomised controlled trial. Lancet. 2021 Apr 10;397(10282):1351-1362. 

Single-dose administration and the influence of the timing of the booster dose on immunogenicity and efficacy of ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 (AZD1222) vaccine: a pooled analysis of four randomised trials. Lancet. 2021 Mar 6;397(10277):881-891. 

Safety and efficacy of the ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccine (AZD1222) against SARS-CoV-2: an interim analysis of four randomised controlled trials in Brazil, South Africa, and the UK. 

Lancet. 2021 Jan 9;397(10269):99-111. 

Changing Antimicrobial Resistance Trends in Kathmandu, Nepal: A 23-Year Retrospective Analysis of Bacteraemia. Front Med (Lausanne). 2018 Sep 19;5:262. 

The Impact of Vaccination and Prior Exposure on Stool Shedding of Salmonella Typhi and Salmonella Paratyphi in 6 Controlled Human Infection Studies. Clin Infect Dis. 2019 Apr 8;68(8):1265-1273. 

Estimation of seasonal influenza attack rates and antibody dynamics in children using cross-sectional serological data. 2020 Jun 18:jiaa338. 

High burden and seasonal variation of paediatric scabies and pyoderma prevalence in The Gambia: A cross-sectional study. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2019 Oct 14;13(10):e0007801. 

Genomic and Epidemiological Evidence of a Dominant Panton-Valentine Leucocidin-Positive Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Lineage in Sri Lanka and Presence Among Isolates From the United Kingdom and Australia. Front Cell Infect Microbiol. 2019 Apr 26;9:123.

Potential impact of influenza vaccine roll-out on antibiotic use in Africa. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2018 Aug 1;73(8):2197-2200.

Worldwide relative smoking prevalence among people living with and without HIV.

AIDS. 2021 May 1;35(6):957-970. 

Chronic comorbidities in children and adolescents with perinatally acquired HIV infection in sub-Saharan Africa in the era of antiretroviral therapy. Lancet Child Adolesc Health. 2020 Sep;4(9):688-698. 

Epidemiology of Cytomegalovirus among pregnant women in Africa. J Infect Dev Ctries. 2019 Oct 31;13(10):865-876. 

ScHARR

Potential effect of household contact management on childhood tuberculosis: a mathematical modelling study. (2018)  The Lancet Global Health, 6(12), e1329-e1338. 

The global burden of tuberculosis mortality in children: a mathematical modelling study. (2017)The Lancet Global Health, 5(9), e898-e906. 

The impact of HIV and antiretroviral therapy on TB risk in children: a systematic review and meta-analysis. (2017) Thorax, 72, 559-575. 

The Global Burden of Latent Tuberculosis Infection: A Re-estimation Using Mathematical Modelling. (2016) PLoS Medicine, 13(10). 

Global burden of drug-resistant tuberculosis in children: a mathematical modelling study. (2016) Lancet Infectious Diseases, 16(10), 1193-1201. 

Age- and Sex-Specific Social Contact Patterns and Incidence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection.(2016). Am J Epidemiol, 183(2), 156-166. 

Burden of childhood tuberculosis in 22 high-burden countries: a mathematical modelling study. (2014) The Lancet Global Health

The potential effects of changing HIV treatment policy on tuberculosis outcomes in South Africa: results from three tuberculosis-HIV transmission models (2014) AIDS (London, England), 28, S25-34. 

Notions of synergy for combinations of interventions against infectious diseases in heterogeneously mixing populations. Mathematical Biosciences (2010) , 227(2), 94-104. 

Interpreting Tuberculin Skin Tests in a Population With a High Prevalence of HIV, Tuberculosis, and Nonspecific Tuberculin Sensitivity. (2010)  American Journal of Epidemiology, 171(9), 1037-1045. 

Examining the promise of HIV elimination by ‘test and treat’ in hyperendemic settings. (2010) AIDS, 24(5), 729-735. 

Periodic Active Case Finding for TB: When to Look?. PLoS ONE, 6(12), e29130-e29130.

 

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