All academic work should employ a systematic, accurate, and consistent method of citation and referencing. This is required to give credit to the work of others where credit is due, to show the methods and paths by which you developed your knowledge, and to facilitate follow up research.
In SEAS, we use a version of the “Harvard” referencing system, which you can find here. Note that there are many variations of the system known as “Harvard” - follow the guide to ensure that you are using the correct version.
Foreign Language References
There is no standard method for foreign language referencing. However, here are some guidelines specifically aimed at East Asian language references.
Rules for Referencing and Citations
The basic principles are that a reader who does not know the language should be able to see from the List of References what the work is, and that a reader who does know the language should be able to find it in a library catalogue or online - so the citation should include both the original details in romanisation and English translation of key information. This is what we expect.
With in-text citations, identify the author(s) by family name in roman script. Note that:
- in Chinese and Korean, the vast majority of family names have one syllable only (journals usually - but not always - identify the family name correctly)
- For very common names, you may need to add an initial to the in-text citation to distinguish - for example - two researchers named Zhang publishing in the same year.
In the List of References, please do the following:
- Write the author/editor’s family name in romanisation, followed by initial (again you may occasionally need to write the given name in full to distinguish two authors with the same surname and initials).
- Write the title of the article/book chapter/monograph/… in standard romanisation (pinyin without tones for Chinese, Hepburn for Japanese, New Government System for Korean).
- Provide an English translation of the title, placed in round brackets (...) immediately after the romanised title.
- You do not normally need to provide a translation of the journal title, or of the book title in the case of an edited book. However, if there is an official English language title for these then you may wish to use it, especially if it facilitates reader understanding of the text’s meaning or publication context.
- You do not need to provide a translation of publisher’s name.
Here are examples of more commonly used text types.
Monograph in Japanese
Terao, M. (1998) Denai kugi wa suterareru (The nail that doesn't stick up may be thrown away), Tokyo: Fusosha.
Journal Article in Chinese
Chu M. (2010) Guanyu Zhengzhou shi "yizu" wenti de sikao. (Thoughts on Zhengzhou city's “Ant Tribe”) Jingji yanjiu daokan, (15), 159-160.
Book Chapter in Japanese
Ishiguro, K. and Matanle, P. (2013) Sarariiman manga ni miru danjo no raifu kōsu: ‘Shima Kōsaku’ ‘Sarariiman Kintarō’ shiriisu kara no kōsatsu (Understanding men’s and women’s life courses through salaryman manga: Case studies from the Shima Kosaku and Salaryman Kintaro series). In H. Tanaka, M. Godzik, and K. Iwata- Weickgenannt (eds) Riafu kōsu sentaku no yukue - Nihon to Doitsu no shigoto · ie · sumai. Tokyo: Shinyosha, 103-132.