Globalization involves trading, and competing, with others operating in very different economic environments. Those differences make trade work, but many worry that they also make trade unfair, and indeed damaging. The WTO's rules on subsidies and trade remedies try to distinguish between fair and unfair trade, and to discipline state's responses to harms from trade. We will examine those rules in detail, locating them in their political, economic and historical context, to understand the functions they play, and the trade-offs they express. Topics include subsidies, anti-dumping, safeguards, and the specific challenges of trade remedies and non-market economies.