Is my project 'research'?
We are often asked whether a certain project can be classed as research, and whether it will count as research income for reporting purposes, such as REF.
Agencies such as Research England and the Higher Education Statistics Agency (HESA) only permit us to class income as research if it conforms to the Frascati definition of research (Frascati Manual 2002). This is the internationally recognised methodology for collecting and using R&D statistics. It defines research as follows:
Research and experimental development (R&D) comprise creative work undertaken on a systematic basis in order to increase the stock of knowledge, including knowledge of man, culture and society, and the use of this stock of knowledge to devise new applications.
The term R&D covers the following three activities, including formal R&D in R&D units and informal or occasional R&D in other units.
- Basic research: experimental or theoretical work undertaken primarily to acquire new knowledge of the underlying foundation of phenomena and observable facts, without any particular application or use in view.
- Applied research: also original investigation undertaken in order to acquire new knowledge. It is, however, directed primarily towards a specific practical aim or objective.
- Experimental development: systematic work, drawing on existing knowledge gained from research and/or practical experience, which is directed to producing new materials, products or devices, to installing new processes, systems and services, or to improving substantially those already produced or installed.
The Frascati Manual lists situations where certain activities are to be excluded from R&D except when carried out solely or primarily for the purposes of an R&D project. These include:
- routine testing and analysis of materials, components, products, processes, etc.
- feasibility studies
- routine software development
- general purpose data collection
The later stages of some clinical drug trials may be more akin to routine testing, particularly in cases where the original research has been done by a drug company or other contractor. Examples of non research income include Consultancy, PhD Studentships, and Services Rendered activity.
A useful statement is “Consultancy buys time from someone who already knows the answer whereas Research Contracts buy researcher time to try to find out the answer which is not yet known”.