Referencing Citation System for All Essays

You should use the Harvard System in documenting your references for all your assignments. You must reference all quotations (which should be clearly indicated by quotation marks) and also all facts that are not generally known (“Jiang Zemin was President of China in the early 1990s” does not need referencing, “Jiang Zemin became President of China in March 1993 (China Online, 2000)” does). Equally you need to reference the sources of the major ideas of other people that you use in an assignment In the Harvard System you document your reference by putting the author who is the source of the idea, followed by the year of publication and the page on which the reference is found in brackets after the sentence or phrase that refers to the source. The full title of the work is then given in the List of References. Explanatory footnotes are permitted by the Harvard System, but should be avoided wherever possible. Usually the contents of a footnote can be included in the body of the work.

For full instructions and examples of how to reference, please see ‘SEAS Citation and Referencing’ page.

You can find further advice on referencing and citation via the 301: Student Skills and Development Centre.