Citation and Referencing

All scholarly work should employ a systematic, accurate, and consistent method of citation and referencing. This is for many reasons, principal among which are to give credit where credit is due, to show the methods and paths by which you developed your knowledge, and to facilitate follow up research. The Harvard referencing system is the most useful and easiest to employ for the social sciences, despite Harvard University itself disavowing ownership. The consequence has been that there are many different kinds of 'Harvard' system. The one that we ask SEAS students to use is the version developed by the University of Lincoln library. It is the comprehensive available in the UK, is free for anyone to download, and comes in various formats, which can be downloaded by clicking through to the main landing page below.

University of Lincoln Library Referencing and Plagiarism handbook.

Foreign Language References

The University of Lincoln handbook does not give advice about foreign language referencing. There is no standard method for doing this. However, here are some guidelines specifically aimed at East Asian language references.

Rules for Referencing and Citations

  1. With in text citations you should be careful to identify and spell out authors' family names in full in roman script. This may sometimes be tricky with East Asian names. If you are unsure, take a little time to find out. You may want to consult an expert of that language to double check.
  2. With references, please do the following:
  • The family name of the author should be written in full with given names in initials following that.
  • The title of the article/book chapter/monograph/etc. should be written in the Roman alphabet using standard conventions for that language.
  • The title should be translated into English and placed in round brackets immediately after the Romanised East Asian title.
  • The journal title, or book title in the case of an edited book, or publisher's name, need not be translated. However, if there is an official English language title for these then you may wish to use it, especially if it facilitates reader understanding of the text’s meaning or publication context.
  • For journal articles, grey literature, lectures, etc. you may want to add some additional information about, for example, institution or location of publication to facilitate follow up.

Here are examples of more commonly used text types.

Monograph in Japanese
Terao, M. (1998) Denai kugi wa suterareru (The nail that doesn't stick up may be thrown away), Tokyo: Fusosha.

Journal Article in Japanese
Sato, Y. and Matanle, P. (2011) Igirisu ni okeru kōreisha fukushi – shefiirudo-shi no borantia soshiki no katsudo wo chūshin ni (Caring for older people in the UK: An analysis of local volunteer organisation contributions in Sheffield), Jinbun Kagaku Kenkyū (Studies in Humanities, Faculty of Humanities, Niigata University), 127 1-27.

Book Chapter in Japanese
Ishiguro, K. and Matanle, P. (2013) Sarariiman manga ni miru danjo no raifu kōsu: ‘Shima Kōsaku’ ‘Sarariiman Kintarō’ shiriisu kara no kōsatsu (Understanding men’s and women’s life courses through salaryman manga: Case studies from the Shima Kosaku and Salaryman Kintaro series). In H. Tanaka, M. Godzik, and K. Iwata- Weickgenannt (eds) Riafu kōsu sentaku no yukue - Nihon to Doitsu no shigoto · ie · sumai (Beyond a Standardized Life Course: Biographical Choices about Work, Family and Housing in Japan and Germany). Tokyo: Shinyosha, 103-132.

Sometimes there are going to be grey areas with more difficult references, and no guide can cover everything. It is up to you in those cases to do the best you can to produce a citation and/or reference that conforms consistently with the principles and standards of the Harvard referencing system as outlined above.