The protection of human rights presents major challenges to the international community. Before the issues of prevention and remedies can be addressed, however, some basic questions must be tackled. What are human rights? How are they to be defined? Is there a hierarchy of rights? Who violates human rights? Should human rights protection vary across the globe, taking account of cultural diversity or should it be universal? What is the relationship between State sovereignty and human rights? What is the relationship between human rights and humanitarian law? This module examines the theoretical, moral, political and cultural issues which have shaped and continue to influence modern international human rights law. Case studies will be examined to foster critical knowledge and analysis.