Academic Writing

Producing written work as part of a university exam, essay, dissertation or other form of assignment requires an approach to organisation, structure, voice and use of language that differs from other forms of writing and communication. Academic writing is a language that no one is born speaking. Understanding more about the conventions of your discipline and the specific features and conventions of academic writing can help you develop confidence and make improvements to your written work.

Academic writing is part of a complex process of finding, analysing and evaluating information, planning, structuring, editing and proofreading your work, and reflecting on feedback that underpins written assessment at university. There are lots of resources available to help you develop your skills relating to all stages of the process.

Explore the essay workflow to the right and click on the buttons to find resources and information about each stage.  

The Conventions of Academic Writing

Academic writing is defined by conventions rather than rules. This means that they are flexible and adaptable. The point is not for you and your peers to produce identical pieces of work, but to provide a shared framework of communication that allows specialists within a field to access information, ideas and concepts quickly and easily.


Academic Writing Prezi

For an overview of those conventions including examples of how you might apply them to your work, have a look at the 301 Academic Writing Prezi. You can follow the suggested order using the arrows to progress, or explore the Prezi feely by panning around the screen.


Explore the tabs below to find out more about the specific features of academic writing: academic language; flow and connectivity, paraphrasing and writing to a word count.

Academic Language

Academic Language

It goes without saying that academic writing uses a more formal register than everyday communication. The following are four important conventions to follow that will help you to hit the right level of formality in your writing:

1. Use 'Latinate' verb forms and avoid casual language

Academic writing tends to adopt formal language derived from Latin, rather than Anglo-Saxon roots. This distinction is particularly evident in the use of verbs in academic language. In general, phrasal verbs are used when speaking (e.g. in presentations), whilst Latinate verbs are used in academic writing (e.g. essays). Phrasal language is more informal, whilst Latinate verbs sound ‘posher’ and more academic.

Phrasal verbs tend to come in two parts: they use a verb together with an adverb or preposition. There is often a one-word equivalent, which usually comes from Latin root, reflecting the origins of formal English among educated Romans and the Church.

Examples include: 

  • carry out = perform
  • talk about = discuss
  • look up to = respect

Why is this useful? Latinate verbs use fewer words, so can help you develop a more concise writing style. Latinate verbs can also be more specific than their phrasal equivalents, for example, the phrasal verb 'set up' has several Latinate equivalents: 

  • A room:   I’m going to arrange the room for the meeting
  • An experiment:  The experiment was prepared
  • An organisation:  The NSPCC was established in 1884

It is okay to use a mixture of phrasal and Latinate verbs in your writing, and to tailor it to your assignment. For example, if writing a more informal blog post, you may want to use more phrasal language. Some common academic examples are:

Phrasal Latinate Example
Carry out Perform The experiment was carried out/performed...
Find out Investigate The aim of this project is to find out/investigate…
Leave out Omit Therefore this was left out of/omitted from the analysis...
Point out Explain In this section I will point out/explain...
Set up Establish The experimental apparatus was set up/assembled...
Look into Explore The literature review will look into/explore the reasons...
Have an effect on Influence The results show that X has had an effect on/influenced Y...
Come up with Generate The group had to come up with/generate ideas for their project...
Hold onto Retain They held onto/retained the idea that…

It is okay to use a mixture of phrasal and Latinate verbs in your writing, and to tailor it to your assignment. For example, if writing a more informal blog post, you may want to use more phrasal language. But awareness of how and when to use different registers of language can help to improve the level of formality of your writing. 

2. Avoid contractions and abbreviations

Academic writing tends to avoid the types of contractions and abbreviated language that you might use in other forms of communication. In some cases, this is obvious, but in other cases, where abbreviations have become commonly used forms of words (e.g. quote/quotation, bike/bicycle, flu/influenza) it can be more difficult to spot. For example:

Academic Writing Everyday Communication

Are not/is not

It will

Should not/Can not

Quotation

UK

Aren't/isn't

It'll

Should't/can't

Quote

United Kingdom

However, some commonly used abbreviations or acronyms relating to the discipline will often need to be used to enhance the clarity of your writing and reduce the wordcount. In these cases, it is important to use the full form of the abbreviated name or phrase in the first instance, including the abbreviation in parentheses. For example:

  • A key role has always been played by the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO)...
  • World Health Organisation (WHO) recommendations state...
  • The use of an Electrocardiogram (ECG) is recommended...
  • The addition of trichloroacetic acid (TCA) will result in...

Please note: certain extremely commonly used acronyms have become part of common usage and do not require further explanation within a text. For example: AIDS, laser, radar, scuba. 

3. Appears neutral and objective

Academic writing tends to strive for an appearance of objectivity. Although you will no doubt have an informed opinion or theory that you are trying to get across in your writing, it is important to build a compelling objective case for your ideas using evidence and data. It is not uncommon to use the first person (I) in academic writing, but only as a further development of your objective analysis and interpretation to indicate where your original contribution takes over.  

  • Avoid overusing the first person (I) and use passive forms where possible: 'the experiment was conducted...'; 'evidence suggests...'; 'a sample was taken...'
  • Watch out for adjectives that imply a value judgement: fantastic, brilliant, rubbish, interesting, good, etc.
  • Avoid using cliched phrases: 'a hot topic...'; 'the other side of the coin...'; 'at the end of the day...'; 'the fact of the matter...'; 'in the current climate...'
  • Avoid overstatement. Make cautious use or avoid the following altogether: extremely, very, really, always, never, a lot, the most, the least

Always check department guidelines on the use of first person (I) forms in your writing. Some scientific writing may require no first person forms to be used, while some reflective assignments may require the use of the first person to present personal experience. 

4. Uses Evidence

Academic writing draws on evidence and sources to present a balanced view of All facts and theories should be referenced using a standard system:

  • Harvard, MHRA, APA, Chicago, etc.
  • Author-date or footnotes
  • Include a bibliography of EVERYTHING that has informed your writing
    Check your department policy on preferred method
  • Visit the Library Referencing pages for more information, examples and tutorials
  • Always check department guidelines!

Academic Style Prezi

For more information and activities on using an appropriate academic style, have a look at the 301 Academic Style Prezi. You can follow the suggested order using the arrows to progress, or explore the Prezi freely by panning around the screen.


Further Information

Top Tips
  • Be as concise as possible – remove any unnecessary words
  • Changing words forms and word order in a sentence can help you to be more concise
  • Try to break down very long sentences into shorter ones
  • Check what is expected from the assignment – if it is a reflective piece then the conventions will be different
  • Show your opinion subtly without making sweeping or unsupported statements
  • Avoid waffling – stick to the point!Remember: It shows MORE skill to express a complex idea in a simple way than to express it in a complex way.
Links and Resources

Internal Links

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Paragraphs, Flow and Connectivity

Paragraphs Structure

Paragraphs are the building blocks of your written work, and a good essay or assignment will organise the content clearly at a paragraph level. However, in a piece of academic writing paragraphs can be tricky to structure due to the complexity of ideas that you are likely to be working with.

The following structure is not the only way to write a paragraph, but it is a common model that is used in academic writing to build sources and evidence into your writing in a critical and analytical way. 

Paragraph StructureWriting good paragraphs: Unity

A paragraph will usually discuss only one idea as outlined in the first sentence, the topic sentence. If you find a paragraph drifting away from this controlling idea, it is time to split it into more than one paragraph.

  • The opening sentence of paragraph should outline the main idea (topic sentence)
  • Every supporting sentence should directly explain, refer back to, or build on the main idea using specific evidence and examples where possible
  • Use the final sentence(s) to refer back to the topic sentence and/or lead into the following paragraph.

Flow and Connectivity

The skill of structuring your writing and building effective connections between paragraphs is one that will allow you to develop and sustain a compelling argument in your written work. By setting out your ideas and evidence with a natural flow, you will make your work much more readable. This important technique will help you work towards higher levels of attainment in assignments and help to improve the quality of your everyday writing.


Flow and Connectivity Prezi

For more information and activities on flow and connectivity within and between paragraphs, have a look at the following Prezi. You can follow the suggested order using the arrows to progress, or explore the Prezi freely by panning around the screen.


Further Information

Top Tips
  • Be as concise as possible – remove any unnecessary words
  • Changing words forms and word order in a sentence can help you to be more concise
  • Try to break down very long sentences into shorter ones
  • Check what is expected from the assignment – if it is a reflective piece then the conventions will be different
  • Show your opinion subtly without making sweeping or unsupported statements
  • Avoid waffling – stick to the point!Remember: It shows MORE skill to express a complex idea in a simple way than to express it in a complex way.
Links and Resources

Internal Links

External Links

Paraphrasing

Paraphrasing

Quotation MarksWhen you are producing a piece of writing at university, you will often want to talk about what someone else has written about the topic. Quoting and paraphrasing are two distinct ways of doing this.

Quoting means directly including in your work the published words or other data you have found in a source. Paraphrasing means expressing in your own words the ideas, arguments, words or other material you have found published elsewhere.

There are many reasons for quoting or paraphrasing in your own work, but essentially these techniques allow you to show your understanding of current knowledge about the topic you are studying, and respond to that knowledge in your work. Remember that you will need to cite and reference all of the sources that have informed your work.

It is a complex linguistic skill to incorporate others’ work smoothly and efficiently into your own by quoting or paraphrasing. Skilful use of sources and selective quoting and paraphrasing are important elements of the critical writing process, which is in greater detail on the critical reading and writing page.

It is also a key skill of academic writing that will help to ensure that your work does not include elements of plagiarism. For more information on plagiarism, including suggestions on how to avoid it, see the following resource from the Department of Physics and Astronomy. As with other aspects of working with sources, it is important to follow your department’s specific guidelines about these skills.


When to Quote and When to Paraphrase

Direct Quote Paraphrase
If you are referring to a formal definition in which the specific language is important To elaborate on or explain a concept or definition to your reader
If you are quoting an opinion (with which you do not necessarily agree)  To engage critically with an opinion or source and demonstrate that you understand it fully
If you are reporting direct speech, e.g. the reactions or experience of someone actually involved To summarise the reactions or experience of one or more individual
If you wish to highlight specific features of the author's writing style  If the general concept is more important than the specific language used

Further Information

Top Tips
  • Do not use a quotation if you do not fully understand its meaning. Direct quoting from a complex source without adding your own interpretation will not help the flow of your ideas. Can you find other interpretations that you can draw on to help understand and paraphrase the text?
  • Paraphrasing does not mean simply altering one or two words from the original quote. This might constitute plagiarism, so make sure you understand the text and express the idea using your own words
  • Using a large number of direct quotes can break up the flow of your writing. If you find that you have an excessive number of quotes, it may be worth putting some of them into your own words
  • Remember: paraphrasing is a vital skill of academic writing that will allow you draw on existing knowledge and avoid the risks of plagiarising
Links and Resources

Internal links

External links

Writing to a Word Count

Writing to a Word Count

If you find you often go over the word count on an assignment, there are several possible causes and solutions. In this online resource we will think about the purpose of the word count, reasons why we might go over, and strategies to tackle it.

Why is there a word count?

Word counts are part of the challenge of academic writing for several reasons:

  • To suggest a level of detail: with one topic, you could write a 100 word summary, 1,000 word essay, 10,000 word dissertation, or a 100,000 word PhD thesis! The word count gives an indication of the level of depth you are expected to go into
  • To ensure fairness: each student has the same number of words to show the marker what they know. 
  • To test your communication Skills: being able to keep within a word count requires a concise writing style and excellent communication skills – it helps you get straight to the point!
  • To demonstrate your critical thinking skills: to stay within word counts, you need to focus on what is most important, and select the best examples and case studies. It puts critical thinking into practice
  • As a matter of practicality: markers only have a finite amount of time to mark work!

Why Do We Go Over the Word Count?

First of all, it is important to remember that being over the word count is better than having a blank page! The ideas are down on the page, but might need refining. There are several reasons why you might have exceeded the word count: 

  • Still developing an effective structure: Do you have a clear plan and have you stuck to it? If not, can you map out an overall structure for your essay and identify areas where you have departed from it
  • Fear of missing out something important: try to be selective with examples/arguments. What is your 'mission statement' or key argument, and how does each section help you make it?
  • Waffling (using 200 words when 100 will do): work on developing a concise academic writing style. Even if you’re not over the word count, this leaves you more words for your critical analysis and discussion

The following are some simple tips to make sure you stay within your word count:

Dos Don'ts
Find out what counts towards your word count (forreferences, foot notes, abstract, captions, tables, text boxes…) Lie about your word count!
Consider combining related sections or cutting irrelevant sections Cut sections just to meet the word count
Focus on condensing your key arguments Focus on removing individual words - this will be extremely time consuming and will make little impact on your overall count
Use a concise academic writing style e.g. avoid excessive hedging, remove redundant adjectives Use contractions to meet the word count (e.g. isn’t, doesn’t, shouldn’t) – this is not academic

Strategies to Meet Your Word Limit

1. Structure

How are you structuring your argument? Does it need developing in order to highlight the key argument?

  • Plan what your key points are, and what percentage of your word count to spend on each. Are any sections disproportionately long?
  • Avoid repeating arguments – try reading your work backwards (paragraph by paragraph, not word by word!). This can make it easier to spot ideas that are repeated, as you are viewing each paragraph individually rather than your argument as a whole
  • Use topic sentences at the start of each paragraph. This can help you (and the marker) to identify what key point you are trying to make. Are there any paragraphs that are making the same point? Can you link them?

2. Being selective

Are you using more examples/case studies than necessary? Are you worried about missing out something important? Try the following:

  • Mission Statement (Thesis Statement): Use this to identify what your key argument will be, and how to structure it. What are your most important points, and what can you perhaps cut?
  • Selecting evidence: It might be tempting to show all of the reading you have done, but select the most important case studies, and explain why you have chosen them – this can be evidence of critical thinking. (e.g. whilst many studies have examined X, a key paper is Y because…) For more info, see the Manchester University Academic Phrasebank
  • Use the WEED model: This can help organise the reading you have done. What key pieces of evidence and what key examples from your reading best prove your point? You don’t need to show all of the reading that you’ve done, you need to use the best evidence and examples to make your argument

3. Academic Language/Style

Are you using 200 words where 100 will do? One way of testing this is to calculate your Fog Index to find out how clear and concise you are being. Some ways to keep your word count down include: 

  • Use Latinate verbs (find out vs. investigate) (resource for this?)
  • Replace nouns with verbs (carry out an analysis of vs. analyse)
  • Avoid excessive hedging language (it may be possible that X could be responsible for Y as it may be the case that…)

Remember: Having a more concise academic writing style gives you more words to use on things that are important, e.g. critical analysis and discussion. It’s not just about cutting the odd word here and there to get you under the word count.


Further Information

Top Tips
  • If you have a word count to write to, treat it as a target. The closer you can get to the exact word count, the better!
  • Make sure you know what counts towards your word count and what doesn't (e.g. bibliography, appendices, etc.)
  • Use the word count to develop your structure and plan. Break the question down into sections and write an appropriate number of words in each section
  • Make every word count!
Links and Resources

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