The Fifth Biannual Surveillance and Society Conference
"Watch This Space: Surveillance Futures"
April 2012


The Future of Automated CCTV Analysis and its Ethical Implications

Professor Andrew A. Adams
Meiji University, 1-1 Kanda-Surugadai,Chiyoda-ku,Tokyo 101-8301,Japan

Dr James M. Ferryman
University of Reading , School of Systems Engineering, University of Reading, Whiteknights, P O Box 217, Reading, RG6 6AH

Although historic CCTV installations are often fit for few purposes other than live surveillance (and in many cases are even very poor for that purpose) newer installations are increasingly of reasonable quality networked digital cameras. Such systems are increasingly connected to digital storage mechanisms which and on which both the live and recorded images can be subject to significant automated processing. Although few deployments of automated video analytic systems have been made so far, recent lab-based demonstrations of significant new capabilities are likely to be available for field deployment sooner rather than later. This paper presents an overview of current automated CCTV work in this field, and the direction of research, together with an analysis of the ethical and regulatory issues these are likely to raise.

Tracking of objects in the field of vision of multiple cameras has been a live area of research for decades, but recent work takes the abstract potential of tracking and applies it to real world situations: identifying truly abandoned packages left behind by individuals, for example. Social and behavioural science, including the application of social context and prediction of intentions, is increasingly being used in conjunction with tracking output, to help reduce false alarms of security threats in public
spaces. There even exists a methodology which can synthesise a high resolution facial image based on a single low resolution CCTV facial input.

The ethical and regulatory questions these raise require a more detailed analysis of expectations of privacy, the uses to which such analyses will be put, and in particular the trust that will be placed on the results of such analyses to prevent tragic incidents such as the killing due to misidentification and misinterpretation of actions of De Menezes in 2005. Will such systems lead us inexorably towards Brin's Transparent Society?

The Moral Dilemmas of Surveillance

Professor Timo Airaksinen
Uni Helsinki , PL 24, FIN-00014 HY

When do we have a morally justified privilege to survey other persons? (i) If we have, we must be motivated by the good of the targets of surveillance. This often entails paternalism, that is, we survey A in order to protect or benefit her independently of her own will. In some cases paternalism is justifiable, in some cases not. Is justified paternalism the only way to justify personal surveillance? It is not, our targets may have given their permission. Also other cases can be found. Also, we may have a moral duty to survey people. (ii) Suppose we survey A in order to benefit or protect B. The problem is the possible exploitation of A, which is prima facie wrong. In this indirect case, it is not easy to see when we are morally justified. For instance, can I survey A without his permission in order to benefit B? The indirect case is more likely to be justified if we want to protect B from A. Yet surveillance systems routinely focus on people who do not threaten anybody. Selective surveillance is often impossible, even if it is needed. (iii) This creates a dilemma: Surveillance is a moral issue; or it is not. If it is a moral issue, non-selective surveillance is difficult to justify; if it is not a moral issue, justification is no problem. From the systems point of view, surveillance is routinely envisaged as a morally neutral fact; yet in every-day life I may have a duty not to look at certain things, for instance, not to gaze at my neighbors’ life through their back window (peeping-tom). I argue that such a negative duty need not be explained by reference to the right to privacy.

A Helping Hand and a Watchful Eye - Care and Surveillance in Supportive Housing

Christel Backman
Department of Sociology, University of Gothenburg, PO Box 720, SE405 30 Gothenburg, Sweden

In this paper I discuss how people living in supportive housing in Gothenburg, Sweden, make sense of the rules and control as well as the care that they are subject of. Supportive housing illustrates the double face of surveillance as well as the not so frequently researched personal surveillance that does not rely on technological support. Supportive housing is officially described as a necessary support and a way for people in need of extra help to learn how to take care of an apartment of their own and manage their daily living. At the same time there are special conditions to be followed and a contact person from a Christian NGO keeps an eye on the individual through one to four mandatory weekly visits for two years time. The contact person has the authority to recommend that a tenant is either evicted or receives a permanent contract, and reports to the social services and the landlord.

I focus on the tenants’ experience of the combined care and surveillance. The tenants are in an ambivalent position in a net of care, support, control, discipline and potential punishments for misbehaviour such as losing one’s home. I map out how tenants make sense of the ambivalence caused by the double face of surveillance, and their strategies for dealing with a situation of dependence that aims to make them independent.

Little Brothers and Sisters: The Role of Civilian and Criminal Informants in Contemporary Policing

Dr Matthew Bacon
Research Associate, University of Manchester

Rosamunde van Brakel
PhD Candidate Criminology, Law, Science, Technology and Society, Department of Law, Vrije Universiteit Brussels Pleinlaan 2, 1050 Brussels

Up until now surveillance studies have tended to focus predominantly on new types of technological surveillance. However, when looking at the practices of the public police the future of surveillance does not necessarily imply a solely technology-led outlook. Despite the significant advancements that have occurred in the field over recent decades, the police still rely heavily on traditional surveillance techniques in the performance of their routine activities. This reliance is made all the more intriguing when one considers the shift towards more proactive policing strategies that has taken place over the same period and the introduction of new legal frameworks such as the Regulation of Investigatory Powers Act 2000.

By drawing on a wealth of literature and and pulling together findings from various research projects, including an ethnographic study of the world and work of specialist detective units in two English police service areas, this paper provides a theoretically and empirically informed insight into the role of the public in contemporary policing. More specifically, it explores how the police use civilian and criminal informants as sources of information in the development of intelligence and operational policing and considers the implications for the regulation and future of surveillance in policing. This paper will open up a series of questions. Why, when the belief and investment in technology is so significant, do the police still fall back on human informants? Can it be characterised as community policing? Or does it sit better within neo-liberal modes of control such as responsibilisation strategies? Questions will also be asked as to whether there are differences between technological surveillance and non-technological surveillance when it comes to legal, social and ethical consequences.

Living on the edge: Surveillance workers in the UK retail travel sector

Dr Kirstie Ball
Ana Canhoto*, Elizabeth Daniel, Sally Dibb, Maureen Meadows, Keith Spiller
Open University Business School, Walton Hall, Milton Keynes, Bucks, MK7 6AA
*Oxford Brookes University Business School, Wheatley Campus, Oxford, OX33 1HX

This paper examines front line service workers in the travel industry and the work they undertake as a result of the UKs E Borders programme. The programme attempts to collect passport and passenger data in advance from all travellers entering and leaving the UK. It has encountered various problems since its inception, particularly as its legality has been challenged by a number of European countries. Notwithstanding these legal difficulties, the e borders scheme has faced two challenges in its implementation. The first challenge concerns how corporate and government information infrastructures have needed to align in order to collect and transfer passenger information. The second challenge concerns how the documented bodies of consumers are then aligned with these new corporate-governmental information systems so that the information can then be collected and transferred. Using Mol and Law (2004) we consider how front line travel workers labour to translate the activities of everyday people into objects of analysis for the purposes of crime and terror detection. Focusing on interviews from three organizational case studies, we explore the nature of this work and argue that some of the lowest paid and most marginalised workers in the sector have been onerously responsibilized to the end of national security and surveillance. We explore how those in customer facing roles employed different kinds of knowledge, unprompted by their managers, to intermediate between the traveller-subject and surveillance-object, all the while ensuring surveillance was accomplished.

Mol, A. & Law, J. 2004 Embodied Action, Enacted Bodies: The Example of Hypoglycaemia Body & Society.Vol. 10(2–3): 43–62

Playing with Privacy – Games for online privacy education and communication

Dr David, Barnard-Wills
Research Fellow, Department of Informatics and Sensors , Cranfield University, UK Defence Academy, Shrivenham, SN6 8LA

This paper presents part of the work of the ‘Visualisation and Other Means of Expression’ (VOME) project, a three-year EPSRC and ESRC sponsored project exploring how people and communities engage with concepts of online privacy and consent. The aim is to develop alternative conceptual models of privacy to enable better online disclosure choices. This paper sets out the rationale, design process, and evaluation work surrounding ‘Privacy’ - an educational card game. This game is based upon qualitative fieldwork, discourse analysis and educational theory, with the intention of producing a critical communication, research, and discussion tool.

This paper positions educational games as a social intervention targeted at a range of audiences and addressed to a highly complex information and dataveillance environment. It makes an argument for the power of games to assist in visualising and understanding complex information environments. This argument is based upon Bogost’s concept of procedural rhetoric. Socio-technical design approaches suggest that it is often unclear what a socio-technical system or a socio-technical information network looks like. This creates difficulties in communicating the nature of these relationships and structures to others, making systematic and rational judgements about actions within that system, and politically questioning those systems. Existing communication and education methods through ‘e-safety’ or ‘identity management’ strategies are fundamentally limited both in terms of content, but also structure.

Games can support learning through encouraging players to approach and explore complex problems, and therefore learn how to tackle these problems in future in alternate contexts. They also offer the ability to try out approaches and experience the consequences of those alternative strategies – how manipulating a system brings about different effects. Additionally, games offer the potential to engage with a system or set of logics from a perspective not that of the player. The Privacy game therefore offers a potentially powerful way of visualising and communicating contemporary surveillance systems.

Does Surveillance Creep? Or Does it Crawl Like the ANT?

Ask Risom Bøge
Department of Information and Media Studies, Aarhus University, Helsingforsgade 14 8200 Aarhus N, Denmark

Peter Lauritsen
Associate Professor, PhD
Department of Information and Media Studies, Aarhus University, Helsingforsgade 14, 8200 Aarhus N, Denmark

The spread of surveillance in society is often conceptualized in terms of surveillance creep, control creep or function creep. These ‘concepts of creep’ are important to surveillance studies, as they depict how surveillance technologies gain added functionality or occupy new spaces, unintended in their original design and purpose. According to David Lyon (2001; 2007), ‘the creep’ originates in the works of Jacques Ellul and Langdon Winner, and their rather pessimistic and deterministic views of technology can be traced in recent uses of the concept.

In this paper, we ask: does surveillance in fact creep? Are there better ways of conceptualizing the phenomenon? And how to analyze it? We answer these questions in two steps. First we analyze the history and use of ‘the creep’ by comparing statements about its nature, causes and effects in surveillance studies. We then suggest a different frame for understanding how the creep works based on empirical studies of DNA and CCTV surveillance and on actor-network-theory (ANT). In particular, we draw on Bruno Latour’s (1987; 2005) understanding of the development and spread of technology in society as being fundamentally based on acts of translation.

We argue that ANT and in specific the concept of translation holds interesting qualities in relation to understanding and studying the creep. First and foremost it is agnostic towards causes and effects of technological development, which can therefore only be investigated empirically. Secondly, it opens up for re-interpretations of what creep means as it points out that the spread of a technology from one area to another does not necessarily include the transfer of the same practises. Lastly, translation - in its agnosticism - allows for multi-directional and non-pessimistic observations of creep.

Latour, B. (1987). Science in Action - How to Follow Scientists and Engineers Through Society. Harvard University Press. Cambridge. USA
Latour, B. (2005). Reassembling the Social - an introduction to Actor-Network-Theory. Oxford University Press. New York. USA
Lyon, D. (2001). Surveillance Society - Monitoring Everyday Life. Open University Press. Buckingham. UK
Lyon, D. (2007). Surveillance Studies - An Overview. Polity Press. Cambridge. USA

Safe schools? A comparative study of English and Japanese secondary students' perceptions of school-based risk and danger

Daniela Boraschi
PhD Candidate, Department of Culture, Communication and Media, Centre of the London Knowledge Lab,Institute of Education (University of London)

Schools worldwide are increasingly perceived as places at risk of social as well as natural threats. This has followed the mediatisation of high-profile violent incidents, outbreaks of viral epidemics and the occurrence of natural disasters. In the light of these perceived increased social and ecological vulnerabilities, the issue of schools security is now of concern to educational policymakers around the world. In addition, the pre-emption of risk and danger in schools is now the focus for academic and popular debate. In particular, concerns have been raised over the increasing 'securitisation of schools' environments and routines', with some commentators raising concerns over the increasingly dominant neoliberal rubric of safer school environments through the implementation of high-tech equipments and policing practices. Despite this heightened profile, to date there has been a relatively limited number of empirical studies of students' perceptions of social and environmental risks inside school settings. With this in mind, this proposed poster reports on a small scale comparative study based on visual data collected from 204 students (year 9, Key stage 3) in two Japanese and English independent secondary schools. Specifically, the poster first reports on the common and divergent themes emerging in students' depictions of perceived risks and dangers potentially faced when at schools, as well as of the means adopted by the schools to protect them. The themes of safety vs. security; human nurturing vs. technological surveillance and punishment; prevention vs. intervention; participation vs. resistance are highlighted and explored. The poster then reports on the research methodology, contending that the nature and content of these future orientated pictures reveal and highlight many of the tensions underlying current imageries of surveillance. The poster concludes by linking the findings and methodological reflections with wider cultural differences around cultures of security and surveillance.

Conceptualising interaction between surveillance and resistance: changes in an online world

Wil Chivers
PhD Student (SOCSI), Cardiff University, 1-3 Museum Place, Cardiff, CF10 3BD

This paper reports initial findings from empirical research examining the relationships and interactions between forms of surveillance and resistance. Taking as its basis two approaches to geographies of resistance (Goffman 1961 and Sharp et al 2000), the study explores the interface between, and interpolation of practices of surveillance and those counter-measures implemented to subvert or circumvent any such monitoring. A particular concern being how such issues can be conceptualised in virtual spaces and the impact on surveillance practice.

Informed by empirical data from a case study of the whistle-blowing organisation Wikileaks, it is argued that we need to re-evaluate our understanding of what it means to resist surveillance in light of technological and social developments that have already begun to shape the futures of surveillance. With neither surveillance nor resistance confined by physicality of space, the nature of their relationship is brought into question. It is concluded that whilst at a theoretical level the relationship between resistance and surveillance has been depicted as cyclical and one of mutual reinforcement (e.g. Marx 2009), the empirical reality is more nuanced and complex, particularly in some of the online settings where such practices are most in evidence.

You say profiling, I say social sorting. Towards shared concepts in surveillance studies

Gemma Clavell
Universitat Oberta de Catalunya (UOC) Rambla del Poblenou 156, 08018 Barcelona, SPAIN

Scholars doing research on surveillance come from a broad range of disciplines -geography, sociology, criminology, political science, urban studies, law and many others. This is probably a reflection not only of the youth of this field of work, but also of the many corners of our societies where issues related to surveillance are having a significant impact, from foreign policy to urban design.

This multidisciplinary context provides surveillance studies with a fascinating mix of relevance and vibrancy, but it also poses a challenge when it comes to developing shared understandings that build on concepts that have evolved independently and are very much discipline-specific.

This paper is based on the theoretical framework of my PhD, which addresses the difficulties of working with different concepts that describe similar processes linked to the diffusion of surveillance in urban contexts and its social externalities, such as social sorting, profiling and designing-out. While social sorting is often used in sociology and surveillance studies, profiling is more commonly used by those coming from police studies and criminology (even though it can be applied to information science in a very similar definition to that used by social sorting). Designing-out, in its turn, describes the process by which social sorting/profiling is translated to urban design, and therefore used to describe processes of urban exclusion linked to surveillance by urban studies scholars.
When trying to apply these terms to the understanding of the rise of CCTV in urban contexts, several shortcomings emerge, as none of the current definitions seem to be able to capture ‘the electronic eye’ in its complexity as urban policy. The paper highlights these difficulties and calls for a more empirical, policy-aware and multidisciplinary approach to the surveillance society.

Consumption as a biopower: Governing bodies with loyalty cards

Dr Sami Coll
Department of Sociology, University of Geneva, Bd. du Pont-d’Arve, 40 CH-1211 Genève 4, Switzerland

For more than a decade, private companies have collected large amount of data on a daily basis through loyalty cards programs. At every purchase, the identity of the consumer and the seller, the date and time of the transaction, and the list of products that were bought is disclosed. Originally collected to maximize benefits by strengthening the relationship with the customers, these data can be used for several other purposes, serving public and private, individual and collective interests.

The aim of this paper is to study and discuss examples of function creeps made with the use of data of loyalty cards. Firstly, I will summarize the results of a recent research made on current use of data by four major companies in Switzerland. These results challenge the notion of privacy as a tool of protection. Secondly, two examples of use of data for another purpose than pure marketing will be given: the Foodflex project in the U.S., and the Sunset Yellow food coloring (E110) case in Switzerland. They will show that to understand the form of power developed with this kind of use, the boundaries between public and private should be given up for good. Finally, I will use the theory of Foucault’s biopower to understand these examples as typical of a new kind of governmentality which directly governs bodies, involving public as much as private actors. In this context, privacy and data protection are not relevant anymore, since consumers and citizens are active participants.

As a conclusion, I will discuss serious ethical issues emerging from this form of biopower: the inequalities of opportunities, the intrusion and imposition of upper-class social norms within working classes, and the deterioration of the quality/safety of products being permitted thanks to the management of risk.

Radical transparency for data mining

Elanor Colleoni
Denmark Copenhagen Business School Porcelænshaven 18 Room 0.127DK-2000 Frederiksberg

Adam Arvidsson
Italy University of Milan via conservatorio, 7 24100 Milano

The giant volume of consumer-generated-content along with the pluralization of consumers online information sources have produced the proliferation of new data mining techniques aimed at predicting consumers’ behavior based on their social, affective and conversational relationships on social media. This process has been accompanied by a pressure towards radical transparency, i.e. the imposition to use real names for users. Online radical transparency can be conceived as a form of surveillance to discipline online behavior and to control whether an individual is acting according to the rule (Foucault, 1994).
Recent examples are Google’s attempt to force users to provide real data while subscribing to Google+ and Amazon new feature for its user-submitted reviews, The Real Name Badge.

This tendency has been generally interpreted as a natural evolution of digital marketing based on large data (Zwick and Dholakia, 2008). However, this explanation seems to be inconsistent from both a technical and a theoretical point of view.

In this paper we argue that radical transparency can be better interpreted within the framework of the emergence of a new form of value creation that has its main process of valorization in the exploiment of collaborations and opinion-sharing mechanisms within social networks.

Radical transparency is expression of an attempt to preserve the basic mechanism underlying people willingness to share and to follow others’ advices: trust. Trust, in the form of formal reputation enables more fluid and secure (i.e. controlled) exchanges of information and advices among users.

The pressure for transparency and the general tendency towards the creation of a fully personalized and “portable” extraction of the “collective knowledge” embedded in personal social networks is of vital importance for marketers and social media companies in order to control the reliability of the data produced and in so doing to preserve the value creation mechanism.

Constructing vulnerability, responsibilizing victims: public space and the securitization of gender

Dr Amanda Elliot
Lecturer, Undergraduate Coordinator, Department of Sociology and Social Policy RM 132 RC Mills A26, The University of Sydney

It remains a key question for scholars of surveillance whose bodies and which spaces are observed and the way that observation manifests as regulation of individuals, space and time. These questions are central to both the act of observation and the constitution of those observed. External observation constructs all those surveilled as both potential perpetrators and victims of disorder. Nonetheless, that potentiality is often codified according to social indicators such as age, race, class and gender. This paper concentrates on exploring these questions through the last of these, arguing that the experience of and effects of observation are mediated by gender. Women are most likely to be constituted in narratives about 'public' safety as potential victims of crime, particularly sexual violence. Thus, for women, surveillance of public spaces has often been constituted as a way of rendering those spaces 'sexually safe'. Regardless of the effectiveness of such surveillance, it constructs, in the public imaginary, a perception of some spaces as safe and others as risky. This paper offers some preliminary observations about the potential consequences of the ways in which women's navigation of public space is now mediated by the deployment of surveillance technologies. Women have historically been expected to incorporate an understanding of how to navigate time and space safely, with those unable to do so often blamed for not doing so. This paper argues that the distinction between safe (surveilled) and unsafe (un-surveilled) spaces are increasingly likely to be understood as a key component of that navigation, with two important consequences, firstly, that women who occupy unsafe spaces likely to be understood as unable or unwilling to look after their own safety, and thus, at least in part, responsible when that safety is compromised and secondly that women's occupation of public space will increasingly be enclosed by the borders to those spaces constituted as 'safe'.

Smart surveillance, personalised advertising and the trend toward smart advertising

Rachel L. Finn
Trilateral Research & Consulting, LLP, 22 Argyll Court, 82-84 Lexham Gardens, London, W8 5JB, UK

David Wright
Trilateral Research & Consulting, LLP, 22 Argyll Court, 82-84 Lexham Gardens, London, W8 5JB, UK

Personalised advertising currently involves large scale data aggregation and data mining applications that automatically sift through the data that companies collect about consumers to tailor adverts to individual consumers based on their profiles. These surveillance practices are motivated by particular economic, social and technical drivers and trends, including profitability, market share aspirations, consumer segmentation and technological interoperability and convergence. This paper argues that personalised advertising is moving towards becoming “smart” advertising, as contemporary strategies are being integrated with other existing and emerging technologies to create new personalised advertising techniques based on “smart” surveillance. Smart surveillance refers to practices which have become automated, “banalised” (ubiquitous and widely accepted), scalable and integrated with other surveillance technologies. Current trends indicate that data aggregation and data mining techniques will become better integrated with other data collection applications, location recognition devices and decision science as well as other monitoring technologies. They will become ubiquitously integrated into our experience of Internet geography, mobile communication technology and public consumer space. They will also be capable of targeting anything from individuals with particular profiles in specific localities to international populations with particular profiles.

These “smart” advertising practices have both positive and negative potential impacts. Commercial organisations argue that personalisation is positive for consumers because it directs consumers to products that match with their interests, match with their profile and/or are associated with location-based information, thereby shielding consumers from irrelevant and annoying advertisements. However, privacy as well as other ethical and social issues are implicated in the negative consequences of “smart” advertising practices. This exploration finds that the associated consequences of “smart” advertising are complex and multi-faceted, and include a potential for personal identifiability, social inequality, a “chilling effect” and the objectification or manipulation of consumers.

Our paper concludes with a discussion of the future smart advertising is helping to create.

I see you but you don’t see me! The spread of CCTV in Brazil: legislation, debate and market

 Professor Rodrigo Firmino
Associate professor in the post-graduate program in urban management at the Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Paraná, Curitiba, Brazil.

Marta Kanashiro
Researcher in the Laboratory of Advanced Studies on Journalism at University of Campinas (Unicamp), Brazil.

Professor Fernanda Bruno
Associate professor in the post-graduate program in Communication and Culture at the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

Professor Rafael Evangelista
Professor in the post-graduate program in Scientific and Cultural Communication at the Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Brazil.

Latin America has shown itself to be a fertile ground for the proliferation of surveillance cameras, especially in retail trade and small-scale private security (homes, condominiums, shopping malls etc). In Brazil, this is done, historically, for three main reasons: the absence of specific legislation to regulate the ways in which these systems are used; the limited scope of the debate about the deployment and implications of the extensive use of surveillance technology; and a rising atmosphere of urban fear that affects the ways of living and moving around in medium and large cities. In a study funded by the International Development Research Centre (IDRC) in Brazil and Mexico, various aspects of the use of surveillance technologies have been mapped and described, focusing on a general scope of existing legislation, studies and research centers, current technologies, and the market. In this article we present some results of this research, which concentrated on the proliferation of video surveillance in Brazil.

In three separate studies, Kanashiro (2006a, 2006b, 2008) has described the scenario of video surveillance in Brazil as a booming market, specially from the 1980s, reflecting the interests of the security (patrimonial and individual) and the real estate marketplaces. Over the past 30 years, these interests were directed at public areas with large numbers of people, such as parks, squares and main commercial streets, or private spaces such as shopping malls, and sports and event centers. Additionally, in recent years, we have witnessed the expansion of the security market associated to processes of gentrification of large residential areas in medium-sized cities and metropolitan regions in Brazil. Small-scale private security firms proliferated and the number of private trained guards is, countrywide, bigger than the contingent of state police forces.

This situation is related to the perception of condominiums and gated communities as a common form of urban land occupation, but specially, a highly valued commodity. In Brazil, the process of occupation of vast urban areas by upper class condominiums ¬¬– similar to other Latin American countries – is followed by the increasing interest by all social classes in this type of business. The repercussion of this behavior of the real state market is an indirect fostering of CCTV systems as tools for prevention of crime and violence, used by small, medium and large private security companies targeting all classes. Therefore, in this study, we highlight the following aspects about the case in Brazil: regulation of the use and proliferation of CCTV; involvement of the scientific community through debate and academic training; and the market and technologies used in electronic surveillance.

Surveillance, Repression and the Welfare State: Aspects of Continuity and Discontinuity in post-Fascist Italy

Dr. Chiara Fonio
Post Doc. Fellow , Catholic University of Milan (Italy), Department of Sociology. Address: Largo Gemelli, 1. 20123 Milano.

Dr. Stefano Agnoletto
IUN University of Napoli (Italy); Second PhD Candidate, Kingston University, Kingston upon Thames, London (UK)

This paper seeks to explore political, cultural, legal and socio-economic legacies of the Fascist regime (1922-1943) in Italy. With the fall of the regime, in fact, the overall surveillance apparatus did not fade away. Former fascists were not purged from political and cultural life and very few were found guilty. The transition to democracy was thus marked by a substantial continuity of men and institutions (Della Porta and Reiter 2004) due to the active involvement of ex-OVRA (Organization of Vigilance and Repression of Anti-Fascism) officers in public institutions (Fonio 2011). It comes as no surprise that forms of pervasive non-technological social control continued for more than twenty years after the fall of the duce.

Moreover, police state surveillance was combined with a meaningful continuity in other areas. For instance, the welfare state immediately after World War II was actually based upon the model built during Fascism. The “Fascist Social State” (Silei, 2000) had a corporative and authoritarian inspiration and was a strategy of social control and a tool to create consensus. In the 1950s and 1960s the institutional features of the Italian social security system remained fundamentally unchanged (Giorgi, 2009; Silei, 2000): an excess of bureaucracy and discretionary power; a system based on specific categories of people needing assistance and not on a more universal approach. The Italian post-fascist experience is a paradigmatic case-study that allows us to deal with ambiguities of the welfare state experience, described either as a tool of social control or as a vector of social justice.

This paper is an attempt to analyze “social control strategies” in post-Fascist Italy with a focus both on aspects of continuity and on crucial socio-political discontinuities that are often overlooked in the literature.

De-Facing the Future: Surveillance Technology and the Ethical Encounter

Joseph Gardiner
Doctoral Student in the Department of Organisation, Work and Technology, Lancaster University, Bailrigg, Lancashire LA1 4YW

Tom Grimwood
Teaching Associate in the Department of Politics, Philosophy and Religion,Lancaster University, Bailrigg, Lancashire LA1 4YW

Current developments within CCTV surveillance technologies have shown a noticeable turn toward values such as privacy and discretion. Projects aimed at producing technology sensitive to these values often take on the rationale that less viewing of footage makes for a more ‘ethical’ procedure. These new forms of surveillance attempt to reconcile the need to detect and track suspicious or unwanted behaviour with the law-abiding individual’s right to remain ‘unwatched’. Given Coleman’s argument (2004, 198) that surveillance not only represents, but also maintains social order, this paper explores the relationship between the ‘technological’ and the ‘social’ within this balancing of anonymity and identification.

The value-sensitive response to the need for detection and tracking has taken the form of semi- or fully-automated ‘path tracing’ systems, following multiple cameras across a CCTV network. Footage is monitored by an automated algorithmic device that ‘pings up’ behaviour deemed relevant to the human operatives, who otherwise do not observe the footage. This begins an automated reversal within the system as footage is re-collected from the databank and presented to the human operator as ‘trees of possibility’ regarding the previous whereabouts of the tagged individual. Using only the continuities of clothing and relative size, the system attempts to reconstruct the path of the target, maintaining the anonymity of the target, and ‘cleansing’ the footage of any identifiable features such as their face, before the operator encounters (and judges) it.
This paper argues that such technologies are legitimised through the pervasive metaphor of contamination (see Douglas 1966): ‘cleansing’ becomes essential to not just the maintaining of social order (identifying the suspect targets), but to the gathering of the information in the first place (the cleansing of the data before human observation). On the one hand, this would seem to offer a prime example of an unbiased and non-invasive ‘view from everywhere’ that picks out the contaminants of an otherwise stable system. In this sense, the metaphor of contamination views the social aspects of surveillance – human intervention, ‘real-time’ events prior to the route reconstruction, etc. – as an unreliable pollution of the technology of surveillance. But, on the other hand, there is a sense in which the technological also infects the social: by focusing on the ‘contaminated’ aspects of the footage alone, it re-shapes the notion of the ‘encounter’ as the human operator receives it (the very sort of encounter Levinas (2003) spoke of as being the originary moment from which a notion of ethics becomes possible). The paper argues that one paradoxical result of this is that the value-driven technical response eradicates the forces behind the ethics, in whose name it was produced.

• Bradley, A. (2011) Originary technicity: the theory of technology from Marx to Derrida. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.
• Coleman, R. (2004) 'Reclaiming the streets: Closed Circuit Television, Neoliberalism and the mystification of social divisions in Liverpool, UK', Surveillance and Society 2(2/3): 293-309
• Derrida, J. (1992) ‘The Force of Law’, in Deconstruction and the possibility of justice (eds.) D. Cornell, M. Rosenfeld, D. G. Carlson, New York : Routledge.
• Douglas, M. (1966) Purity and danger: an analysis of concepts of pollution and taboo. London: Routledge.
• Genosko, G. and Thompson, S. ‘Tense Theory: The Temporalities of Surveillance’ in Lyon, D. (ed.) Theorizing Surveillance: the panopticon and beyond / Cullompton : Willan, c2006.
• Fussey, P. (2004) 'New labour and new surveillance: Theoretical and political ramifications of CCTV implementation in the UK', Surveillance and Society 2(2/3): 251-69.
• Introna, L. (2003) ‘Opinion. Workplace Surveillance ‘is’ Unethical and Unfair’, Surveillance and Society 1(2): 210-216
• Levinas, E. (trans. Nidra Poller) (2003[1972]) Humanism of the Other. University of Illinios Press
• Lianos, M. and Douglas, M. (2000) ‘Dangerization and the End of Deviance’ The British Journal of Criminology (40) 261-278

On Surveillance, Bordering and the Post-Westphallian Condition

Professor Stephen Graham
Professor of Cities and Society, Global Urban Research Unit (GURU) School of Architecture, Planning and Landscape, Newcastle University, Room 415, Claremont Tower, Claremont Rd, Newcastle, NE1 7RU

This synthetical, review paper seeks to explore the intersections of technosocial practices of surveillance and broader debates surrounding the changing relations between states, borders and political and security geographies. The paper aims to bring together often widely dispersed discussions addressing these intersections from critical political geography, critical international relations theory, cultural theory, urban studies and surveillance studies. This is done as a way of taking stock of the ways in which new practices of data capture and visualisation through convergent complexes of digital technology -- biometric tracking, data mining, video analytics, closed circuit TV -- are implicated in complex shifts away from broadly Westphallian territorial formations based on stark inside/outside binaries, quasi-universal conceptions of citizenship, struct demarcations between policing, intelligence and military force -- towards what is widely being labelled the 'post Westphallian' world. In this, zones deemed liberal and those deemed illiberal increasingly form complex archipelagoes within and without territorial national borders, blurring into the sites, circulations and spaces of urban landscapes. In such a context, what this author has labelled a 'new military urbanism' -- where a security complex, operating across convergent police-intelligence and military boundaries-- burgeons on the basis of selling technical foxes to attempts to securitise these boundaries and bordering practices within these everyday sites and circulations. Key here is the adoption of new military or security doctrine positing the need to build predictive technoscientific complexes which process data captured in the recent past, assess threat levels from this data, and judge future risk levels as a means of disciplining populations, individuals, groups and communities in the temporal present. Cities are thus increasingly restructured as archipeligo landscapes where permanent or temporary enclaves are organised based on capsular ideas of passage-point controls which attempt to separate a liberal inside from an outside deemed illberal or threatening.

Drawing on the work of scholars from across the above-named disciplines -- from Didier Bido to Louise Amoore, Jordan Crandall to Ananya Roy, and David Lyon to Peter Sloterdijk -- this paper will thus provide a state-of-the-art think-piece on the complex intersections of surveillance practices and the emerging geographies of bordering in the post-Westphallian world. It will this help to suggest key theoretical and empirical agendas as surveillance scholars and political and critical geographers and urbanists struggle to come to terms with these transformations.

The Day in the Digital Life Project: a study to understand the intentions of surveillance practices upon surveillance subjects over a 24 hour period?

Dr Marie Griffiths
Senior Lecturer, Salford Business School Room 325, Maxwell Building, University of Salford, Salford, Manchester, M5 4WT, UK

Gordon Fletcher (University of Salford) and Maria Kutar (University of Salford)

Exponential technological developments and increasing convergence of systems over the past decade, have transformed surveillance practices beyond what was ever imagined in fiction by Orwell or any of his contemporaries. We agree with the rhetoric of Brown (2006), that surveillance is woven into the fabric of modern living ‘in the workplace, as consumers, in urban spaces and through global surveillance networks, individuals are watched and quantified in a multitude of ways’ (2006:2). Lyon (2001) offers the viewpoint that different forms of surveillance could be positioned along a continuum from care (CCTV to monitor the elderly and infirm) to control (CCTV to monitor urban areas). By highlighting the variability of these intentions, Lyon suggests that academics should not adopt a critique that is inherently negative of surveillance technologies. As researchers we adopt an open ethical stance but we also acknowledge Hier’s (2003) observation, developed from Haggerty and Ericson’s (2000) notion of the assemblages of data gathering techniques, that operates to break the body into signifying data flows. These disentangled data flows are then “reassembled as ‘functional hybrids’ whose unity is found solely in temporal moments of interdependence” (Hier 2003:400). Our study, the Day in the Digital Life (DDL) project, aims to capture the nuances of revealed ‘functional hybrids’, - described as ‘digital footprints’ in the context of our research-, and to understand the production, dissemination, and consumption of these data flows over a 24 hour period. We aim to develop a methodology to quantify and examine the impact that such amassment of data has upon society, communities, and personal identities within the UK. With this undertaking we can then identify, categorise and describe the shape of a personal digital footprint; this will be graphically mapped with Heath Bunting, who has developed an identity mapping tool. The totality of this project enables examination of the consequences of our digital footprints such as establishing which elements are stored by commercial and governmental organisations, the effectiveness of legal protections and the consequences for individual privacy. This work serves as a starting point to developing a repeatable methodology and an understanding of the consequences of the saturation of digital technology for individual privacy and identity.

Haggerty, K. and Richard, E. (2000) ‘The Surveillant Assemblage’ British Journal of Sociology, 51(4): 605–22
Hier, S. (2003) ‘Probing the Surveillant Assemblage: on the dialectics of surveillance practices as processes of social control,’ Surveillance and Society 1(3): 399-411, downloaded on 2/01/2012 from
Lyon, D. (2001) Surveillance Society, Monitoring Everyday Life, Buckingham: Open University Press, 47
Monahan, T. (2011), ‘Surveillance as a Practice’, The Sociological Quarterly 52 (2011) 495–508

From signal to noise: experimenting aggression detection in a police control room

Francisca Grommé
Promovendus/ PhD Candidate Amsterdam Institute for Social Science Research (AISSR) Universiteit van Amsterdam/ University of Amsterdam Kloveniersburgwal 48, 1012 CX, Amsterdam, The Netherlands Kamer C1.08/ room C1.08

Pilots in which surveillance technologies are tried out in everyday life situations are common practice for police departments and municipalities in The Netherlands. During the pilot phase, policy problem, crime policy, practice and technology are constituted at the same time. As Javier Lezaun and Yuval Millo (2006) argue, real-life experiments, among which pilots, are moments in which the gap between a technology and its future implementation is closed. Therefore, this paper discusses a pilot with a surveillance technology to understand how future modes of crime governance are constituted in interaction with the daily routines and practices of policing.
In this paper, I consider a pilot in a Dutch city in which a technology for the detection of aggression on the basis of sound was tried out at a bus station. An important starting point for the paper is that the object of intervention itself is partly constituted during experimental practices (Haraway, 1988; Latour, 1988; Rheinberger, 1993). Taking this notion into consideration, I ask how establishing acoustic aggression as an object of police intervention affects local crime governance. On the basis of ethnographic research the paper suggests that in this pilot case, the constitution and eventual disintegration of aggression as an acoustic object related to a process of reordering authorities and norms in crime governance.

Specifically, the paper considers how aggression was established locally in interaction between engineers and the local police. During the pilot, acoustic aggression took on various forms (the human voice, the bus horn and the siren), and eventually was reduced to background noise in the police control room. What ‘counts’ as aggression in public space and who should intervene are important normative issues. By focussing on the practice of fore- and backgrounding, I show how technological 'tinkering' interacted with issues concerning the local work culture in the control room, the boundaries of police responsibility and the acceptability of imitation fights.

Conservatism and the False Sense of Security

Professor Heta Aleksandra Gylling
Head of Discipline, Social and Moral Philosophy, University of Helsinki, (Unioninkatu 40 A) P.O. Box 24, 00014 University of Helsinki

Our sense of self-defence protects us from unknown, dangerous things. It also leads us to make a difference between “us” (safe and familiar) and “them” (unfamiliar, different therefore dangerous). Familiarity brings relaxation and a feeling of safety; even your beliefs and world views stay unthreatened. Nothing new, unknown or unfamiliar to interfere with your life. But this line of thinking is misleading.
Unknown, which may signify danger, should not be mixed with unfamiliar. If I get a unknown parcel, I may feel a pang of fear and my thoughts may wander to “them”, the possibility that somebody might want to blow me in pieces just because I am one of “us”, not one of “them”. If the parcel is nicely wrapped and it is my birthday, I happily open the box without second thought: familiarity guarantees my sense of safety and security. 

But a justifiable and reasonable fear of things unknown should not make us believe that, firstly, things that look familiar are safe. Familiarity may be dangerous because it may deceive with secret agendas. Familiar talk, reference to common values have always been a highly successful tactic for con artists and other slippery customers.
As J.S. Mill patiently tried to enlighten his adversaries, the fact that the idea of women voting, studying and holding governmental positions was unfamiliar to them, did not mean that it would be somehow unnatural. Unfamiliar practices, beliefs and habits may be dangerous but that is to be settled empirically.

When populists, conservatives and fundamentalists fear the dangers of freedom of expression, unfamiliar people and their values, they are afraid of opening an unfamiliar box. These “I want to stick to familiar things” people want to live in their own box and cherish their sense of security which might be threatened the minute an outsider peeps in the box. They do not want to risk the outside because they know it is unfamiliar and therefore dangerous – better keep themselves to themselves.

This sense of safety is a false sense of safety and security. Belief in the alleged stability of traditional life only reinforces how precarious, insecure and uncertain their way of life is and how vulnerable people in the box are.

Policy Legitimacy, Rhetorical Politics, and the Evaluation of City-Street Video Surveillance Monitoring Programs in Canada

Sean P. Hier
Chair, Department of Sociology Cornett Building, A336 University of Victoria Victoria, British Columbia Canada V8W 3P5

This article examines the evaluation and legitimization of city-street video surveillance in Ontario, Canada. Wedemonstrate how monitoring programs are promoted, designed, and justified based on rhetorical claims about their efficacy. Although program evaluation data do not commonly corroborate or support program objectives, we show how the rhetorical politics of video surveillance evaluation research finds legitimacy by adhering to the Ontario privacy commissioner’s best practices guidelines—guidelines that are formulated to minimize rhetoric in system design. The findings raise questions about how city-street video surveillance remains a viable policy option given the lack of evidence pertaining to its usefulness.

Résumé : Cet article examine l’évaluation et la légitimation de la vidéosurveillance en milieu urbain en Ontario, Canada. Nous démontrons comment sont promus, conçus et justifiés les programmes de surveillance sur la base des revendications de leur efficacité émises de manière rhétorique. Bien que les données de l’évaluation du programme ne corroborent généralement pas ses objectifs, pas plus qu’elles ne les supportent, nous montrerons de quelle manière les politiques langagières de la recherche en évaluation de la vidéosurveillance trouvent leur légitimité en adhérant aux pratiques exemplaires telles qu’elles sont stipulées par le Bureau du commissaire à la protection de la vie privée de l’Ontario – pratiques qui sont formulées pour minimiser la rhétorique au sein-même de la conception du système. Ce que nous avons trouvé soulève des interrogations sur la viabilité de la vidéosurveillance en milieu urbain en tant qu’option d’une politique viable, étant donné le manque de preuves relatives à son utilité.

“Looking for bad people, not just bad objects” Passenger Differentiation as Future Surveillance

Dr Gerrit Herrlyn
University of Hamburg Edmund-Siemers-Allee 1 (West) D-20146 Hamburg / Germany 49-40-42838-7249

The IATA (International Air Transport Association) is currently proposing the „Checkpoint of the Future“( . The key technology will be a three lane security check where passengers will be divided into three risk groups, „known Travellers“, „normal“ and „enhanced Travelers“. Known Travelers need a „registered and completed background“, normal travellers are the majority of passengers and enhanced travelers with less information available or „who are deemed to be an »elevated risk« would have an additional level of screening“.

In terms of surveillance this model signals a paradigm shift, from the claim of treating passengers equally towards the use of personal data to differentiate passengers before entering the airport into groups of different potential risks - captured with the slogan „looking for bad people, not just bad objects“. It is interesting that the IATA has so far only published the criteria of the „positive“ differentiation. Frequent and known flyers will be defined as the group with the smallest potential risk. On the other hand the IATA has not stated yet of whom the group of „enhanced travellers “will consist and which social or ethnic criteria’s will be relevant.

In my presentation I would like to focus on the following questions: Which strategies and rhetorics are used to propose passenger differentiation as a new security measure? Which socio-technical arrangements are pointed out to achieve acceptance for social sorting?

Passenger differentiation is one of the topics that we are working on in the research project „Security as a phenomena of sociocultural construction between data security and informational needs“ funded by the German Federal Ministry of Science and Education. (Project management: Nils Zurawski). The focus lies here on the question how data security is part of sociocultural differences and how it influences subjective perceptions and practices of security. The field we have chosen to study these questions is airport security. Our data basis are ethnographic research at airports and qualitative interviews with passengers.

I received a Master in (Magister Artium) in 1998 and a Phd in 2008 in European Ethnology / Cultural Anthropology at the University of Hamburg / Germany. Since 1999 I have worked in different research projects in the field of technology and culture at the Institute of European Ethnology / Cultural Anhtropology at the University of Hamburg / Germany.

Health-care Surveillance: The Question Concerning the Control of Nature and Technology in Disasters

 Dr Minae Inahara
Centre for Research into Embodied Subjectivity, University of Hull

Prof. Tetsuya Kono
Department of Education, College of Arts, Rikkyo University, JAPAN

Dr Michael Gillan Peckitt (Independent Scholar)

Health-care surveillance is the constant system of controlling and monitoring a patient’s life. On 11 March, 2011, the Great East Japan Earthquake occurred; a huge tsunami and a nuclear plant accident followed in its wake. In this presentation, we shall introduce the online Japanese newspaper narrative of the 53-year-old Sendai man, Masashi Tsuchiya, who has amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and depends upon an artificial respirator to breathe. In doing so, we shall reconsider (in)security from Donna Haraway’s (1991) perspective. His health-care surveillance can be viewed as the system of monitoring his physical conditions, however, without any power supply from Tokyo Electric Power Company, the surveillance system did not work.

This presentation will guide efforts to improve patients’ health, and to monitor trends and progress over time in emergency cases.

We shall suggest an improved method of operating early detection and control health care surveillance equipment in emergency situations, including raising awareness in situations like unexpected power cuts and providing useful risk assessment information. Mr. Tsuchiya’s experience demonstrates that it would be too risky to be on a respirator during a power cut after a disaster has occurred. Thus, it is essential to devise a plan to activate an alternative system in the event of a severe disaster occurring, and to prepare the hardware that is necessary for an early activation of emergency services. The necessary hardware, for example, would include batteries and communication tools that could function even if electronic power, the internet and telephone networks were all to shut down. Hence, all knowledge (technology) cannot be detached from an embodied subject and that, as Haraway (1991) considers, all knowledge is situated. We shall develop Haraway’s theory of the cyborg to challenge the normative assumption of the world where we have been forced to believe that humans can control nature.

‘Capture every moment’ – a semiotic interpretation of advertisements marketing surveillance equipment

Hille Koskela
Academy Research Fellow, Department of Social Research, PO Box 18, 00014 University of Helsinki, Finland

This presentation is based on a semiotic interpretation of surveillance equipment advertisements. My aim is to present an interpretation of the social, political and cultural meanings of the advertisements in the light of the contemporary security governance. Security governance does not take place in a vacuum, but it is influenced both by political and cultural ‘needs’ and by commercial interests. Marketing aims at directing the politics of surveillance. Advertising is an ideological strategy. It creates structures of meaning, the semiotic reading of it aims at deconstruction of these meanings.

I shall provide a reading on how the imagery of surveillance advertisements has changed in twelve years time, based on empirical material. First set of ads were collected from the companies that sell surveillance equipment in Helsinki, Finland in 1998. Second set of ads were collected accordingly in 2010. I examine the understandings of surveillance and expertise in the ads, the representations of the competence of technology, references to time and/or space, as well as the construction of ‘symbolic enemies’, and the emotions the ads try to inflate.

I argue that within twelve years, the emphasis of advertising had changed significantly. The politics of information have changed, descriptions of technological details being replaced by service ensembles, trustful expertise and interaction. Instead of the late 1990s futuristic connotations, the 2010 advertisements highlighted the everydayness of surveillance. Since the 9/11 terrorist attacks were in the middle of the period, a surprising finding was that the emphasis in advertising has changed from presenting threats towards presenting human emotions and agency. In marketing rhetoric, politics of fear were replaced by politics of care.

When the Future Becomes Present: New Realist Narratives and Strangely Familiar Dystopias in Contemporary Surveillance Fiction

Michael Krause
PHD Researcher University of Potsdam Department of English and American Studies Am Neuen Palais 10 Building 19 14469 Potsdam Germany

Commentators within Surveillance Studies have repeatedly pointed out that literature, in comparison to film, has added comparatively little to the public debate about the massive challenges that new surveillance technologies and practices are posing to populations across the globe today. While such assessments of literary surveillance discourse often tend to focus one-sidedly on the 'highbrow' section of the market, at the expense of other literatures (e.g. science fiction, cyberpunk, crime and spy fiction), they nevertheless need to be updated in the light of recent developments in the literary field – both in the popular genres as well as in the up-market segment. During the last decade or so, a number of promising, well-informed novels by American and British authors like Cory Doctorow, Jonathan Trigell and Catherine O'Flynn, exploring life in late modern surveillance society, have been published and command our attention. These authors are part of a younger generation of authors that is obviously more aware of the complex, but crucial interplay of technology, politics and the social than previous generations who have written for the up-market segment. Besides them a growing number of already established authors from all corners of the literary field, like Jonathan Raban, Kazuo Ishiguro or Robert Harris have explored questions of surveillance and control in novels that cannot be boxed into familiar genres such as crime and spy fiction. Research into surveillance fiction must take this body of literary works into account if it wants to draw a precise picture of the ways in which dominant and dissident narratives of surveillance are operating in society today.

In my paper I will give an overview of several narratological trends within surveillance fiction that seem significant to me with regard to their possible impact on the surveillance imaginary, both directly and indirectly via migration into film and TV-Drama. My argument will revolve around two central theses. First, I will argue that a growing number of authors – especially younger authors – have extended the scope of 'classical' surveillance fiction, both with regard to form and to content, thus adding a number of more realist narratives to the genre that are situated recognisably in the present day or foreseeable future. Saturated with information about specific historical and social formations – e.g. the rise of CCTV in shopping centres and inner cities, the synoptic surveillance capacity of mass media and the increasingly invasive internet surveillance in the wake of 9/11 – these stories are a lot less abstract than most dystopian surveillance fiction so far. My second point is that, like in film, there has been a revival of dystopian narratives in literature which, though concerned primarily with genetic manipulation and cloning in humans, are at the same time exploring central issues and trends in today's surveillance society that are posing huge risks for future generations. Among these are the potential for discrimination that comes with the new surveillance and control technologies, the production of social Others along biological lines, the production of consent among the surveilling and the surveilled through hegemonic discourse as well as the mounting radicalisation of those at the receiving end of the ever increasing surveillance and control measures.

‘Caught on Camera’: the media representation of CCTV in relation to the 7th July 2007 London Underground bombings

Inga Kroener
Lancaster University, Department of Organisation, Work and Technology, Lancaster University, Lancaster, LA1 4YX

On 7 July 2005, four bombs went off in London – three of which exploded on tube carriages on the London Underground and one of which exploded on the No.30 bus at Tavistock Square. All of the bombs were carried in person by suicide bombers. In the immediate aftermath of the bombings, newspapers focused on the use of CCTV during the investigations.

This paper looks at the dichotomy which exists in the press media during this time: on the one hand ‘selling’ CCTV as a technology which, if installed to a greater extent throughout the Underground, could have prevented the bombings; and on the other hand, as a ‘witness’ to the events (in terms of retelling the story in terms of the ordinariness and mundanity of the actions of the people involved), with the implication that the bombings were not preventable. The paper situates these differing representations of CCTV in the wider context of UK policy on CCTV and the notion that is pushed forward of a ‘passive public’ in need of protection.

Selling Surveillance in the Bible Belt: Technology and Theology in the New Christian Marketplace

Professor Randolf Lewis
Associate Professor of American Studies, University of Texas at Austin (USA)

Conservative Christians in the US South are torn by the proliferation of surveillance technologies in their homes, communities, and churches. In some contexts, “Bible Belt” Protestants have rejected CCTV and other security measures as diabolical tools that usurp divine judgment and “set the stage for the rise of the Antichrist and world government,” as one evangelical writer has claimed. Yet in other contexts, Bible Belt Protestants are demonstrating a surprising receptivity to surveillance technologies. Because Conservative Christians express concern about the dangers of a “permissive” modern society that lacks supervision and stern authority, and because CCVT enables fantasies of patriarchal control that resonate with conservative Protestant theology, Southern churches have begun to embrace a new high-tech “eye in the sky” that puts venerable ideas about omnivalence and omniscience into a striking new context.

In this paper, I will explore how the security industry is negotiating ideological tensions among Christian conservatives in order to create a lucrative market for church surveillance. By looking at corporate sales pitches as well as church newsletters, theological tracts, and other sources, I will explore how the security industry is persuading Southern churches to accept the necessity of video surveillance in a language designed to appeal to conservative Christian ideology. Extending the work of David Lyon, Eric Stoddart, and others into the realm of American Studies, I will assess the encroachment of surveillance techniques into sacred spaces, with the result being CCTV literally above the pews and throughout church properties in the US South.

Watching and being Watched: Bouncers’ surveillance practices within a highly controlled work space

Dr Ilse van Liempt
Utrecht University, Urban Geography Department Heidelberglaan 2 Postbus 80115 3508 TC Utrecht, The Netherlands

Based on ethnographic observations in two nightlife districts in the Netherlands and interviews with bouncers, this paper provides a thick description of their role in surveilling the night-time economy and their own experiences with being watched. Bouncers are often portrayed as the primary agents of social control in nightlife spaces (Hobbs et al. 2000). They are the ones who visibly deny access to visitors of nightlife districts, and with their ‘regulatory techniques’ (Foucault 1977) and particular ideas about who to classify as ‘dangerous others’ they are to a large extent in control of who is allowed to have a fun night and who is not. In this paper we turn the lens of the camera and investigate how bouncers are controlled and disciplined by various actors in the night-time economy while they work.
In the Netherlands a strict regulatory framework has been implemented for bouncers since 1999. Nightclub owners now need to hire them through officially screened security companies. For those working in the security business this has most of all resulted in lower pay, stricter rules and, some say, ‘less competent colleagues who cannot handle the violence’ (Nabben et al. 2011). Moreover, better screening by a security company has not always resulted in less control at the workspace as illustrated by the high number of CCTV cameras at the entrances of some clubs that keep an eye on bouncers’ working practices. Visitors also stand up more readily for their rights, which has resulted in more insults and official complaints to bouncers. Finally in the context of Safe Nightlife Policies bouncers are, like club owners, increasingly expected to collaborate with the police and other actors in ‘the surveillant assemblage’ (Haggerty & Ericson 2000) to make nightlife districts a safe and enjoyable space. In this view bouncers are no longer solely responsible for what happens inside, and at the doorstep of their nightclub. They are increasingly expected to control public space as well. Comparing different experiences from bouncers who work at various clubs this article will give insights into the different levels of control they experience and how they cope with this.

‘Surveillance Without Borders: The case of Karen refugees in Sheffield'

 Dr Eleanor Lockley
Sheffield Hallam University , C3RI Cantor Building, 153 Arundal Street, Sheffield S12NU

Dr Geff Green
Sheffield Hallam University , C3RI Cantor Building, 153 Arundal Street, Sheffield S12NU

This paper presents a recent case study of the Sheffield Karen community’s experience of surveillance and cyber conflict. It outlines and discusses how ‘local’ conflicts can be manifested at great distance, aided by ‘guerrilla’ surveillance, targeting social media and ‘phone hacking’. In this case we encountered a local conflict which occurred in a completely different locality from the place of origin. It also moved into a virtual world, one which was characterised by an ‘inverse reach’ allowing the 'oppressors' to reach out and touch the 'oppressed' through appropriating their channels of communication and using information gained though surveillance to attack them in specific ways which referenced aspects of the real conflict. Not only did this provide insight into how new media is being used in cyber warfare, but it also highlighted existing dynamics and divisions which are part of the real conflict of which this has now become a part. This account also recognises how trauma and fear can be reignited far from its place of origin and the powerful emotional impact which is gained through exploiting people's fears and paranoia in this way. This is done through attacking their sense of identity and status and referencing their direct experience of conflict with a regime more powerful than themselves. A key background activity to this work is understanding the pre-existing ethnic sensitivities and constructions of identity, but also those which are articulated through online media by both sides in the conflict. An account is provided from a participant observer's view point of view which explores the background and the anatomy of one particular cyber-attack. The nature of the attack and its responses will be discussed, including exploring, not only the online dimension to the attack, but also the more reified aspects of the way in which the community responded.

Relevant Conference Keywords: The surveillance imaginary, Virtual / material spaces of surveillance, Liminal spaces, borderlands and surveillance, Local/Global geographies of Surveillance, Surveillance, identity and becoming

Just Surveillance? The Ethics of Surveillance Practices

Kevin Macnish
Inter-Disciplinary Ethics Applied, A Centre for Excellence in Teaching and Learning, University of Leeds, 8-12 Fenton Street, Leeds LS2 9JT

Despite massive growth in the quantity and sophistication of surveillance over the last twenty years, leading to numerous controversies, there has been little written specifically on the ethics of surveillance. Discussion of normative questions regarding whether and when surveillance is justified are notably lacking from the broader debate. David Lyon has tentatively proposed three categories of concern, while Gary Marx suggests that there are at least twenty-nine. However, in neither case are these categories defined or defended philosophically and both lack any underlying ethical theory. This paper suggests that a framework by which the ethics of surveillance practices may be judged already exists, based upon the just war tradition. .

The just war tradition distinguishes means from ends, and raises questions regarding authority, intent and cause, each of which are relevant to determining the ethics of surveillance. The application of this framework separates out questions of who is conducting surveillance, why are they doing it, whether surveillance is a proportionate response, whether it is necessary, and what are its chances of success. In addition, questions regarding the ability to discriminate and the proportionality of the type of surveillance are also raised. As such, the just war framework can be leveraged to raise all the questions which should be asked of an ethical approach to surveillance.

Furthermore, while principles such as proportionality, discrimination and last resort are recognized by legislation such as the UK’s Regulation of Investigatory Powers Act (2000), there is little written on the philosophical nature of each outside the just war tradition. As such we can at the very least profitably draw upon that tradition to inform the debate regarding ethically acceptable surveillance, and in some cases are forced to turn to it for a more complete understanding of our terms. This tradition thus provides a rich, relevant and long-lived discourse on which to found an ethics of surveillance.

Watch that feed! Webcams as a way of responsibilitizing people in surveillance?

Liisa Mäkinen
University of Helsinki, Department of Social Research, P.O. Box 18, 00014 University of Helsinki

This presentation focuses on everyday surveillance uses of visual recording equipment, namely webcams and surveillance cameras routed on-line. Although webcams are more and more common they are not usually used as a means of surveillance. They have a versatile role in providing entertainment and distributing information. The dominant notion of a webcam is a camera which uploads stream online for public viewing. To broaden this view I add to this perception cameras which upload stream online for restricted viewing; cameras which are password-protected.

This presentation is based on interviews I have conducted in Finnish webcam settings. I have conducted case studies on places that have online streaming cameras filming them and which differ on the basis of the publicity of the stream and the availability of the place to general public.

Within this presentation I have a two-sided aim. Firstly, I wish to explore the boundaries of ‘webcam surveillance’, surveillance conducted through these cameras. I’m focusing on questions such as: are webcams used for surveillance purposes, and if yes, how? Do the surveillance uses of the cameras differ on the basis of the publicity of the stream routed online and the publicity of the space the cameras are filming? Is the surveillance conducted through these types of cameras adding up to other forms of surveillance or is it replacing them?

Secondly, my focus is on responsibilization of people in surveillance. The mentioning of Internet sites such as the InternetEyes -site and the BlueServo -site are essential when talking about responsibilitized surveillance, but I also want to look at more mundane sites and activities. I wish to untangle whether people are asked to participate in camera surveillance in these before mentioned places: if and how webcams are used for responsibilitizing people in surveillance in everyday life settings.

Ski Googles and Streetview Sousveillance: The politic of police, piercings, and prosthetics in the era of post-Cyborgian Primitives

Steve Mann
University of Toronto, 10 King's College Road, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, M5T 1G5

Joseph Ferenbok
University of Toronto, 10 King's College Road, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, M5T 1G5

Video surveillance networks and what have been referred to as ‘digital signage-networks’ (cite Pam Dixion "The One-Way Mirror Society) such as Intellistreets (six cameras and an LED pixelboard in every streetlight, giving every lamp post "people-counting" and face-recognition capability) have changed the public face of surveillance from a police-matter to a citywide surveillance+signage system. This gives the "eyes on the street" a new friendlier corporate visage. Digital signage personifies the once faceless surveillance cameras. Moreover, the new surveillance is green-technology, i.e. the streetlights automatically count people, cars, bicycles, etc., and dim or brighten according to what is happening on the street. How could anyone possibly object to video surveillance that saves electricity and the planet, even if it embodies homeland security as a concomitant cover activity (cite Mann, Linux journal, Jul 2000).

Together with increased surveillance has come the often illegal police prohibition on photography in public places (cite Potere, Northwestern University Law Review, Vol. 106, 2012) (cite Frank Möller, Celebration and Concern Digitization, Camera Phones and the Citizen-Photographer).

Thus there is an abundance of space "over which the police and CCTV systems have exclusive photographic rights" (Möller).

In the past, the "always-on" cameras that watched us were mainly "archi-centric" (part of the architecture, i.e. attached to buildings and lamp posts). But now cameras are also becoming human-centric (attached to people) -- not just camera phones, but also wearable cameras. In 2004 Neil Harbisson, a colourbind arts student who always wears a camera as a seeing aid to see colour, had a passport issued with his "eyeborg", and similiarly, in 1995, Mann also had a passport depicting his "cyborg self". In both cases, doctors' documentation was required. Many of these seeing aids provide wayfinding (e.g. Google Streetview overlaid on top of reality) and also function like the "black box" flight recorder on an aircraft by becoming a personal safety device. We have also built implantable camera systems for the visually impaired, as well as "cyborgian primitives" camera-based implants as body art ["Cyborg...", Randomhouse, Mann 2001].

We look at the way individuals will participate in managing their own identity and personal safety + persona == not as passive surveilled masses, but as participants in the new "*veillance" (surveillance AND sousveillance). Does this veillance restore the age-old balance between surveillance and sousveillance ---- like the small town in which the sheriff knows what everyone's up to but everyone knows what the sheriff's up to too ---- or do self-created personas and DIY bodyart force us to rethink the question of participatory panopticon?

The Surveillance of ‘Prolific’ Offenders: Beyond ‘Docile Bodies’

Dr Michael McCahill
Lecturer in Criminology Department of Social Sciences , The University of Hull, Cottingham Road, Hull, HU6 7RX

Dr Rachel Finn

This article uses ethnographic research to explore how a sample of state-defined ‘prolific’ offenders living in Northern City (a small city in the North of England) experience and respond to a surveillance regime which includes ‘appointments’, ‘tracking’, ‘interviews’, ‘drug testing’, ‘electronic monitoring’ (EM), ‘home visits’ and ‘intelligence-led policing’. While some writers have argued that the experience of ‘house arrest’ and electronic monitoring is consistent with ‘disciplinary power’ and the ‘self-governing capabilities’ identified by Foucault (Staples and Decker 2008), our paper interweaves surveillance theory with the work of Pierre Bourdieu toargue that the ‘surveilled’ are a group of creative ‘social actors’ who may negotiate, modify, evade, or contest surveillance practices. There is a long history of research showing how relatively powerless groups utilise tacit knowledge to contest power relations at the micro-level (Goffman, 1961; Scott, 1990; Marx, 2003). However, the ability to make resistant ‘moves’ is heavily influenced by the distribution of ‘capital’ in any given ‘field’. Drawing upon this framework, we suggest that the distribution of various forms of ‘capital’ – economic, social, cultural and symbolic – within a particular ‘field’ operate as a range of goods or resources that structure the dynamics of surveillance practices and power relations, including the ability to contest surveillance.

Surveillance in educational spaces: the electronic monitoring of an everyday campus life

Lucas Melgaço
Post-doc researcher at Queen’s Unversity (Canada) and Vrije Universiteit Brussel (Belgium) Mac Corry Hall, room C512, Queen’s University campus, Kingston – ON, Canada

CCTV cameras, ID cards, integrated databases, email data collection, internet tracking, audits and performance evaluations of faculty and departments are becoming more common in educational spaces. Several institutions, from nurseries to universities and from different geographical contexts, are experiencing an increase in surveillance practices. These spaces are facing a process of rationalization since they are being transformed to provide increased efficiency, calculability, predictability and control. While surveillance in schools has benefits, such as helping to improve learning abilities and promoting the security of children and faculty, it raises some concerns with excessive attention to rationalization. These concerns point to the restraint of individual liberties, the lack of trust in students, teachers and staff and the creation of oppressive and segregated spaces. The excess of rationalization can lead to the emergence of irrationalities. Moreover, the dialectical approach suggests that rationalization can also result in the emergence of counter-rationalities: for instance, students can use cellphone cameras to watch the watchers in a process of counter-surveillance. Using examples gathered mainly from the Queen’s University campus at Kingston – ON, Canada, and comparing them to a few Brazilian illustrations, this paper aims to discuss some of the consequences of electronic surveillance in educational everyday life.

“What’s crime got to do with it?” – CCTV and governing elites

Francesca Menichelli
PhD Candidate, University of Milano-Bicocca, Visiting Research Student, Surveillance Studies Centre ,c/o Surveillance Studies Centre Dept. of Sociology Mackintosh-Corry Hall, Room C512 Queen’s University Kingston ON K7L 3N6

In the literature, open street CCTV is traditionally analysed in two related ways. At the macro level, its diffusion is framed within a shift towards neoliberal urbanism. At the micro level, the day-to-day reality of how surveillance is carried out in specific sites relies on the notion of targeted surveillance to explain how public space is purified. While I do not intend to diminish the value of such theorisations, I believe that there are two problems with them: the notion of “neoliberal urbanism” and the idea that control rooms operate in predictable ways.

Drawing upon an eclectic range of sources, from ANT to ethnomethodology, to urban studies and geography, I first argue that the idea of a “one-size-fits-all” model of urban neoliberalism is untenable, and that a newfound attention to space can help us to advance a novel conceptualisation of CCTV.
On a general level, I therefore wish to explain the diffusion of video surveillance in Italy as linked to a broader process of reconfiguration of state sovereignty where powers are shifted from the national government to local authorities. On the back of data gathered in the control room of a police-run open street CCTV system, I also argue that the ability to define univocally what video surveillance is and how it should be used is what is at stakes in the interaction between city administrators and police personnel. In turn, the unstable balance between authority and expertise heavily influences the day-to-day reality of control room operations and the policing of urban space. In light of these sets relations, CCTV can, then, be understood as a device for the circulation of resources between different governing elites.

The social trends involved in surveillance and the rise of new "regimes"

Daniele Mezzana
Laboratorio di Scienze della Cittadinanza (Italy) Via Pasubio, 2 00195 Roma

This paper proposes an integrated view of some of the social dynamics involved in surveillance. In this perspective, four major trends can be highlighted. The first is the increase in human subjectivity, that is the increase in weight, complexity and thickness of the individuals’ cognitive, intellectual and emotional dimension, which leads them to meet more independently and freely than in the past increasingly incompressible expectations and needs, such as enjoying aesthetic pleasures, using technologies to communicate, moving around in complete freedom , etc.. However, all that somehow enlarges the risks individuals or communities are exposed to. A second trend therefore emerges: a social boost in support to security, originated by both the same individuals and by public and private entities operating in the world of security itself. This boost gives rise to specific structural and cultural powers managing new and more advanced forms of technology-based surveillance which, while solving security problems, often create additional ones. Therefore, this trend results in a third one, represented by an orientation to activate different kinds of social structures and mechanisms for protecting people, especially those connected to privacy and decency. A fourth concomitant trend is related to individuals and organized actors (such as those involved with forms of illegality or the organized crime) falling outside the existing control systems and acting in spaces produced at the crossroad of social and political crises and technological opportunities. The four trends are simultaneously present. It can be assumed that from their interaction a "regime" (or various regimes) can arise, that is a set of arrangements ensuring an always precarious balance between the different forces involved. Delineating the current surveillance regime(s) and identifying those factors that may stabilize or modify it(them) should be particularly important both in a scientific and in a practical perspective.

The need for the holistic assessment of security interventions, as opposed to assessing the impact of each individual measure when determining acceptability

Timothy Mitchener-Nissen
UCL Department of Security and Crime Science, 35 Tavistock Square, London, WC1H 9EZ

I posit that when assessing the acceptability to society of a new security intervention which impacts upon privacy, whether this constitutes a technology or human action, we need to do so by examining the combined effect of all security interventions currently employed within the society in question. This contrasts with the prevailing system whereby the impact of a new security technology is predominantly assessed on an individual basis by a subjective balancing of the security benefits of that technology against any reductions in concomitant rights such as privacy and liberty. I contend that by continuing to focus on the effects of individual technologies, as opposed to the combined effects of all security technologies currently employed within a society, the likelihood of sleeping-walking into (or indeed waking-up in) an absolute surveillance society moves from a possible future to the logically inevitable. This conclusion is based on two underlying assertions. Firstly that assessing a technology often entails a judgement of whether any loss in privacy is legitimised by a justifiable increase in security. However one fundamental  difference between these two rights is that privacy is a finite resource with identifiable end-states (i.e. absolute privacy through to the absolute absence of privacy) whereas security does not have two finite end-states (while there exists the absolute absence of security, absolute security is an unobtainable yet desired goal). The second assertion, which relies upon the validity of the first, holds that one consequence of absolute security being unobtainable yet desirable is that new security  interventions will continuously be developed, each potentially trading a small measure of privacy for a small rise in security. Examined individually each intervention may constitute a justifiable trade-off. However this approach of combining interventions in the search for ever greater security will ultimately reduce privacy to zero.

The outlook for public space surveillance (police CCTV) in Scotland post- (draft) National Strategy: a critical conversation

Heather Morgan
School of Social Science , Edward Wright Building, Dunbar Street, University of Aberdeen, AB24 3QY

Stuart Ward
Police Crime Reduction Design Consultant, Force ALO/Force CCTV Officer, Fife Constabulary, Scotland

Craig Newton
CCTV Unit Manager, Queen Street Headquarters, Grampian Police, Scotland

Over recent years, surveillance has, somewhat ironically, come under scrutiny within the UK. Academics began to ask questions – both conceptual and theoretical, as well as pragmatic – and then politicians began to panic – about policy or the lack thereof. In 2009, some ten or so years since its overt problematisation, a House of Lords Select Committee on the Constitution, whose Special Advisers were leading surveillance scholars,* published a report, Surveillance: Citizens and the State.**Its remit was an inquiry into “the impact that government surveillance and data collection have upon the privacy of citizens and their relationship with the State” (p.6). The report recommended that “privacy and the application of executive and legislative restraint to the use of surveillance and data collection powers [are] necessary conditions for the exercise of individual freedom and liberty. Privacy and executive and legislative restraint should be taken into account at all times by the executive, government agencies, and public bodies” (p.103).

In this paper, we consider the outlook for public space surveillance in Scotland in light of the Scottish Government’s guideline response to the House of Lords’ aims and recommendations: the (draft) National Strategy.*** Through the process of a critical conversation, we address the regulation of and possibilities for police CCTV; firstly, as new techniques and practices emerge and challenge the rules and regulatory instruments of the past and present, meanwhile competing with informal surveillance media proliferated through the lesser regulated (lesser known) use of personal/mobile video recording technologies, especially in terms of their evidential capabilities; and thus, secondly, in terms of what the future holds for surveillance, privacy, citizens and the state and, moreover, each other.

* Professor Charles Raab (Professor Emeritus, University of Edinburgh: and Dr Benjamin Goold (Research Associate, University of Oxford Centre for Criminology:
** Second report of Session 2008-09:

Surveillance Infrastructures and the Useful Self: The case of the quantified self movement

David J. Phillips
Associate Professor Faculty of Information, University of Toronto, 45 Willcocks Street, #329 Toronto, ON M5S 1C7 CANADA

This research is part of a project investigating the possibilities for democratic or accessible surveillance infrastructures.
We present a case study of the Quantified Self (QS) movement, a loose affiliation of practitioners who monitor their own activities, often automatically and digitally, in order to make sense of themselves and their relation to the world. Our findings are in three clusters. First, we describe the practices of data creation, storage, retrieval, and analysis employed by QSers. The most common methods are through biometric services that monitor an individual’s bodily activities and store that data on a remote server. These services also offer simple statistical analytics. Other means of data creation are common, such as automatic prompts for self-reflection (“How are you feeling now?”), as are artistic, non-statistical representations of data.

Second, we explore the goals and purposes of self monitoring. These include self-improvement, self-knowledge, public visibility, and “citizen science.” Queer presentations of self are evident, but they are rare. More common are individual resistance against very specific (usually medical) knowledge institutions. But by far, the typical ideals toward which self-improvement efforts are geared are those of a healthy, energetic, self-motivated, productive member of an economic order based on entrepreneurship.

Finally, we describe the institutional structures of QS practice, including the often conflicting economic and ideological interests of the providers of the tools used in self monitoring. We find that the tensions inherent in all “Web 2.0” media are in play here. Questions of audience production, the capture of the value of user-generated content, and the ownership of data are being played out. We explore the strategies of hacking, and especially the difficulty of hacking large databases to make them accessible and sensible, but respectful of the intent of those whose activities have produced the data that populates the database. We note the emergent nexus of the interests of employers and the healthcare and insurance industries as QS practice is institutionalized to promote individual responsibility for health and wellness.

Engineering the dream of ‘objective’ surveillance: The development of automated video surveillance systems and its social consequences

Dr. Matthias Rieger
Institut für Soziologie Im Moore 21 Raum A 410 Leibniz Universität Hannover 30167 Hannover

In Europe as well as in Asia and the USA,video surveillance has become a common practice in the last decades. Advocates of this technology propagate it as an effective device for security against crime and terror. Opponents emphasize the fact that CCTV threatens basic rights by subjecting civil society to a state of permanent surveillance.

For a couple of years now, engineers are developing smart video surveillance systems which should assist or even replace the work of operators. Whereas in common video surveillance systems, an operator has to watch a screen constantly, now smart cameras scan the scenery for deviance behavior of persons from a pre-programmed set of rules. The decision about if a scenery is ‘dangerous’ or not is thereby delegated from a person to a computer. The developers consider automated systems as a technical solution for a social problem –s ocial sorting through the subjective gaze of the operators. They argue that automated systems are not only more efficient but also more objective and therefore socially acceptable than systems relying on human operators. The paper presents first results of a research project on ASEV (Automated Event-Driven Video Stream Analysis System), a system for automated airfield surveillance developed at the University of Hannover. In this project, I analyse the technical setting of ASEV and conduct interviews with engineers and other actors involved in its development. Based upon this research, I will work out the basic assumptions and main strategies for the objectification of the operators and discuss its social implications notably for the watchers and the watched.

Telecommunication – Interception Scandals in Capitalist Democracies: Gloomy Prospects on Privacy and Democracy

Minas Samatas
Sociology Department University of Crete, Rethymno, Crete, 74100 Greece,

In this paper we mention several telecommunication scandals over the last decade in the USA, UK and Europe, as well as some new interception projects and phone spying software with detrimental implications on privacy and civil liberties. In our digital information and communication age with wireless mobile and internet communications, telecommunications interception has developed into a major industry. Despite technological advances and special legislation in blocking interceptions there is actually no privacy to cellular smart telephone or internet communications. Hence, lawful and unlawful interceptions are routinely used within all countries to collect sensitive personal, and political, military or economic information. Especially, in the aftermath of 9/11 attacks, governments, intelligence and law enforcement agencies have used heightened security concerns to legitimate mass communication interceptions. Yet, private organizations, mass media and corporate rivals, but also individual hackers use sophisticated interception technologies to monitor communications for assorted purposes. Usually phone- hacking and computer hacking become scandalous when they unlawfully target the powerful, the rich and famous. Privacy protection law and Data Protection Authorities are proved insufficient to inhibit interceptions; and when such unlawful monitoring is discovered, it is usually not disclosed publicly to avoid embarrassment. Nevertheless, every so often there's a telecommunication scandal that captures the attention of not just a nation but the world.

Thus, telecommunication – interception scandals in capitalist democracies underline the real scandal, that is our societies have become advance surveillance societies, at the expense of privacy , freedom and democracy; because, not only individual communication privacy is vanished, but freedom and democracy are in real danger. Although it seems that the prospects for both privacy and democracy are very gloomy, citizens concerned with freedom need to know who is doing the watching-listening , how, and why, in order to demand democratic controls on every interception and privacy violation.

Neurodata and Surveillance: Data Protection aspects need to be considered

Philip Schütz
Dara Hallinan

Fraunhofer Institute for Systems and Innvovation Research ISI, Breslauer Strasse 48, 76139 Karlsruhe, GERMANY

Up to now, collection and use of neurodata has been largely medical and research oriented. However, as technology develops it is becoming clear that neurodata offers insights into the individual with significant application outside the medical context. As application broadens, it seems unlikely that consideration of neurodata will remain isolated from other data systems and will therefore be used in ever expanding contexts. Considering concurrent developments in related sciences, particularly in neuroscience, cognition comprehension and the development of related sub-fields in other areas, such as neuropolitics or neuroeconomics, it would seem that neurodata could be very valuable in the context of surveillance. Considering the potential it might offer, there are thus considerable data protection and privacy risks involved. Even though EU protection frameworks have been created and developed based on assumptions regarding the source, nature and relationships of data, and the environments in which they operate, neurodata challenge this conventional approach to personal data. The source and connection of data with unique and previously intangible aspects of the individual, such as personality and the subconscious, pose fundamental questions related to the applicability of the concepts of data and the application and limits of the framework (as it has developed predominantly around consideration of handling the increases in processing and collection capabilities and infrastructures), whilst the unique characteristics of neurodata, such as the potential future information it contains, pose questions as to the applicability and suitability of the framework’s definitions, principles and balance. It is the aim of this article to consider the engagement and implication of the use of neurodata in surveillance with the data protection framework, and to highlight potential areas of uncertainty and questions in need of consideration.

Camerer, Colin, George Loewenstein and Drazen Prelec, ‘Neuroeconomics: How Neuroeconomics Can Inform Economics’, Journal of Economic Literature, Vol. XLIII, pp 9-64.
Farah, Martha J., M. Elizabeth Smith, Cyrena Gawuga, Dennis Lindsell and Dean Foster, ‘Brain Imaging and Brain Privacy: A Realistic Concern?’, Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, Vol 21, No. 1 , pp 119-127.
Heinrichs, Jan-Hendrik, ‘The Sensitivity of Neuroimaging Data’, Neuroethics, DOI: 10.1007/s12152-011-9141-5.
McFarland, Dennis J., Jonathan R. Wolpaw, ‘Brain-Computer Interfaces for Communication and Control’, Communications of the ACM, Vol. 54, No. 5, pp 60 – 66.
Ortiz Jr., Sixto, ‘Brain Computer Interfaces: Where Human and Machine Meet’, Computer, Vol. 40, No. 1, pp 17 – 21.
The Committee on Science and Law, ‘Are Your Thoughts Your Own?: “Neuroprivacy” and the Legal Implications of Brain Imaging’, CBA Record, Vol. 60, pp 407-436

Human Wrongs and Surveillance Rights: Towards a Sociology of Contemporary Citizenship

Dr Gavin Smith
Senior Lecturer in Sociology and Social Policy, Room 165, R.C. Mills (A26), The University of Sydney, NSW

Dr Martin French
Queen’s University, Canada

This positional paper seeks to identify, utilise and fuse knowledge from two emergent and intersecting fields of inquiry, the sociologies of surveillance and human rights. The argument posited is that surveillance functions as a social text through which the analyst can usefully examine the complex relations emerging from the visibility of both organizational and individual conduct, and the enmeshment of such imagery within global circulations of information and concomitant mediatisation processes.

Although the Human Rights movement has become an institutionalized ethical and legalistic discourse shaping the organizational form of international relations and human conduct, sociological understandings and theorizations with respect to the efficacy and normativity of such regulatory precepts and frameworks are still in their infancy, particularly in relation to surveillance suffusion and application. Thus, one issue that the authors are keen to develop is the degree to which human rights discourse as a governmentality is fit for purpose in a social environment increasingly administered by often hidden capturing technologies and organized around the exchange of digitized flows of information. Similarly, despite surveillance scholarship grappling with the implications of surveillance encroachment on liberty, privacy, mobility and social exclusion from a human rights perspective, there has been limited empirical research on how capturing technologies are being strategically utilized and artfully applied in everyday struggles with regimes of power, abuse and inequity. The authors draw upon several examples to illustrate how desires for transparency, accountability, justice and entertainment, and corollary practices of concealing and revealing, are cultivating both new forms of polity and accompanying counter or ‘blocking’ strategies by the various groups under scrutiny.

Grinding Identity: urban insecurity and the performance of sexual identity through geo-location based ubiquitous computing

Harrison Smith
Phd Student, Faculty of Information, University of Toronto

Visibility in urban space is increasingly taking on a new context with the development of mobile and ubiquitous based computing; the layering of both code and mobile devices onto cities and users provides new avenues for interaction between bodies, identities and spaces, and in turn new possibilities for institutional structures of surveillance and power. The literature on mobile and ubiquitous computing has noted a significant trend towards hybridization of spaces and the contingency of social networks: users are becoming increasingly mobile, yet enveloped within structures of indeterminacy, reflexivity, and insecurity. This trend towards urban hybridization and contingency has penetrated into the realms of sexuality and desire. Grindr, a mobile “smart phone” application marketed towards metropolitan homosexual men, combines geo-location based surveillance protocols with user profiles, allowing users to “see” the proximity and profile of other users, then decide whether or not to initiate a conversation or sexual liaison, effectively utilizing ubiquitous surveillance techniques to mediate homosexual identity and desire. This paper will critically assess and explore the theoretical and conceptual dimensions of Grindr in order to reveal the techniques of ubiquitous surveillance, identity, and the performance of sexuality and desire within a larger framework of urban hybridization, contingency and insecurity. As such, Grindr can be seen as case study for understanding how ubiquitous computing is increasingly mediating identity across hybrid and networked urban environments. Moreover, this paper also serves to contribute towards a broader understanding of the regimes of power and visibility which are intersecting in evermore ubiquitous ways across institutions of gender and sexuality within globalized urban contexts.

Doing “Girl” Online: Relating Surveillance to Gender in Online Social Spaces

Valerie Steeves
Department of Criminology, University of Ottawa, 25 University Street Ottawa, ON K1N 6N5Canada

Jane Bailey
George Mason University, Virginia, USA

Some scholars have suggested that online visibility can help young women break out of social constraints that limit the kinds of feminine identities that are available to them (Koskela, 2003; Senft, 2008; Steeves & Regan, 2011). To test this, we interviewed 14 young Canadian women between the ages of 18 and 21 about their experiences on social networking sites. These women told us that the surveillant gaze was both pleasurable and constraining. They enjoyed portraying their own lives and surveilling the lives of others as a form of entertainment, and adopted cultural capital both to express themselves and to enhance a feeling of connectedness. At the same time, they actively negotiated with stereotypical media images of femininity embedded in social networking sites by both the young women who occupy them and the corporations that mine them. Although they acknowledged the vulnerability of the “immature” girl who used boyfriends, “duckface” pictures and bikini shots as status markers, some of them also defined her as powerful and confident; but all tailored their own online performances of gender to negotiate a space where they could be different from her without alienating her completely. This was complicated by the need to actively groom their online personas to manage the often inconsistent expectations of different audiences, especially because they were held to a higher standard of account for their online comments and images than their male peers who often flew under the social radar. In this sense, they were more visible than their male counterparts, because their online actions were subjected to increased scrutiny and accountability. Although a source of pleasure, online surveillance exacerbated the effect of mainstream expectations of femininity which must be managed in order to avoid certain kinds of identities that open young women up to judgment as “sluts” and “airheads”.

Sensitising Urban Transport Security: Surveillance and Policing in Berlin, Stockholm, and Warsaw

Ola Svenonius
Department of Political Science, ME144 Södertörns University S-141 89 Huddinge

The paper presents the conclusions of a recently defended PhD thesis on security policy in three public transport systems – Berlin, Stockholm, and Warsaw – from a comparative perspective focusing on the conditions that made new and very specific understandings of security possible. The study presents a detailed account on the expansion of the 'surveillance society' in everyday urban environments. This paper more specifically outlines the theoretical implications for surveillance studies and critical security studies coming out of the research project.

The study argues that urban transport security has undergone radical changes during the last ten years. While transport authorities and the police used to conceive security as related solely to crime rates, today the focus of security practices consists of passengers' perceptions. The study shows how this shift is paralleled by a new discourse of 'security as emotion', and how it came into being. It concentrates specifically on the central role that CCTV surveillance and private policing assumes as the security policy shifts objectives to the inner life of the passengers. Today, complex governance networks of both public and private actors manage security in the three cities. Based on detailed analysis of interview and document data, the analysis argues that passengers are constructed in the urban security policy as children, consumers, and citizens. These different 'roles' constitute the passenger in the eye of urban security governance characterised by technocracy, 'friendly security', and individualised responsibility. The introduction of new governance models for public administration, the legacy of European communist regimes, and rising fear of crime are central conditions for this new, sensitised urban transport security.

Keywords: urban security, CCTV, security governance, public transport, surveillance, police, private security, emotion, fantasy, fear of crime, discourse analysis, Berlin, Stockholm, Warsaw

Alien Classifications: National Registration and the Governance of Suspect Populations in Canada During the Second World War

Scott Thompson
Department of Sociology, Room 5-19A HM Tory Building, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada, T6G 2E5

During the Second World War, National Registration systems were used across the globe to sort and assess populations. In Canada, National Registration was used primarily as a means of identifying and separating those individuals who were available to be drafted into the armed forces from those who were considered by the state to be vital to their communities. Although this technology was designed as a tool for conscription, one of its primary acts was to sort out those of foreign nationality and identify them under the classification of “aliens.” Under wartime legislation aliens were issued differentiating identification technologies and were subjected to elevated rates of governmental oversight and management. The restrictions upon identified aliens, however, were not identical across populations. Registration technology further divided this group into sub-populations based on discourses of pre-emptive risk management. Identification technologies sorted those from "allied" and "enemy" countries, those with different immigration statuses ("Foreign Nationals," "Naturalized Canadians" or "Canadian Born" ), and those whom held specified religious or political beliefs that were considered to be of elevated risk. Each of these categories resulted in variations in governmentally ascribed responsibilities as well as impacted the delivery of government services and certain freedoms under the law. In this way, these classifications were not only of bureaucratic significance but they also greatly impacted the lives of classified individuals, forcing them to enact governmentally ascribed sets of desired behaviours as a means of pre-empting undesirable ones. Ultimately for some, classification resulted in the confiscation of property, forced relocation and internment. This paper investigates the governmental technologies and discourses used to establish and enforce the “alien” classification in Canada during the Second World War, with special attention directed toward how these technologies shaped social experiences for identified individuals.

Surveillance in Urban Nightscapes

Tjerk Timan
PhD researcher, STEPS department, Faculty of Management and Business, University of Twente, The Netherlands, Room RA4252, Building Ravelijn, 7522 NB Enschede

In Dutch city centres, several stakeholders have been designated the task to create safe and pleasant nightlife districts1. One way of securing these districts is via surveillance. While questioning forms of surveillance technology is done in surveillance studies, focus here is mainly on the top-down regimes of surveillance technology. However, in this paper an attempt is made to approach surveillance from a bottom up perspective by looking into mobile cameras used by visitors of the nightscape of Rotterdam2. The mobile camera as an actor in the nightlife district may alter touch points of potential surveillance activities.
We use the concept of participatory surveillance3 to refer to both conscious and unconscious participation in providing information to databases that are also accessible for others. In current nightscapes, the boundaries of what is or can be used as surveillance information is blurring. Roles of watched and watcher, of top-down and bottom-up surveillance as a consequence become increasingly fluid.

From a socio-technological perspective, this move can be described as a coming together of consumer electronics, new media and surveillance technology. From thepoint of view of citizens, the latter has a closed and regulated character, where the logics of new media can be described as the opposite: open and transparent4. Both organsiational surveillance as well as the (accidently) participating citizen have to deal with a changing landscape of surveillance, where the digital and the physical, the online and offine world are getting more intertwined in public nightlife and its surveillance assemblages.
The central question in this paper is if/whether or not evidence of participatory surveillance can be found in the practices of Rotterdam nightlife citizens. In an exploratory fashion, in-depth interviews with Rotterdam citizens were conducted to find out whether traces of participatory surveillance can be found in practice.

  1. 1.For explanation and problemization of these nightlife districts, see for instance Problematic areas or places of fun? Ethnic place marketing in the multicultural city of Rotterdam Liempt, I. van & L. Veldboer in J.W Duyvendak, F. Hendriks, M. van Niekerk (eds.), City in Sight: Dutch Dealings with Urban Change. Den-Haag: NICIS. pp.81-102
  2. and Fear and Fantasy in the Public Domain: The Development of Secured and Themed Urban Space Rianne Van Melik, Irina Van Aalst, Jan Van Weesep. Journal of Urban Design 12(1), pp. 25-42. Rottedam is the second-largetst city in the netherlands. Its city centre is the most CCTV invested centre in the Netherlands.
  3. The concept “participatory surveillance” has been used before by for instance Poster, 1990. (The mode of information: Poststructuralism and social context. Chicago: University of Chicago Press). Poster argues that today’s circuits of communication and databases constitute a superpanopticon, where individuals are not just disciplined but take active part in their own surveillance even more by continuously contributing with information to databases. Albrechtslund ( uses the concept to argue the role of mutual surveillance as an empowering one, where mutuality is and playfulness are central. These notions both are relevant for the way it is used here, however, my contribution in the concept lies in how people contribute and to what body of information. I argue that in the context of surveillance purposes participation in the form of contributions happens both in a conscious and an unconscious way, where user-generated content might end up being used for suveillance purposes, but that the awareness of these purposes is highly distributed.
  4. While there is lot of debate on privacy laws and transparency in new media sites such as Facebook, the point made here is about perceptions of these technologies by citizens, rather than actual facts of these technologies.

The 2011 Vancouver Riots and the Role of Facebook

Dr Daniel Trottier
Post Doc Research Fellow, Department of Informatics and Media, Uppsala University, Box 513, 751 20 Uppsala, SWEDEN
Dr Christopher J. Schneider,
The University of British Columbia, Irving K. Barber School of Arts and Sciences, Okanagan Campus, 3333 University Way Kelowna, B.C., Canada V1V 1V7

Popular accounts have linked social media to the ‘Arab Spring’ and other protest movements. But the decentralized power that is manifest in social media can also augment social control. This paper looks at the use of social media in reaction to the 2011 riot in Vancouver. It does this with data from Facebook users responding to the riots as well as police reports and interview data that contextualize new forms of policing. This furthers the study of media surveillance, with a focus on the relation between police, social media platforms, and social media users.

This paper considers two interlinked developments: the self-deputization of citizens on social media, and the impact this has on official police work. We consider the use of surveillance through social media to identify and prosecute people who participated in the 2011 Vancouver riots in British Columbia, Canada. While Canada has seen other “Stanley Cup Riots” (e.g. Montreal 1993, Vancouver 1994, Edmonton 2006), social media were not a part of these events. As a result of domestic technologies, and a growing culture that surrounds these technologies, we demonstrate how a new kind of policing by social media users emerges and changes official police work. We call this phenomenon crowd-sourced policing. This process operates independently from police investigations. Yet police work itself is not displaced: new strategies to use social media indicate an even-greater control by police of the criminal event.

Social media use by law enforcement: Interaction and surveillance

Kristene Unsworth
The iSchool at Drexel College of Information Science and Technology Drexel University 3141 Chestnut Street Philadelphia, PA 19104-2875 USA

This presentation will discuss ongoing, comparative research into the uses of social media by law enforcement. The project examines official department policies as they relate to the use of social media tools for connecting with and monitoring the public.

Law enforcement has begun using social media as a means to reach out to the communities they serve, not only by providing information, but as a method to increase communication between officers and the public. During the UK riots in August 2011, Superintendent Mark Payne, of the West Midlands police, used Twitter extensively to report on the riots and to post official information. In Toronto, Canada many on the police force have been using social media to build bridges between their departments and at risk youth. The Philadelphia police department is developing a mobile app that will offer information about local issues as well as links to report crimes locally and to International Crime Stoppers. These are just a few of the ways some police departments are using social media both as a tool to connect with the public. Additionally, social media is a powerful means for intelligence gathering and surveillance. In Vancouver, B.C., law enforcement credited social media as being instrumental in helping them identify rioters after the 2011 Stanley Cup. Stories abound of cases where police have been able to apprehend a suspect based on posts made on social media sites. Recently, the Boston police have subpoenaed the Twitter account of some users on the basis of an “unspecified criminal investigation.” Although social media has become a resource for police the policy and legal aspects governing its use for their work is still being developed. In some cases the motto, “ask forgiveness, not permission” appears to rule the use of these new technologies. This underlines the importance of critically examining the policies being developed as well as the legal instances where questions are being raised.

New technologies for sharing and control? Delving into ‘alternative’ Social Networking Sites

Lonneke van der Velden
PhD candidate, Amsterdam School for Cultural Analysis (ASCA) Department of Mediastudies, Room 2.13 Turfdraagsterpad 9 1012 XT Amsterdam

Facebook is immensely popular having more than 800 million active users,however, the social networking service is increasingly criticized for its gigantic surveillance capacities and acts of censorship. This raises the question of potential alternatives to Facebook, what kind of networks and protocols are currently being developed, and how they interact with these problems (Unlike Us 2011).

This paper discusses examples of ways of looking at practices of resistance to surveillance technologies and, informed by Actor Network Theory, examines some problematic issues in these approaches. Next, the paper presents a case study of different social networking platforms that have been conceived as alternatives to Facebook and explores what kind of possibilities and new relations are opened up by these practices.

The case study contains a comparison of the default settings of a variety of social networking sites, including the different paths for setting up profile pages and the various options to modify one’s settings.1 Profiling oneself can be done on a specific page, but it can also be presented as an explicitly dynamic and dispersed activity. Furthermore, various platforms show different trust relations and different notions of data distribution, varying from explicit claims about data ownership to more loosely articulated connections to one’s data traces.
Inspired by debates about how to conceptualize resistance to surveillance (Fernandez & Huey 2009) and work on material participation (Marres & Lezaun 2011), this paper aims to reformulate our understanding of what constitutes innovative practices in a surveillance context.

Fernandez, L. A. and L. Huey (2009). “Is Resistance Futile? Thoughts on Resisting Surveillance”. Surveillance & Society 6(3): 199–202
Marres, N. and J. Lezaun (2011). “Materials and devices of the public.” Economy and Society 40 (4): 489-509
Unlike Us: Understanding Social Media Monopolies and their Alternatives, call 2011.

Counter-Surveillance as pursuance and socio-political parrhesia: considering Michel Foucault’s The Courage of Truth

Miguelángel Verde Garrido
Freie Universität Berlin, Center for Global Politics, Garystraße 55, 14195, Berlin, Germany

This paper will explore civil society's efforts at counter-surveillance from the conceptual and theoretical standpoints that Michel Foucault established with his analyses of economic and political 'regimes' of knowledge, of the dynamics that exist between power and resistance, and of the ethico-political militancy of a parrhesiastic telling of the truth in spite of the risks that are involved in confronting more powerful authorities (e.g., transnational corporations and/or the State).

Throughout the last decade, both democratic and authoritarian States have intensified the securitization of information and communications technologies. And yet, during the year 2011, a multitude of socio-political revolutionary and protest movements, journalistic and hacktivist whistleblower exposures, alternative media and social network reportages thrived and spread globally, despite extensive State and private sector surveillance and censorship, mainstream media crackdowns, and near or total Internet and mobile telephony blackouts.

Foucault's final lectures at the Collège de France in 1984, entitled The courage of truth, allowed the French author to put in relation knowledge inasmuch modes of veridiction, power inasmuch governmentality (which employs political economy and deploys apparatuses of security in order to normalize the population), and subject inasmuch practices of the self – carefully avoiding the reduction of any one of them to the others, since their relations are constitutive of each other in the end.

Hence, this paper will explore the notion of parrhÄ“sia and its function of criticism in order to better clarify counter-surveillance pursuance as ethico-political militancy. In other words, to explain counter-surveillance not only as an emancipatory practice of socio-political resistance by which to contest hegemonic politico-economic 'regimes' of truth, but also as a practice of resemantization and cultivation of a social self that enable civil society to propose another world and another life, without anaidos – without shame.

Keywords: counter-surveillance; parrhēsia; Michel Foucault.

Technopolitical Epistemologies, Body Ontologies and Gendered Artefacts: Or: When Surveillance Studies meets Gender & Technoscience Studies

Prof. Dr. Jutta Weber
Universität Paderborn, Fakultät für Kulturwissenschaften , Institut für Medienwissenschaften, Warburgerstr. 100 33098 Paderborn Raum E2.161

Today, surveillance technology becomes pervasive and a key player in standardizing everyday routines, sorting the social and implementing mechanisms of in- and exclusion along diverse axes such as gender, class, age, or race. Therefore it is crucial to develop a rich understanding of technology beyond reification or blackboxing.
With the help of feminist technoscience studies I want to show how body scanners (whole body imaging systems) can not only be seen as artefacts, know-how, or socio-technical systems but as specific networks of processes, doings & things. At the same time, the focus on the gendered dimensions of everyday surveillance practices is a possibility to make the socio-technological nexus visible as well as the transformation of subjectivities and body ontologies.

Surveillance as X-Ray: Reconsidering Information Age Public Services

Dr. C. William. R. Webster
Senior Lecturer in Public Management Director, MBA Public Service Management Chair, Living in Surveillance Societies (LiSS) COST Action
Stirling Management School University of Stirling Stirling, FK9 4LA

This paper reflects on an emerging academic perspective of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) which places a consideration of ‘surveillance’ at the heart of its analysis. Here, it is argued, that a new ‘surveillance perspective’ is emerging and becoming more prominent, and that this perspective offers new and different insights into comprehending the nature of new and emergent technologies and their application in governmental and public service settings. In this respect, the surveillance perspective offers the potential to provide x-ray vision, an approach which can be utilised to comprehend and ‘shine a light on’ the surveillance implications of ICTs in modern society. In addition, to providing a fresh look at the implications of the way new ICTs are integrated into public administration the surveillance perspective allows us to make different judgements about the desirability, or otherwise, of the use of ICTs in public administration and society. Here the core argument is that the surveillance perspective provides a different type of insight, and an understanding of the use and implications of ICTs which is often missing from mainstream eGovernment studies. Moreover, implicit in this perspective is the view that our attitudes towards the use and usefulness of ICT applications may be different if we reflect on the surveillance consequences of their use. The paper represents an attempt to add something to existing literatures which seek to understand the nature of government, public administration and services in the information age. That added something derives from surveillance as x-ray, because such an approach allows us to ‘get under the skin’ of information age services.

Levelling Up Through Surveillance: The promises of making real-life better through games

Jennifer R. Whitson, PhD Candidate (ABD),
Department of Sociology and Anthropology, Carleton University, Ottawa, Canada, B750 Loeb Building, 1125 Colonel By Drive, K1S 5B6

By their nature, digital games facilitate surveillance. They allow for the compilation of statistics, internal states, and rules to be recorded, thus hiding many of the internal workings from the players and making the games much more complex. This digitization makes it much easier to collect player data and metrics, and then, as a process of function creep, to use this data in new and innovative ways, such as improving the user experience, or subtly shaping users' in-game desires and behaviours. Increasingly, these practices have moved from non-game spaces into social networking sites and spaces of play.

The "gamification" movement is benefiting from the increasing sophistication of such metrics. Gamification combines the playful design and feedback mechanisms from games with users' social profiles (e.g. Facebook, twitter, and LinkedIn) in non-game applications explicitly geared to drive behavioural change (e.g. weight loss, workplace productivity, educational tools, and consumer loyalty). As critics point out, gamified applications rely on the points, leaderboards, and badges often seen in games, but are not games in themselves (Deterding 2010; Bogost 2011). Advocates of the gamification movement - including Al Gore in a recent Games for Change keynote - argue that this monitoring and feedback makes difficult tasks more playful and enjoyable (McGonigal 2011; Gore 2011). However, the marketing and political discourse of using games to change behaviour in positive ways is quite different from messy actualities rooted in advertising, consumption, and intrusive user monitoring. The current potentials to ‘gamify’ life have incited debate on whether the spread of these points based systems heralds playful utopias or dystopic surveillant societies run by corporations and advertisers.

This paper highlights the rise of gamification and the implications for surveillance studies. In particular, it focuses on describing the increasingly intrusive monitoring practices are propagated under the banner of fun and play.

Works Cited: Bogost, Ian. 2011. Persuasive Games: Exploitationware. Gamasutra. Retrieved from
Deterding, Sebastian. 2010. Pawned. Gamification and Its Discontents. Presented at Playful 2010. Conway Hall, London.
Gore, Al. 2011. Keynote Presentation. Games for Change 8th Annual Festival. New York City, N.Y., June 20, 2011.
McGonigal, Jane. 2011. Reality Is Broken: Why Games Make Us Better and How They Can Change the World. London, UK: Penguin Press.

Bringing the border back home: Criminalization, surveillance and the UK Border Agency

Dr Dean Wilson
Programme Manager Criminology and Criminal Justice School of Law Rm 5, 19 Portland Villas Plymouth University Plymouth PL4 8AA

In 2008, the United Kingdom Border Agency (UKBA) published a policy document entitled ‘Enforcing the Deal’ which outlined a strategy for increased enforcement against undocumented migrants. The strategy envisages the creation of a significant national surveillance system to monitor undocumented migrants in the UK. Central to such a plan is the creation of ‘Immigration Crime Partnerships’ between the UKBA, local police forces and private and public sector bodies. The strategy is also being supported by the creation of Local Immigration Teams (LITs) staffed by 7500 UKBA employees charged with forging local partnerships, thus embedding immigration policing within local communities. Immigration Crime Partnerships are also based upon extensive data-sharing, such as the sharing of Home Office ‘watchlists’ with key partners, and extending co-operation with agencies such as HM Revenue and Customs, Department of Work and Pensions and the Driver and Vehicle Licensing Authority. Such arrangements indicate that the work of immigration surveillance is being facilitated not only through advanced data processing, but through the diffusion of immigration policing tasks across the public and private sector. This paper will situate these developments against the broader backdrop of the criminalization of immigration and the blurring of internal and external security, comparing the UK context with similar developments in other nation states of the Global North.

A New Political Theory of Surveillance

David Murakami Wood
Canada Research Chair (Tier II) in Surveillance Studies, Queen’s University, Ontario, Canada.

As my empirical work on surveillance societies has progressed, my theoretical concerns have moved towards considering the possible variety of types of surveillance society. One way of understanding such a variety would be through political theory, an area in which work in Surveillance Studies remains thin. Beginning with Anthony Giddens’s assertion that surveillance always tends towards totalitarianism, this paper examines the relationship between systems of government and surveillance with the aim of constructing a political theory of surveillance. The objectives are to better place surveillance in multiple political contexts, to help understand under what conditions surveillance becomes a political and social problem, to determine whether surveillance can function in non-totalitarian ways, and to move beyond privacy as the default ethical or political response to surveillance. The paper discusses several possible typologies of surveillance and systems of government. The preliminary conclusion is that surveillance needs to be understood as a secondary or emergent feature of a broader matrix of information relationships and of authority, and that in conditions of informational reciprocity between state and citizen, there can exist, contra-Giddens, forms of non-totalitarian, democratic and even consensual surveillance society.

Partners’ in surveillance: Interdependencies among state and private actors involved in telecommunications surveillance

Mike Zajko
Department of Sociology 4-15 HM Tory Building University of Alberta Edmonton, AB Canada T6G 2H4

This paper reviews developments indicating the emergence of new forms of interdependence between state and private actors for the purposes of surveillance. Such relationships are particularly apparent in the monitoring and governance of telecommunications and the internet, where state and private actors must frequently rely on one another. While the growth of transnational communications networks has created challenges for the expression of sovereign power, state actors are continuing to find ways of asserting control over this digital landscape. A number of states have refined the filtering of internet content for users within their borders, while many other states monitor telecommunications networks for threats to their national security and political control. However, even the largest and most sophisticated state intelligence agencies are unable to manage this task independently, and a growing private surveillance industry has emerged to provide services to state clients. For corporations providing telecommunications services (including internet service providers), facilitating state surveillance practices is often a precondition for operating within a given state’s jurisdiction. While many state actors are highly dependent on their private ‘partners’ in surveillance, and despite frequent overlap and interpenetration between actors in the private and state domains, state actors continue to occupy a distinct and privileged role in the establishment of state-private ‘surveillant assemblages’. This paper elaborates a number of the forms that such assemblages take with examples from the field of telecommunications, and argues for closer attention to the surveillance projects jointly carried out by state and private actors, due to their potential for political repression. With the threat of revolution now a salient concern for many states, and with the development of new techniques for telecommunications surveillance, we can anticipate greater efforts by states to monitor and govern telecommunications networks in the future.

Doping and surveillance - privacy vs. integrity of sport?

Dr. Nils Zurawski
Vertretung der Professur: Sicherheit, soziale Konflikte, Regulation ,Universität Hamburg Inst. für kriminologische Sozialforschung, Allende-Platz 1 20146 Hamburg ,Germany

Nobody (officially) supports doping practices - it would be against the spirit of sports, its fair-play character and ultimately its integrity. Hence all technologies and practices that are deployed to fight any form of illegal performance enhancement are welcomed by sport officials and audience alike. However, it is the athletes that have to deal with the forms of surveillance and controls they are subjected to. And their voice remains often unheard - indeed to criticise these controls would evoke suspicion and doubt.

But, doping controls are quite clearly forms of surveillance that touch on more than just technical or juridical issues. First and foremost of all doping controls invade privacy and compromise basic human rights and civil liberties.Although doping controls as surveillance and/or control practices want to ensure fair play in sports (like many surveillance practices do in their field, e.g. work, health, justice), they may produce new problems, such as the infringement of locational privacy or the repeated transgression of bodily integrity. The collection of such data may also have he unforeseen consequences by its inclusion into (digital) networks of knowledge.

In this paper I would like to discuss the consequences of doping controls from a surveillance studies perspective, i.e. to look at the wider implications such practices have on the individual, its rights and liberties in contrast to what widely is referred to as the integrity of sports - a normative phenomenon that must be challenged and reformulated.

Furthermore I want to explore and discuss research approaches, subjects and themes. This involves questions such as

- doping and self-surveillance/self-discipline regimes
- the techniques and technologies of control and the athlete‘s attitudes towards them
- surveillance as a means to ensure fairness
- modes of resistance and the interaction between technology, humans and discourses of legitimate control and supervision
- maturity, self-determination and civil liberties
- doping, bodily integrity and the technologies of surveillance