Prof. Nicholas H. Williams
Professor in Physical Organic Chemistry and Director of Learning and Teaching
|Centre for Biomaterials and Tissue Engineering|
Prof. Williams obtained his BA in Chemistry from Cambridge in 1988, which was followed by an MA and PhD from the same institution in 1992. After his PhD he was a post doctoral fellow and temporary lector at Trinity College, Cambridge. In 1994 he became a RS/NSERC Research Fellow at McGill University in Montréal. In 1996 he was appointed to a lectureship at the University of Sheffield, where he was promoted to Senior Lecturer in 2003 and then Reader in 2007. In 2011 he was promoted to Professor.
Professional Qualifications & Memberships
Physical organic, bioorganic and bioinorganic chemistry. Mechanism, reactivity and catalysis, especially relevant to biology. Functional supramolecular systems. Surface engineering materials.
Organic Chemistry; Biological Chemistry
Our research can be broadly described as physical organic chemistry. This is the design, synthesis and systematic study of (mainly) organic molecules. The molecules we are interested in designing are ones which either show fundamental insights into mechanisms, reactivity, recognition and/or catalysis, or exploit the understanding we have to create more complex supramolecular systems. Practically, we think at the molecular level (designing organic molecules with key structural features), make them (organic synthesis), and finally discover how well they function by carefully examining their properties. Currently, we have three main strands of investigation:
Enzymes are remarkably efficient catalysts, operating under mild aqueous conditions; as man made efforts to achieve similar activity are many orders of magnitude less efficient, there is still a great deal that we do not understand. We are investigating well defined model compounds to understand how to combine several functional groups so that they work really effectively together. This helps give a deeper understanding of biological catalysis, and guides us in designing our own biomimetic catalysts. Organic ligands which can bind and control the reactivity of metal ions provide the best catalysts to date, and form the core of our models and catalysts.
We are applying the discovery that individual components of a catalyst can be brought together to achieve cooperative catalysis (i.e. the whole is more effective than the sum of the parts!) towards creating supramolecular systems which can be controlled by recognition processes. This is the type of event which takes place in signalling at cell surfaces, and we are making transmembrane signalling systems which mimic this.
Lastly, based on the discovery that calixarene-like molecules show a remarkable ability to modify the properties of surfaces, we are investigating the key molecular features that this is based on, and what properties we can bring to a wide range of materials. For example, we can already change paper from being highly water and oil absorbent to being both water and oil repellent, without observably changing its appearance. In particular, these molecules will have the potential make ordinary materials into sophisticated biomaterials by creating a new bio-active interface.
Undergraduate and postgraduate taught modules
- Ding Y, Williams NH & Hunter CA (2019) A Synthetic Vesicle-to-Vesicle Communication System. Journal of the American Chemical Society, 141(44), 17847-17853.
- Ward MD, Hunter CA & Williams NH (2018) Coordination Cages Based on Bis(pyrazolylpyridine) Ligands: Structures, Dynamic Behavior, Guest Binding, and Catalysis. Accounts of Chemical Research, 51(9), 2073-2082.
- Cullen W, Metherell AJ, Wragg AB, Taylor CGP, Williams NH & Ward MD (2018) Catalysis in a Cationic Coordination Cage Using a Cavity-Bound Guest and Surface-Bound Anions: Inhibition, Activation, and Autocatalysis.. Journal of the American Chemical Society, 140(8), 2821-2828. View this article in WRRO
- Metherell AJ, Cullen W, Williams NH & Ward MD (2018) Front Cover: Binding of Hydrophobic Guests in a Coordination Cage Cavity is Driven by Liberation of “High-Energy” Water (Chem. Eur. J. 7/2018). Chemistry - A European Journal, 24(7), 1459-1459.
- Alfhaid L, La Spina R, Tomlinson MR, Hall AR, Seddon WD, Williams NH & Geoghegan M (2018) Adhesion between oppositely charged polyelectrolytes. Journal of Adhesion, 94(1), 58-76. View this article in WRRO
- Metherell AJ, Cullen W, Williams NH & Ward M (2017) Binding of hydrophobic guests in a coordination cage cavity is driven by liberation of 'high-energy' water. Chemistry - A European Journal. View this article in WRRO
- Langton MJ, Scriven LM, Williams NH & Hunter CA (2017) Triggered Release from Lipid Bilayer Vesicles by an Artificial Transmembrane Signal Transduction System. Journal of the American Chemical Society, 139(44), 15768-15773. View this article in WRRO
- Pabis A, Williams NH & Kamerlin SCL (2017) Simulating the reactions of substituted pyridinio-N-phosphonates with pyridine as a model for biological phosphoryl transfer.. Org Biomol Chem. View this article in WRRO
- Chu Y, Williams NH & Hengge AC (2017) Transition States and Control of Substrate Preference in the Promiscuous Phosphatase PP1. Biochemistry, 56(30), 3923-3933. View this article in WRRO
- Langton MJ, Williams NH & Hunter CA (2017) Recognition-Controlled Membrane Translocation for Signal Transduction across Lipid Bilayers.. Journal of the American Chemical Society, 139(18), 6461-6466. View this article in WRRO
- Blackburn GM, Cherfils J, Moss GP, Richards NGJ, Waltho JP, Williams NH & Wittinghofer A (2017) How to name atoms in phosphates, polyphosphates, their derivatives and mimics, and transition state analogues for enzyme-catalysed phosphoryl transfer reactions (IUPAC Recommendations 2016). Pure and Applied Chemistry, 89(5), 653-675. View this article in WRRO
- Kirwa A, Williams NH, Mulla MY, Di Natale C, Paolesse R & Grell M (2017) 'Rough guide' evanescent wave optrode for colorimetric metalloporphyrine sensors. Talanta, 164, 228-232. View this article in WRRO
- Williams NH, Baarrozo A, Blaha-Nelson D & Kamerlin SCL (2017) The effect of magnesium ions on triphosphate hydrolysis. Pure and Applied Chemistry. View this article in WRRO
- Ward MD, Hunter CA & Williams NH (2017) Guest Binding and Catalysis in the Cavity of a Cubic Coordination Cage. Chemistry Letters, 46(1), 2-9.
- Langton MJ, Keymeulen F, Ciaccia M, Williams NH & Hunter CA (2016) Controlled membrane translocation provides a mechanism for signal transduction and amplification. Nature Chemistry, 9, 426-430. View this article in WRRO
- Grell M, Williams N & Tuwei KA (2016) Fibre optic absorbance meter with low limit of detection for waterborne cations. Sensors & Actuators: B. Chemical, 237, 1102-1107. View this article in WRRO
- Li D & Williams NH (2016) The solvolysis mechanism of simple secondary tosylates in 50% aqueous TFE. Journal of Physical Organic Chemistry, 29(12), 709-717. View this article in WRRO
- Duarte F, Barrozo A, Aqvist J, Williams NH & Kamerlin SCL (2016) The Competing Mechanisms of Phosphate Monoester Dianion Hydrolysis. Journal of the American Chemical Society, 138(33), 10664-10673. View this article in WRRO
- Alfhaid L, Seddon WD, Williams NH & Geoghegan M (2016) Double-network hydrogels improve pH-switchable adhesion. Soft Matter, 12, 5022-5028. View this article in WRRO
- Cullen W, Misuraca MC, Hunter CA, Williams NH & Ward MD (2016) Highly efficient catalysis of the Kemp elimination in the cavity of a cubic coordination cage. Nature Chemistry, 8(3), 231-236. View this article in WRRO
- Tirel EY & Williams NH (2015) Enhancing Phosphate Diester Cleavage by a Zinc Complex through Controlling Nucleophile Coordination. Chemistry - A European Journal, 21(19), 7053-7056. View this article in WRRO
- Duarte F, Åqvist J, Williams NH & Kamerlin SCL (2015) Resolving Apparent Conflicts between Theoretical and Experimental Models of Phosphate Monoester Hydrolysis. Journal of the American Chemical Society, 137(3), 1081-1093. View this article in WRRO
- Tirel EY, Bellamy Z, Adams H, Lebrun V, Duarte F & Williams NH (2014) Catalytic Zinc Complexes for Phosphate Diester Hydrolysis. Angewandte Chemie, 126(31), 8385-8389.
- Tirel EY, Bellamy Z, Adams H, Lebrun V, Duarte F & Williams NH (2014) Catalytic zinc complexes for phosphate diester hydrolysis.. Angew Chem Int Ed Engl, 53(31), 8246-8250. View this article in WRRO
- Duarte F, Geng T, Marloie G, Al Hussain AO, Williams NH & Kamerlin SCL (2014) The alkaline hydrolysis of sulfonate esters: challenges in interpreting experimental and theoretical data.. J Org Chem, 79(7), 2816-2828. View this article in WRRO
- El Zubir O, Barlow I, Leggett GJ & Williams NH (2013) Fabrication of molecular nanopatterns at aluminium oxide surfaces by nanoshaving of self-assembled monolayers of alkylphosphonates.. Nanoscale, 5(22), 11125-11131. View this article in WRRO
- Ul-Haq E, Patole S, Moxey M, Amstad E, Vasilev C, Hunter CN, Leggett GJ, Spencer ND & Williams NH (2013) Photocatalytic nanolithography of self-assembled monolayers and proteins.. ACS Nano, 7(9), 7610-7618. View this article in WRRO
- Kirby AJ, Medeiros M, Mora JR, Oliveira PSM, Amer A, Williams NH & Nome F (2013) Intramolecular general base catalysis in the hydrolysis of a phosphate diester. Calculational guidance to a choice of mechanism.. J Org Chem, 78(4), 1343-1353.
- El Zubir O, Barlow I, Ul-Haq E, Tajuddin HA, Williams NH & Leggett GJ (2013) Generic methods for micrometer- and nanometer-scale surface derivatization based on photochemical coupling of primary amines to monolayers of aryl azides on gold and aluminum oxide surfaces.. Langmuir, 29(4), 1083-1092.
- Williams IH & Williams NH (2013) ADVANCES IN PHYSICAL ORGANIC CHEMISTRY PREFACE. ADVANCES IN PHYSICAL ORGANIC CHEMISTRY, VOL 47, 47, IX-X.
- Williams IH & Williams NH (2012) Advances in Physical Organic Chemistry Volume 46 PREFACE. ADVANCES IN PHYSICAL ORGANIC CHEMISTY, VOL 46, 46, IX-X.
- Tajuddin HA, Manning RJ, Leggett GJ & Williams NH (2012) Phase emerging from intramonolayer cycloaddition on micro-patterned monolayer. AIP Conference Proceedings, 1502(1), 171-181.
- Yang S, Feng G & Williams NH (2012) Highly selective colorimetric sensing pyrophosphate in water by a NBD-phenoxo-bridged dinuclear Zn(ii) complex. Organic and Biomolecular Chemistry, 10(29), 5606-5612.
- Korhonen H, Mikkola S & Williams NH (2012) β values in mechanistic studies on the transesterification of RNA models and their application in a metal ion complex promoted transesterification. Journal of Physical Organic Chemistry.
- Korhonen H, Mikkola S & Williams NH (2012) The mechanism of cleavage and isomerisation of RNA promoted by an efficient dinuclear Zn 2+ complex. Chemistry - A European Journal, 18(2), 659-670.
- Tomlinson CG, Syson K, Sengerová B, Atack JM, Sayers JR, Swanson L, Tainer JA, Williams NH & Grasby JA (2011) Neutralizing mutations of carboxylates that bind metal 2 in T5 flap endonuclease result in an enzyme that still requires two metal ions.. J Biol Chem, 286(35), 30878-30887.
- Kirby AJ, Medeiros M, Oliveira PSM, Orth ES, Brandão TAS, Wanderlind EH, Amer A, Williams NH & Nome F (2011) Activating water: Important effects of non-leaving groups on the hydrolysis of phosphate triesters. Chemistry - A European Journal, 17(52), 14996-15004.
- Sengerová B, Tomlinson C, Atack JM, Williams R, Sayers JR, Williams NH & Grasby JA (2010) Brønsted analysis and rate-limiting steps for the T5 flap endonuclease catalyzed hydrolysis of exonucleolytic substrates.. Biochemistry, 49(37), 8085-8093.
- Chu Y, Hengge AC & Williams NH (2010) A Simple Arg to Lys Mutant of Protein Phosphatase 1 Exhibits Catalytic Efficiencies toward Monoanionic Substrates Superior to Wild Type. FASEB JOURNAL, 24.
- Baxter NJ, Bowler MW, Alizadeh T, Cliff MJ, Hounslow AM, Wu B, Berkowitz DB, Williams NH, Blackburn GM & Waltho JP (2010) Atomic details of near-transition state conformers for enzyme phosphoryl transfer revealed by MgF-3 rather than by phosphoranes.. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 107(10), 4555-4560.
- Alkherraz A, Kamerlin SCL, Feng GQ, Sheikh QI, Warshel A & Williams NH (2010) Phosphate ester analogues as probes for understanding enzyme catalysed phosphoryl transfer. FARADAY DISCUSS, 145, 281-299.
- Baxter NJ, Hounslow AM, Bowler MW, Williams NH, Blackburn GM & Waltho JP (2009) MgF(3)(-) and alpha-galactose 1-phosphate in the active site of beta-phosphoglucomutase form a transition state analogue of phosphoryl transfer.. J Am Chem Soc, 131(45), 16334-16335.
- Feng G, Tanifum EA, Adams H, Hengge AC & Williams NH (2009) Mechanism and transition state structure of aryl methylphosphonate esters doubly coordinated to a dinuclear cobalt(III) center.. J Am Chem Soc, 131(35), 12771-12779.
- Charnley M, Fairfull-Smith K, Haldar S, Elliott R, McArthur SL, Williams NH & Haycock JW (2009) Generation of Bioactive Materials with Rapid Self-Assembling Resorcinarene-Peptides. ADV MATER, 21(28), 2909-2915.
- Tsang WY, Edwards DR, Melnychuk SA, Liu CT, Liu CM, Neverov AA, Williams NH & Brown RS (2009) Dinuclear Zn(II) Complex Promotes Cleavage and Isomerization of 2-Hydroxypropyl Alkyl Phosphates by a Common Cyclic Phosphate Intermediate. J AM CHEM SOC, 131(11), 4159-4166.
- Golicnik M, Olguin LF, Feng G, Baxter NJ, Waltho JP, Williams NH & Hollfelder F (2009) Kinetic analysis of beta-phosphoglucomutase and its inhibition by magnesium fluoride.. J Am Chem Soc, 131(4), 1575-1588.
- Syson K, Tomlinson C, Chapados BR, Sayers JR, Tainer JA, Williams NH & Grasby JA (2008) Three metal ions participate in the reaction catalyzed by T5 flap endonuclease.. J Biol Chem, 283(42), 28741-28746.
- McWhirter C, Lund EA, Tanifum EA, Feng G, Sheikh QI, Hengge AC & Williams NH (2008) Mechanistic study of protein phosphatase-1 (PP1), a catalytically promiscuous enzyme.. J Am Chem Soc, 130(41), 13673-13682.
- Garzelli R, Khlestkin VK, Williams NH & Chechik V (2008) Amphiphilic spin probes based on disulfide-bridged bisnitroxides. TETRAHEDRON LETT, 49(41), 5887-5889.
- Kamerlin SCL, Williams NH & Warshel A (2008) Dineopentyl phosphate hydrolysis: Evidence for stepwise water attack. J ORG CHEM, 73(18), 6960-6969.
- Linjalahti H, Feng GQ, Mareque-Rivas JC, Mikkola S & Williams NH (2008) Cleavage and isomerization of UpU promoted by dinuclear metal ion complexes. J AM CHEM SOC, 130(13), 4232-+.
- Baxter NJ, Blackburn GM, Marston JP, Hounslow AM, Cliff MJ, Bermel W, Williams NH, Hollfelder F, Wemmer DE & Waltho JP (2008) Anionic charge is prioritized over geometry in aluminum and magnesium fluoride transition state analogs of phosphoryl transfer enzymes.. J Am Chem Soc, 130(12), 3952-3958.
- Tanifum EA, Hengge AC, Lund EA, Williams NH, Feng GQ & McWhirter C (2007) ORGN 724-Comparative mechanistic studies on the catalytically promiscuous serine/threonine protein phosphatase-1 (PP-1) and the dinuclear cobalt(III) complex [Co2(tacn)2(OH)3](ClO4)3. ABSTR PAP AM CHEM S, 234.
- Stirling CJM, Fundin LJ & Williams NH (2007) Trimorphism in solid resorcinarenes.. Chem Commun (Camb)(17), 1748-1750.
- Lund EA, Hengge AC, Williams NH, McWhirter C & Feng GQ (2007) Mechanistic study of PP-1, a catalytically promiscuous enzyme. ABSTR PAP AM CHEM S, 233, 613-613.
- Fairfull-Smith K, Redon PMJ, Haycock JW & Williams NH (2007) Monofunctionalised resorcinarenes. TETRAHEDRON LETT, 48(8), 1317-1319.
- Charnley M, Fairfull-Smith K, Williams NH, Douglas CWI, McArthur SL & Haycock JW (2007) Evaluation of anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial resorcinarene-peptides for biomaterial modification. European Cells and Materials, 14(SUPPL.3), 23.
- Charnley M, Fairfull-Smith K, Williams NH, Douglas CWI, McArthur SL & Haycock JW (2007) Evaluation of anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial resorcinarene-peptides for biomaterial modification. European Cells and Materials, 14(SUPPL.3), 126.
- Dijkstra HP, Hutchinson JJ, Hunter CA, Qin H, Tomas S, Webb SJ & Williams NH (2007) Transmission of binding information across lipid bilayers.. Chemistry, 13(25), 7215-7222.
- Feng G, Natale D, Prabaharan R, Mareque-Rivas JC & Williams NH (2006) Efficient Phosphodiester Binding and Cleavage by a ZnII Complex Combining Hydrogen-Bonding Interactions and Double Lewis Acid Activation. Angewandte Chemie, 118(42), 7214-7217.
- Feng G, Natale D, Prabaharan R, Mareque-Rivas JC & Williams NH (2006) Efficient phosphodiester binding and cleavage by a ZnII complex combining hydrogen-bonding interactions and double Lewis acid activation.. Angew Chem Int Ed Engl, 45(42), 7056-7059.
- Baxter NJ, Olguin LF, Golicnik M, Feng G, Hounslow AM, Bermel W, Blackburn GM, Hollfelder F, Waltho JP & Williams NH (2006) A Trojan horse transition state analogue generated by MgF3- formation in an enzyme active site.. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 103(40), 14732-14737.
- Feng G, Mareque-Rivas JC & Williams NH (2006) Comparing a mononuclear Zn(II) complex with hydrogen bond donors with a dinuclear Zn(II) complex for catalysing phosphate ester cleavage.. Chem Commun (Camb)(17), 1845-1847.
- Schroeder GK, Lad C, Wyman P, Williams NH & Wolfenden R (2006) The time required for water attack at the phosphorus atom of simple phosphodiesters and of DNA. P NATL ACAD SCI USA, 103(11), 4052-4055.
- Charnley M, Fairfull-Smith K, Williams NH & Haycock JW (2006) Evaluation of anti-inflammatory calixarene-peptides for biomaterial modification. European Cells and Materials, 11(SUPPL.2), 26.
- Feng G, Mareque-Rivas JC, Torres Martín de Rosales R & Williams NH (2005) A highly reactive mononuclear Zn(II) complex for phosphodiester cleavage.. J Am Chem Soc, 127(39), 13470-13471.
- Brazier JA, Shibata T, Townsley J, Taylor BF, Frary E, Williams NH & Williams DM (2005) Amino-functionalized DNA: the properties of C5-amino-alkyl substituted 2'-deoxyuridines and their application in DNA triplex formation.. Nucleic Acids Res, 33(4), 1362-1371.
- Williams NH (2005) 14 Bioinspired organic chemistry. Annual Reports on the Progress of Chemistry - Section B, 101, 352-373.
- Humphry T, Forconi M, Williams NH & Hengge AC (2004) Altered mechanisms of reactions of phosphate esters bridging a dinuclear metal center. J AM CHEM SOC, 126(38), 11864-11869.
- Williams NH (2004) Bioinspired Organic Chemistry. ChemInform, 35(39).
- Padovani M, Williams NH & Wyman P (2004) Mononuclear Co(III)-complex promoted phosphate diester hydrolysis: dependence of reactivity on the leaving group. J PHYS ORG CHEM, 17(6-7), 472-477.
- Williams NH (2004) Models for biological phosphoryl transfer.. Biochim Biophys Acta, 1697(1-2), 279-287.
- Nakano E, Williamson MP, Williams NH & Powers HJ (2004) Copper-mediated LDL oxidation by homocysteine and related compounds depends largely on copper ligation.. Biochim Biophys Acta, 1688(1), 33-42.
- Haycock JW, Haldar S, Elliott RJ, Williams NH & MacNeil S (2004) Anti-inflammatory and cytoprotective action of novel synthetic MSH peptides in human skin keratinocytes. Transactions - 7th World Biomaterials Congress, 1067.
- Williams NH (2004) Bioinspired organic chemistry. Annual Reports on the Progress of Chemistry - Section B, 100, 407-434.
- Blackburn GM, Williams NH, Gamblin SJ & Smerdon SJ (2003) Comment on "The pentacovalent phosphorus intermediate of a phosphoryl transfer reaction".. Science, 301(5637), 1184.
- Lad C, Williams NH & Wolfenden R (2003) The rate of hydrolysis of phosphomonoester dianions and the exceptional catalytic proficiencies of protein and inositol phosphatases.. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 100(10), 5607-5610.
- Astrom H, Williams NH & Stromberg R (2003) Oligonucleotide based artificial nuclease (OBAN) systems. Bulge size dependence and positioning of catalytic group in cleavage of RNA-bulges. ORG BIOMOL CHEM, 1(9), 1461-1465.
- Doyle EL, Hunter CA, Phillips HC, Webb SJ & Williams NH (2003) Cooperative binding at lipid bilayer membrane surfaces.. J Am Chem Soc, 125(15), 4593-4599.
- Williams NH (2003) Bioinspired organic chemistry. Annual Reports on the Progress of Chemistry - Section B, 99, 447-473.
- Humphry T, Forconi M, Williams NH & Hengge AC (2002) An altered mechanism of hydrolysis for a metal-complexed phosphate diester. J AM CHEM SOC, 124(50), 14860-14861.
- Barton P, Hunter CA, Potter TJ, Webb SJ & Williams NH (2002) Transmembrane Signalling. Angewandte Chemie, 114(20), 4034-4037.
- Williams NH (2002) Models for biological phosphoryl transfer: From very, very slow to very fast.. ABSTR PAP AM CHEM S, 223, C24-C24.
- Forconi M & Williams NH (2002) Mimicking metallophosphatases: revealing a role for an OH group with no libido.. Angew Chem Int Ed Engl, 41(5), 849-852.
- Barton P, Hunter CA, Potter TJ, Webb SJ & Williams NH (2002) Transmembrane signalling. ANGEW CHEM INT EDIT, 41(20), 3878-3881.
- Williams NH & Wyman P (2001) Phosphate diester hydrolysis within a highly reactive dinuclear cobalt(III) complex. Ligand effect on reactivity, transition state and dissociation. J CHEM SOC PERK T 2(11), 2068-2073.
- Hengge AC, Humphry T, Forconi M & Williams NH (2001) Mechanism of reaction of phosphate esters coordinated to a model of dinuclear metallophosphatases.. ABSTR PAP AM CHEM S, 222, U154-U154.
- Williams NH & Wyman P (2001) Base catalysed phosphate diester hydrolysis. CHEM COMMUN(14), 1268-1269.
- Williams NH (2000) Magnesium ion catalyzed ATP hydrolysis. J AM CHEM SOC, 122(48), 12023-12024.
- Williams NH, Lebuis AM & Chin J (1999) A structural and functional model of dinuclear metallophosphatases. J AM CHEM SOC, 121(14), 3341-3348.
- Williams NH, Takasaki B, Wall M & Chin J (1999) Structure and nuclease activity of simple dinuclear metal complexes: Quantitative dissection of the role of metal ions. Accounts of Chemical Research, 32(6), 485-493.
- Vyle JS, Williams NH & Grasby JA (1998) A novel solid support for synthesis of 2 ',3 '-cyclic phosphate terminated oligonucleotides. TETRAHEDRON LETT, 39(43), 7975-7978.
- Williams NH, Cheung W & Chin J (1998) Reactivity of phosphate diesters doubly coordinated to a dinuclear cobalt(III) complex: Dependence of the reactivity on the basicity of the leaving group. J AM CHEM SOC, 120(32), 8079-8087.
- Williams NH & Chin J (1996) Metal-ion catalysed phosphate diester transesterification: Quantifying double Lewis-acid activation. Chemical Communications(2), 131-132.
- KIRBY AJ & WILLIAMS NH (1994) EFFICIENT INTRAMOLECULAR GENERAL ACID CATALYSIS OF ENOL ETHER HYDROLYSIS - HYDROGEN-BONDING STABILIZATION OF THE TRANSITION-STATE FOR PROTON-TRANSFER TO CARBON. JOURNAL OF THE CHEMICAL SOCIETY-PERKIN TRANSACTIONS 2(4), 643-648.
- KIRBY AJ & WILLIAMS NH (1992) THE ANOMERIC EFFECTS OF ARYLOXY GROUPS. JOURNAL OF THE CHEMICAL SOCIETY-CHEMICAL COMMUNICATIONS(18), 1286-1287.
- KIRBY AJ & WILLIAMS NH (1992) ELECTRONIC EFFECTS ON CONFORMATIONAL PREFERENCES - A-VALUES FOR ARYLOXY GROUPS. JOURNAL OF THE CHEMICAL SOCIETY-CHEMICAL COMMUNICATIONS(18), 1285-1286.
- KIRBY AJ & WILLIAMS NH (1991) EFFICIENT INTRAMOLECULAR GENERAL ACID CATALYSIS OF VINYL ETHER HYDROLYSIS BY THE NEIGHBORING CARBOXYLIC-ACID GROUP. JOURNAL OF THE CHEMICAL SOCIETY-CHEMICAL COMMUNICATIONS(22), 1643-1644.
- KIRBY AJ & WILLIAMS NH (1991) THERE IS NO EVIDENCE FOR ELECTROSTATIC CATALYSIS OF VINYL ETHER HYDROLYSIS IN WATER. JOURNAL OF THE CHEMICAL SOCIETY-CHEMICAL COMMUNICATIONS(22), 1644-1645.
- Barrozo A, Liao Q, Esguerra M, Marloie G, Florián J, Williams NH & Kamerlin SCL () Computer simulations of the catalytic mechanism of wild-type and mutant β-phosphoglucomutase. Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry, 16(12), 2060-2073. View this article in WRRO
- Williams NH (2004) DNA Hydrolysis: Mechanism and Reactivity, Artificial Nucleases (pp. 3-17). Springer Berlin Heidelberg
- Kirby AJ & Williams NH (1993) Anomeric and Gauche Effects, The Anomeric Effect and Associated Stereoelectronic Effects (pp. 55-69).
Conference proceedings papers
- Chu Y, Hengge AC & Williams NH (2012) A Simple Arg to Lys Mutant of Protein Phosphatase 1 Exhibits Catalytic Efficiencies toward Monoanionic Substrates Superior to Wild Type. FASEB JOURNAL, Vol. 26
- Chu Y, Williams NH & Hengge AC (2010) Mechanistic study of phosphoryl transfer reactions catalyzed by protein phosphatase-1. ABSTRACTS OF PAPERS OF THE AMERICAN CHEMICAL SOCIETY, Vol. 239
- Humphry T, Forconi M, Williams NH & Hengge AC (2003) Alteration of the mechanisms of phosphate ester hydrolysis by complexation to a dinuclear metal cneter.. ABSTRACTS OF PAPERS OF THE AMERICAN CHEMICAL SOCIETY, Vol. 226 (pp U747-U748)
- KIRBY AJ & WILLIAMS NH (1993) ANOMERIC AND GAUCHE EFFECTS - SOME BASIC STEREOELECTRONICS. ANOMERIC EFFECT AND ASSOCIATED STEREOELECTRONIC EFFECTS, Vol. 539 (pp 55-69)
- KIRBY AJ & WILLIAMS NH (1992) ANOMERIC AND GAUCHE EFFECTS - SOME BASIC STEREOELECTRONICS. ABSTRACTS OF PAPERS OF THE AMERICAN CHEMICAL SOCIETY, Vol. 204 (pp 91-CARB)