Vice-Chancellor's Fellows - Profile
Dr Jules Holroyd
Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Philosophy
I received my BA in Philosophy from The University of Sheffield (2000-2003), where I also undertook my MA (2004) and PhD studies. During my PhD (2004-2008) I spent time as a visiting student at the Department of Linguistics and Philosophy, MIT, and also undertook a teaching fellowship in Philosophy at the Department of Sheffield. My thesis focused on the role of autonomy in social and political philosophy, with particular attention to the notion of relational autonomy, as developed by feminist philosophers.
In 2008 I took up a Junior Research Fellowship at Churchill College, Cambridge; followed by lectureships at Cardiff University (2009-2011), and the University of Nottingham (2012-2015).
During this time I was awarded an Early Career Researcher International Collaboration Award, from Cardiff University, to spend time visiting Witswatersrand University, South Africa (the fruits of which included a publication in a special issue of Philosophical Papers, on the retributive emotions).
Whilst at Nottingham, in 2013, I was awarded a Leverhulme Trust Project Grant to pursue research on Bias and Blame. This grant runs for three years from February 2014-2017, and involves collaborative work with colleagues in psychology at Sheffield, to investigate the impact of moral interactions on the expression of implicit bias (you can read more about the activities on the grant on the project blog). A draft of our first paper, that reports on the empirical findings of the project, can be found here.
My research focuses on topics in moral psychology and social philosophy. In particular, I am interested in the ways that our cognitions are influenced by, and complicit in, injustices that track social identity, such as gender and race. My current research looks at how interpersonal interactions can aid us in mitigating implicit bias. Future research will look at the relationship between individual agency and institutional change.
My recent work has focused on implicit racial bias. I am currently PI on a Leverhulme Trust project grant to pursue research on bias and blame: in particular whether communicating disapprobation for implicit bias makes people more or less likely to manifest implicit bias; and more or less likely to intend to modify their cognitions and behaviour. This grant runs for three years from February 2014-2017, and involves collaborative work with colleagues in psychology.
Impact of Research
This research has obvious application to institutional policy and interpersonal interactions. I have worked on the role of implicit bias in institutional racism, and have been working with colleagues in psychology to develop more effective implicit bias training.
Our future research aims to focus on implicit bias and educational change, and will address questions such as:
- what kind of educational interventions effect changes in implicit and explicit attitudes concerning race? [empirical questions]
- how does institutional change (e.g. in curriculum provision) interact with individual agency (engagement with that institutional provision)? This is not well modelled in existing philosophical literature [philosophical questions]
- what changes to practice would best serve the aims of education providers [practical pedagogical question].
In pursuing this research I will be collaborating with psychologists (from Sheffield, Exeter) and the educational charity Narrative Eye. We have secured a Faculty HEIF grant to develop the framework to pursue this research, and to submit a larger grant application later this year.
[If you cannot access any of the papers below, please feel free to email me for a pre-publication copy]
On Implicit bias:
Holroyd, J. (forthcoming 2018) The Social Psychology of Discrimination, in Lippert-Rasmussen (ed.), Discrimination.[argues that philosophical analyses of discrimination should be revised in light of the findings from empirical psychology, regarding implicit bias, in-group favouritism, and stereotype threat.]
Holroyd, J. & Puddifoot, K (forthcoming 2017) Implicit bias and prejudice, in Routledge Handbook of Social Epistemology, ads Miranda Fricker, Peter J. Graham, David Henderson, Nikolaj Pedersen, and Jeremy Wyatt[examines the ways that implicit bias violates different epistemic norms]
Holroyd, J. (forthcoming 2017) Bias and ignorance: what are we responsible for? Evaluating circumstantialist vs. scaffolded accounts of responsibility in Hutchinson, Mackenzie & Oshana (eds.) Non-metaphysical Conceptions of Responsibility.[evaluates competing accounts of responsibility in relation to implicit bias and moral ignorance]
Holroyd, J. & Picinali, F (forthcoming 2017) Implicit Bias, Self-Defence and the Reasonable Person in Matravers & Lernestedt, (eds.) /The Criminal Law’s Person/OUP. [examines the implications of implicit bias research for important normative constructs in criminal law]
Holroyd, J., Scaife, R. Stafford T, (2017) What is Implicit Bias? /Philosophy Compass/ [examines the models of cognitive architecture involved in implicit bias, and tentatively proposes an eliminativist model of implicit bias]
Holroyd, J., Scaife, R., Stafford, T. (2017) Responsibility for Implicit Bias, /Philosophy Compass/ [reviews recent work on implicit bias and responsibility, locating it in the context of our empirical work on moral interactions.]
Scaife, R. Stafford, T. Bunge, A. *Holroyd, J.*(ms.) The Effects of Moral Interactions on Implicit Bias (submitted to Philosophical Psychology). [Main finding: blame does not make bias worse, and makes intentions to change stronger. This disconfirms the ‘backlash’ hypothesis.]
Holroyd, J. (2016) What do we want from a model of implicit cognition? <http://www.aristoteliansociety.org.uk/the-proceedings/the-201516-programme/>/Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society, Supplementary Volume/. [provides desiderata for evaluating analyses of implicit bias. Existing models fail to meet these desiderata.]
Holroyd, J. & Kelly, D. (2016) Implicit Bias, Character and Control <http://philpapers.org/rec/HOLIBC>, in J. Webber & A. Masala, eds. /From Personality to Virtue: Essays in the Psychology and Ethics of Character/, Oxford University Press. [argues that there are some philosophical understandings of control such that individuals have control, in this sense, over implicit biases.]
Holroyd, J. & Sweetman, J. (2016) The Heterogeneity of Implicit Bias <http://philpapers.org/rec/HOLTHO-3>, in J. Saul & M. Brownstein, eds. /Philosophy and Implicit Bias/, Oxford University Press. [argues that philosophical discourse on implicit bias is insufficiently attentive to the differences between different implicit associations]
Holroyd, J. (2015) Implicit Bias and the Anatomy of Institutional Racism <http://www.crimeandjustice.org.uk/publications/cjm/article/implicit-racial-bias-and-anatomy-institutional-racism>, /Criminal Justice Matters vol.101 #BlackLivesMatter/. [articulates the potential role of implicit bias in institutional racism]
Holroyd, J. (2014) Implicit Bias, Awareness and Imperfect Cognitions <http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1053810014001950>/Consciousness and Cognition: special issue on Imperfect Cognitions/, ed. L. Bortolotti & E. Sullivan-Bissett. [identifies three conflated senses of awareness, and their role in arguments about responsibility for implicit bias.
Holroyd, J. (2012) Responsibility for Implicit Bias <http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1467-9833.2012.01565.x/abstract>in /The Journal of Social Philosophy: special issue on Philosophical Methodology and Implicit Bias/, ed. M. Crouch, 43(3): 274-306. [articulates and scrutinises arguments for the claim that we are not responsible for implicit biases.]
On feminist philosophy:
Holroyd, J. (2016) Feminism and Well-being, in G. Fletcher, ed. Routledge handbook of Well-being, Routledge. Link
Holroyd, J. (2013) 'Feminist Metaethics', in The International Encyclopedia of Ethics, ed. H. LaFollette. Link
Holroyd, J. & Tanesini, A. (2012) Review: Conference on Under-represented Groups in Philosophy, Humana Mente: Journal of Philosophical Studies (22) , pp. 243-249. Link
Holroyd, J. (2011) Review: Sexual Solipsism: Philosophical Essays on Pornography and Objectification, Langton, R. The European Journal of Philosophy, vol.19(2)) pp.327-334. Link
Holroyd, J. (2015) Autonomy, Values and Violence: Against Substantive Accounts of Autonomy, in H. Marway & H. Widdows, eds. Women & Violence: The Agency of Victims and Perpetrators. Palgrave MacMillan. Link
Holroyd, J. (2012) Clarifying Capacity: Autonomy and Value’ in, L. Radoilska, ed. Autonomy and Mental Health, Oxford University Press. Link
Holroyd, J. (2011) The Metaphysics of Relational Autonomy, in C. Witt (ed.) Feminist Metaphysics, Springer Publishing. Link
Holroyd, J. (2010) Substantively Constrained Choice and Deference The Journal of Moral Philosophy 7(2),180-199. Link
Holroyd, J. (2010) Review: Autonomy, Informed Consent and Medical Law, Maclean, A. The Journal of Value Inquiry, vol.44(2), pp.255-262. Link
Holroyd, J. (2009) Relational Autonomy and Paternalistic Interventions Res Publica 15(4), 321-336. Link
Holroyd, J. (2008) Review: Personal Autonomy, Taylor, ed. In The Journal of Moral Philosophy, vol.5 (2), pp.313-317. Link
On responsibility and blame and moral emotions:
'On Regretting things I did not do and could not have done' (forthcoming) Journal of Applied Philosophy: special issue: Symposium on R.J. Wallace's The View from Here
Holroyd, J. (2013) Making Sense of Freedom and Responsibility Dana Nelkin, Analysis Reviews vol 73(1), pp.198-202. Link
Holroyd, J. (2010) The Retributive Emotions: Passions and Pains of Punishment Philosophical Papers, Special Issue on The Retributive Emotions, ed. L. Allais, 39(3), 343-373. Link
Holroyd, J. (2010) Punishment and Justice, Social Theory and Practice, 36(1), 78-111. Link
Holroyd, J. (2007) A Communicative Conception of Appraisal Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 10(3), 267-278. Link
Media and Resources:
I recently co-organised (with Erin Beeghly & Alex Madva) a series of events that scrutinise and evaluate the relationship between implicit bias and social context: Bias in context 3: an event that explores the role of interpersonal interactions and collective action in combatting bias.[link: www.biasincontext3.weebly.com http://www.biasincontext3.weebly.com] Bias in context 2: an event that explores the relationship between social and psychological explanations [link: www.biasincontext.weebly.com http://www.biasincontext.weebly.com]
• Start the Week, Radio 4: Race and Bias.
Anne McElvoy presents a special edition of Start the Week at the Free Thinking Festival at Sage, Gateshead, exploring injustice, myth and the role of the poet 'to name the unnameable, to point at frauds, to take sides'. The American poet Claudia Rankine exposes the ever-present racial tensions in contemporary society, while the Syrian poet Amir Darwish, having arrived in the UK hanging underneath a lorry on a cross-channel ferry, writes of love, loss, exile and demonisation. The historian Catherine Fletcher looks at the stories told about Alessandro de'Medici, the 16th century duke of Florence who was believed to be mixed-race, and what those stories tell us about attitudes to race, while the philosopher Jules Holroyd tackles the thorny issue of implicit and unconscious bias. Listen to the podcast here.
• Video: 'The anatomy of Institutional Racism' Presentation at the Conference on Police Racism, Corruption and Spying, organised by The Monitoring Group, and the Centre for Crime and Justice Studies, Feburary 2015
• Video: 'What do we want from a model of implicit cognition?' Presentation at workshop on The Implicit Mind, the Institute for Futures Studies, Stockholm, May 2015
• 'Will the Teaching Excellence Framework be sexist?' The Guardian, April 2016, co-authored with Professor Jennifer Saul.
Selected research talks
Implicit bias and contributory injustice, University of Oxford, Jowett Society, April 2017
Implicit Bias, Self-defence, and the Reasonable Person Standard: University of Manchester, March 2017
Implicit Bias, Self-defence, and the Reasonable Person Standard: University of Dublin, February 2017
Invited talks 2016
- Implicit Bias, Self-defence, and the Reasonable Person Standard, LSE Criminal Law and Criminal Justice Theory Forum, September 2016
- Holroyd, J. February 2016, What do we want from a model of implicit cognition? Aristotelian Society meeting.
- Holroyd, J May 2016 Implicit Bias and Institutional Interventions, panellist, Sheffield, conference on Racism, Bias and Policing
- Holroyd, J. May 2016 Implicit Bias and Testimony, Cal Poly Pomona, USA
- Holroyd, J. & Picinali F April 2016 Implicit Bias and the Reasonable Person Standard, workshop on the Criminal Law's Person, Cambridge University
- Holroyd J. April 2016, Implicit Bias and Silencing, Edinburgh University, Conference on Under-representation in Philosophy
- Holroyd, J. March 2016, Implicit Bias Training to the Judicial institute, Scotland
- Holroyd, J. March 2016, What do we want from a model of implicit cognition, Birmingham research seminar on Implicit cognition
- Holroyd, J. February 2016, What do we want from a model of implicit cognition? Aristotelian Society meeting.
- Holroyd, J. Jan 2016, Implicit Bias in Research and Healthcare contexts, Faculty of Medicine, Health and Dentistry
- Holroyd, J. Jan 2016, The Heterogeneity of Implicit Bias, Birmingham research seminar on Implicit cognition
Invited talks 2015
- Holroyd, J. November 2015, Control and Implicit Bias, Stockholm University
- Holroyd, J. November 2015, Bias and Blame, Institute for Futures Studies, Stockholm
- Holroyd, J. November 2015 What do we want from a model of implicit cognition? University of Sheffield CogSci Network workshop
- Holroyd, J. September 2015, Implicit Bias and Direct & Indirect Discrimination, Symposium on Kasper Lippert-Rasmussen's Born Free and Equal, Humbolt University, Berlin.
- Holroyd, J. October 2015, What do we want from a model of implicit cognition? Minorities and Philosophy conference on Implicit Bias, The University of Leeds (keynote)
- Holroyd, J. July 2015, What do we want from a model of implicit cognition? Minorities and Philosophy conference, Kings College London (keynote)
- Holroyd, J. June 2015, SWIP workshop University of York (Session on Applying for Project Funding)
- Holroyd, J. March 2015, University of Sheffield Philosophy Undergraduate Conference, 'Towards an Ameliorative Conception of Responsibility' (keynote)
- Holroyd, J. May 2015, What do we want from a model of implicit cognition? Workshop on Implicit Cognition, Stockholm University, 'Implicit Cognitions'
- Holroyd, J. February 2015 'The anatomy of Institutional Racism' Presentation at the Conference on Racism, Corruption and Spying, organised by The Monitoring Group, and the Centre for Crime and Justice Studies
Invited talks 2014
- Holroyd, J. December 2014, American Philosophical Association Eastern Division, Philadelphia, Panel on Implicit Bias. 'Implicit Bias and the Personl/sub-personal distinction'
- Holroyd, J. November 2014, Workshop on Non-Metaphysical Conceptions of Moral Responsibility, Macquarie University, Australia, 'Towards an Ameliorative Conception of Responsibility'
- Holroyd, J. October 2014, University of Hertfordshire Philosophy Society, 'Race and Reparations'
- Holroyd, J. October 2014, University of Hertfordshire Departmental Seminar, 'Implicit Bias, Awareness and Imperfect Cognitions'
- Holroyd, J. June 2014, Workshop on Implicit Cognitions, University of Cardiff, 'Implicit Bias, Awareness and Imperfect Cognitions'
- Holroyd, J. June 2014, Symposium on Jay Wallace's The View from Here' University of Valencia, 'Discussant: Regret and Affirmation in Wallace's The View from Here.
- Holroyd, J. May 2014, Workshop on Imperfect Cognitions, University of Birmingham, 'Implicit Bias, Awareness and Imperfect Cognitions'
- Holroyd, J. February 2014, Moral Sciences Club, University of Cambridge, 'Implicit Bias, Character and Control'
- Holroyd, J. February 2014, Women Philosopher's Group, University of Cambridge, 'The Heterogeneity of Implicit Bias'
- Holroyd, J. February 2014, Workshop in Honour of the work of John Gardner, University of Nottingham Law school, 'Race and Reparative Justice'
For a full list of talks and presentations from 2004, see CV.
Grants & Awards
PI (20%) Leverhulme Project Grant, 'Bias and Blame' £220, 608 total, 12/2013 (start date 02/14) for 36 months (from February 2014)
Early Career Researcher International Collaboration Award, Cardiff University, Grant to visit Witwatersrand University, SA, £1227, 03/2010
Mind Association Major Conference Grant (for Conference on Under-representation in Philosophy, November 2010) £1940, 11/2010
Analysis Trust bursaries (for Conference on Under-representation in Philosophy, November 2010) £430, 11/2010
Aristotelian Society conference grant award (for Conference on Under-representation in Philosophy, Nov 2010) £850 11/2010
British Philosophical Association, grant for interpreter fees (for Conference on Under-representation in Philosophy, Nov 2010) £300 11/2010
SWIP UK, grant for interpreter fees, (for Conference on Under-representation in Philosophy, Nov 2010) £1524, 11/2010
Junior Research Fellowship, Churchill College, Cambridge, 07/2008
AHRC bursary for overseas study (to spend 1 term at MIT, USA, covering living and travel costs), £2000, 05/2005
AHRB Competition B (3 year Doctoral Award), 08/2004
AHRB Competition A (1 year research MA award), 08/2003
Honourable mention for the Peter H Nidditch Prize in Philosophy (Undergraduate, Level 3), 06/2003
Honourable mention for the Peter H Nidditch Prize in Philosophy (Undergraduate, Level 2), 06/2003