# Dr Elizabeth Cross

#### Senior Lecturer

Department of Mechanical Engineering

B80 Portobello Centre

Congress Street

Sheffield

S1 4ET

UK

Telephone: +44 (0) 114 222 7846

Fax: +44 (0) 114 222 7890

Email: e.j.cross@sheffield.ac.uk

#### Profile

Elizabeth Cross is a lecturer in the Dynamics Research Group in the Department of Mechanical Engineering. She was awarded a first class degree in mathematics from the University of Sheffield in 2007 and an MSc (Res) in Advanced Mechanical Engineering, also from the University of Sheffield, in 2008. In 2012 she completed her PhD on Structural Health Monitoring whilst also working as a research associate in her final year in collaboration with Messier-Bugatti-Dowty.

Her specific areas of interest include the development of robust indicators for structural performance and condition and the importation of sophisticated mathematical techniques for use in the discipline of structural dynamics.

#### Research Interests

Elizabeth’s main research interests are in the field of Structural Health Monitoring (SHM), specifically vibration based SHM, which uses monitored dynamic properties of a structure for condition assessment and damage detection. SHM is still a relatively young field and so much of the research that goes on is confined to the laboratory. While it is true that research into SHM is becoming increasingly popular, it has failed, so far, to be taken up in any major way by industry, despite the obvious economic and safety benefits it could offer.

Elizabeth’s current research is broadly concerned with how SHM can be made to work for the real world and encompasses the application of statistics and machine learning technology, as well as mathematics from other disciplines such as econometrics.

### Journal articles

- Worden K, Barthorpe RJ, Cross E, Dervilis N, Holmes GR, Manson G & Rogers T (2018) On evolutionary system identification with applications to nonlinear benchmarks. Mechanical Systems and Signal Processing, 112, 194-232. View this article in WRRO
- Worden K, Becker WE, Rogers TJ & Cross EJ (2018) On the confidence bounds of Gaussian process NARX models and their higher-order frequency response functions. Mechanical Systems and Signal Processing, 104, 188-223. View this article in WRRO
- Shi H, Worden K & Cross EJ (2018) A regime-switching cointegration approach for removing environmental and operational variations in structural health monitoring. Mechanical Systems and Signal Processing, 103, 381-397. View this article in WRRO
- Worden K & Cross EJ (2018) On switching response surface models, with applications to the structural health monitoring of bridges. Mechanical Systems and Signal Processing, 98, 139-156. View this article in WRRO
- Wagg DJ, Cross EJ, Barthorpe RJ & Faravelli L (2016) A report on the 6th European Conference on Structural Control. Structural Control and Health Monitoring, 24(1), e1970-e1970. View this article in WRRO
- Fuentes R, Howard TP, Marshall MB, Cross EJ & Dwyer-Joyce RS (2016) Observations on acoustic emissions from a line contact compressed into the plastic region. Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part J: Journal of Engineering Tribology, 230(11), 1371-1376. View this article in WRRO
- Holmes G, Sartor P, Reed S, Southern P, Worden K & Cross E (2016) Prediction of landing gear loads using machine learning techniques. Structural Health Monitoring, 15(5), 568-582. View this article in WRRO
- Worden K, Baldacchino T, Rowson J & Cross EJ (2016) Some Recent Developments in SHM Based on Nonstationary Time Series Analysis. Proceedings of the IEEE, 104(8), 1589-1603. View this article in WRRO
- Dervilis N, antoniadou , Barthorpe , Cross & worden (2016) Robust methods for outlier detection and regression for SHM applications.. International Journal of Sustainable Materials and Structural Systems. View this article in WRRO
- Baldacchino T, Cross EJ, Worden K & Rowson J (2016) Variational Bayesian mixture of experts models and sensitivity analysis for nonlinear dynamical systems. Mechanical Systems and Signal Processing, 66-67, 178-200.
- Dervilis N, Antoniadou I, Cross EJ & Worden K (2015) A Non-linear Manifold Strategy for SHM Approaches. Strain, 51(4), 324-331. View this article in WRRO
- Dervilis N, Worden K & Cross EJ (2015) On robust regression analysis as a means of exploring environmental and operational conditions for SHM data. JOURNAL OF SOUND AND VIBRATION, 347, 279-296.
- Dervilis N, Worden K & Cross EJ (2015) On robust regression analysis as a means of exploring environmental and operational conditions for SHM data. Journal of Sound and Vibration, 347, 279-296. View this article in WRRO
- Green PL, Cross EJ & Worden K (2015) Bayesian system identification of dynamical systems using highly informative training data. Mechanical Systems and Signal Processing, 56, 109-122. View this article in WRRO
- Dervilis N, Cross EJ, Barthorpe RJ & Worden K (2014) Robust methods of inclusive outlier analysis for structural health monitoring. Journal of Sound and Vibration, 333(20), 5181-5195.
- Worden K, Cross EJ, Antoniadou I & Kyprianou A (2013) A multiresolution approach to cointegration for enhanced SHM of structures under varying conditions - An exploratory study. Mechanical Systems and Signal Processing.
- Figueiredo E & Cross E (2013) Linear approaches to modeling nonlinearities in long-term monitoring of bridges. Journal of Civil Structural Health Monitoring, 3(3), 187-194.
- Cross EJ, Koo KY, Brownjohn JMW & Worden K (2013) Long-term monitoring and data analysis of the Tamar Bridge. Mechanical Systems and Signal Processing, 35(1-2), 16-34.
- Antoniadou I, Cross EJ & Worden K (2013) Cointegration and the empirical mode decomposition for the analysis of diagnostic data. Key Engineering Materials, 569-570, 884-891.
- Cross EJ, Manson G, Worden K & Pierce SG (2012) Features for damage detection with insensitivity to environmental and operational variations. PROCEEDINGS OF THE ROYAL SOCIETY A-MATHEMATICAL PHYSICAL AND ENGINEERING SCIENCES, 468(2148), 4098-4122. View this article in WRRO
- Cross EJ, Worden K & Chen Q (2011) Cointegration: a novel approach for the removal of environmental trends in structural health monitoring data. P ROY SOC A-MATH PHY, 467(2133), 2712-2732.
- Cross EJ & Worden K (2011) Approximation of the Duffing oscillator frequency response function using the FPK equation. Journal of Sound and Vibration, 330(4), 743-756.
- Cross EJ & Worden K (2010) Approximation of the Duffing oscillator frequency response function using the FPK equation. Journal of Sound and Vibration.

### Chapters

- Worden K, Cross E & Brownjohn JMW (2013) Switching Response Surface Models for Structural Health Monitoring of Bridges In Koziel S & Leifsson L (Ed.), Surrogate-Based Modeling and Optimization Springer Science & Business
- Cross E, Worden K & Farrar CF (2013) An introduction to Structural Health Monitoring in the context of civil infrastructure, Health Assessment of Engineering Structures: Bridges and Other Infrastructure

### Conference proceedings papers

- Dervilis N, Cross EJ, Antoniadou I, Farrar CR & Worden K (2018) Aspects of computational intelligence in structural dynamics: Structural health monitoring. 2017 IEEE Symposium Series on Computational Intelligence, SSCI 2017 - Proceedings, Vol. 2018-January (pp 1-7)
- Bull LA, Worden K, Cross EJ & Dervilis N (2017) Is it worth changing pattern recognition methods for structural health monitoring?. Journal of Physics: Conference Series, Vol. 842 View this article in WRRO
- Fuentes R, Ray N, Rogers T, Worden K & Cross EJ (2017) Clustering-based crack growth characterisation using synchronised vibration and acoustic emission measurements. Structural Health Monitoring 2017: Real-Time Material State Awareness and Data-Driven Safety Assurance - Proceedings of the 11th International Workshop on Structural Health Monitoring, IWSHM 2017, Vol. 2 (pp 2186-2195)
- Rogers TJ, Manson G, Worden K & Cross EJ (2017) On the choice of optimisation scheme for Gaussian process hyperparameters in SHM problems. Structural Health Monitoring 2017: Real-Time Material State Awareness and Data-Driven Safety Assurance - Proceedings of the 11th International Workshop on Structural Health Monitoring, IWSHM 2017, Vol. 2 (pp 2103-2111)
- Fuentes R, Worden K, Antoniadou I, Mineo C, Pierce SG & Cross EJ (2017) Compressive sensing for direct time of flight estimation in ultrasound-based NDT. Structural Health Monitoring 2017: Real-Time Material State Awareness and Data-Driven Safety Assurance - Proceedings of the 11th International Workshop on Structural Health Monitoring, IWSHM 2017, Vol. 2 (pp 2196-2205)
- Shi H, Worden K & Cross EJ (2017) A time series decomposition method for heteroskedastic data in structural health monitoring. Structural Health Monitoring 2017: Real-Time Material State Awareness and Data-Driven Safety Assurance - Proceedings of the 11th International Workshop on Structural Health Monitoring, IWSHM 2017, Vol. 2 (pp 2773-2782)
- Worden K, Rogers T & Cross EJ (2017) Identification of nonlinear wave forces using Gaussian process NARX models. Conference Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Mechanics Series, Vol. 1 (pp 203-221)
- Shi H, Worden K & Cross EJ (2017) An exploratory study on removing environmental and operational effects using a regime-switching cointegration method. Conference Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Mechanics Series, Vol. 2 Part F2 (pp 329-337)
- Dervilis N, Cross EJ, Antoniadou I, Farrar CR, Worden K & IEEE (2017) Aspects of Computational Intelligence in Structural Dynamics: Structural Health Monitoring. 2017 IEEE SYMPOSIUM SERIES ON COMPUTATIONAL INTELLIGENCE (SSCI) (pp 1677-1683)
- Fuentes R, Cross EJ, Ray N, Dervilis N, Guo T & Worden K (2017) In-Process Monitoring of Automated Carbon Fibre Tape Layup Using Ultrasonic Guided Waves. SPECIAL TOPICS IN STRUCTURAL DYNAMICS, VOL 6 (pp 179-188)
- Rogers TJ, Holmes GR, Cross EJ & Worden K (2017) On a Grey Box Modelling Framework for Nonlinear System Identification. SPECIAL TOPICS IN STRUCTURAL DYNAMICS, VOL 6 (pp 167-178)
- Shi H, Worden K & Cross EJ (2016) A nonlinear cointegration approach with applications to structural health monitoring. Journal of Physics: Conference Series, Vol. 744 (pp 012025-012025) View this article in WRRO
- Dervilis N, Papatheou E, Antoniadou I, Cross EJ & Worden K (2016) On the usage of active learning for SHM. Proceedings of ISMA2016 View this article in WRRO
- Holmes GR, Thomas A, Capener W, Worden K & Cross EJ (2016) Data-based classifiers for identification of aircraft landing characteristics. 8th European Workshop on Structural Health Monitoring, EWSHM 2016, Vol. 1 (pp 93-101)
- Corbetta M, Sbarufatti C, Cross EJ & Giglio M (2016) Removal of temperature-induced strain variations for fatigue crack growth detection in a real aeronautical structure. 8th European Workshop on Structural Health Monitoring, EWSHM 2016, Vol. 2 (pp 900-909)
- Ray N, Worden K, Turner S, Villain-Chastre JP & Cross EJ (2016) Tool wear prediction and damage detection in milling using hidden Markov models. Proceedings of ISMA 2016 - International Conference on Noise and Vibration Engineering and USD2016 - International Conference on Uncertainty in Structural Dynamics (pp 3391-3402)
- Dervilis N, Shi H, Worden K & Cross EJ (2016) Exploring environmental and operational variations in SHM data using heteroscedastic Gaussian processes. Conference Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Mechanics Series, Vol. 2 (pp 145-152)
- Worden K, Cross EJ, Dervilis N, Papatheou E & Antoniadou I (2015) Structural health monitoring: From structures to systems-of-systems. IFAC-PapersOnLine, Vol. 28(21) (pp 1-17)
- Holmes GR, Cokonaj V, Southern P, Worden K & Cross E (2015) Non-stationary models for predicting strain on aircraft landing gear from flight data measurements. 28th ICAF Symposium – Helsinki, 3–5 June 2015
- Worden K, Manson G & Cross EJ (2014) On gaussian process NARX models and their higher-order frequency response functions. Springer Proceedings in Mathematics and Statistics, Vol. 97 (pp 315-335)
- Fuentes R, Cross E, Halfpenny A, Worden K & Barthorpe RJ (2014) Aircraft parametric structural load monitoring using Gaussian process regression. 7th European Workshop on Structural Health Monitoring, EWSHM 2014 - 2nd European Conference of the Prognostics and Health Management (PHM) Society (pp 1933-1940)
- Worden K, Dervilis N & Cross EJ (2014) Nonlinear robust regression analysis as a means of exploring SHM data. Proceedings of ISMA 2014 - International Conference on Noise and Vibration Engineering and USD 2014 - International Conference on Uncertainty in Structural Dynamics (pp 513-525)
- Chandrasekhar K, Rongong JA & Cross EJ (2014) Frequency and amplitude dependent behaviour of tangled metal wire dampers. Proceedings of ISMA 2014 - International Conference on Noise and Vibration Engineering and USD 2014 - International Conference on Uncertainty in Structural Dynamics (pp 559-572)
- Fuentes R, Cross EJ, Halfpenny A, Barthorpe RJ & Worden K (2014) Autoregressive Gaussian processes for structural damage detection. Proceedings of ISMA 2014 - International Conference on Noise and Vibration Engineering and USD 2014 - International Conference on Uncertainty in Structural Dynamics (pp 469-483)
- Fuentes-Esquivel R, Halfpenny A, Cross E & Worden K (2013) Order filtering of rotating machinery operational response data using wavelet packet decomposition and resampling techniques. IOMAC 2013
- Westgate R, Brownjohn JMW, Koo KY, Cross E & Worden K (2013) Thermal effects on the Tamar and Humber Bridge. SMAR 2013
- Fuentes-Esquivel R, Halfpenny A, Cross E, Worden K & Barthorpe RJ (2013) Fatigue Damage and Load Identification on Ground Vehicles Via a Linear Gaussian Framework. IWSHM 2013
- Cross EJ, Sartor P, Worden K & Southern P (2013) Prediction of Landing Gear Loads from Flight Test Data Using Gaussian Process Regression. STRUCTURAL HEALTH MONITORING 2013, VOLS 1 AND 2 (pp 1452-+)
- Antoniadou I, Cross EJ & Worden K (2013) Cointegration for the Removal of Environmental and Operational Effects Using a Single Sensor. STRUCTURAL HEALTH MONITORING 2013, VOLS 1 AND 2 (pp 2400-2406)
- Worden K & Cross EJ (2013) Bayesian Regression Trees as Surrogate Models for the Health Monitoring of Civil Infrastructure. STRUCTURAL HEALTH MONITORING 2013, VOLS 1 AND 2 (pp 351-360)
- Fuentes R, Halfpenny A, Cross E, Barthorpe R & Worden K (2013) An approach to fault detection using a unified linear Gaussian framework. Structural Health Monitoring 2013: A Roadmap to Intelligent Structures - Proceedings of the 9th International Workshop on Structural Health Monitoring, IWSHM 2013, Vol. 2 (pp 2752-2759)
- Lu F, Chen Q, Cross E & Worden K (2012) Cointegration testing method for condition monitoring of nonstationary engineering systems. ICAST 2012
- Cross E, Sartor P, Worden K & Southern P (2012) Prediction of landing gear loads using machine learning techniques. Proceedings of the 6th European Workshop - Structural Health Monitoring 2012, EWSHM 2012, Vol. 2 (pp 1056-1063)
- Worden K, Cross E & Barton E (2012) Damage detection on the NPL footbridge under changing environmental conditions. Proceedings of the 6th European Workshop - Structural Health Monitoring 2012, EWSHM 2012, Vol. 2 (pp 1124-1131)
- Figueiredo E, Radu L, Westgate R, Brownjohn J, Cross E, Worden K & Farrar C (2012) Applicability of a Markov-chain Monte Carlo method for damage detection on data from the Z-24 and Tamar suspension bridges. Proceedings of the 6th European Workshop - Structural Health Monitoring 2012, EWSHM 2012, Vol. 1 (pp 747-754)
- Worden K, Manson G & Cross EJ (2012) Higher-order frequency response functions from Gaussian Process NARX models. PROCEEDINGS OF INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON NOISE AND VIBRATION ENGINEERING (ISMA2012) / INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON UNCERTAINTY IN STRUCTURAL DYNAMICS (USD2012) (pp 2575-2589)
- Cross EJ, Worden K & IOP (2012) Cointegration and why it works for SHM. MODERN PRACTICE IN STRESS AND VIBRATION ANALYSIS 2012 (MPSVA 2012), Vol. 382
- Cross EJ, Worden K, Koo KY & Brownjohn JMW (2012) Filtering environmental load effects to enhance novelty detection on cable-supported bridge performance. Bridge Maintenance, Safety, Management, Resilience and Sustainability - Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Bridge Maintenance, Safety and Management (pp 745-752)
- Barthorpe RJ, Cross EJ, Papatheou E & Worden K (2012) Some recent developments in structural health monitoring. Key Engineering Materials, Vol. 518 (pp 298-318)
- Westgate R, Koo KY, Cross EJ & Brownjohn JMW (2011) Environmental effects on long-term behaviours of Tamar Suspension Bridge. SHMII-5 2011. Cancun
- Worden K, Cross EJ & Kyprianou A (2011) Cointegration and Nonstationarity in the Context of Multiresolution Analysis. 9TH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON DAMAGE ASSESSMENT OF STRUCTURES (DAMAS 2011), Vol. 305
- Cross E, Worden K, Koo KY & Brownjohn JMW (2011) Modelling environmental effects on the dynamic characteristics of the Tamar suspension bridge. Conference Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Mechanics Series, Vol. 5 (pp 21-32)
- Harvey D, Cross E, Silva RA, Farrar C & Bement M (2011) Input estimation from measured structural response. Conference Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Mechanics Series, Vol. 3(PART 1) (pp 689-708)
- Cross EJ & Worden K (2011) Approaches to nonlinear cointegration with a view towards applications in SHM. Journal of Physics: Conference Series, Vol. 305(1)
- Cross EJ, Worden K, Koo K-Y & Brownjohn JMW (2011) Cointegration and SHM of Bridges. STRUCTURAL HEALTH MONITORING 2011: CONDITION-BASED MAINTENANCE AND INTELLIGENT STRUCTURES, VOL 1 (pp 63-+)
- Cross EJ & Worden K (2011) Nonlinear Cointegration as a Combinatorial Optimisation Problem. STRUCTURAL HEALTH MONITORING 2011: CONDITION-BASED MAINTENANCE AND INTELLIGENT STRUCTURES, VOL 1 (pp 87-94)
- Cross EJ, Koo KY, Worden K & Brownjohn JMW (2011) Cointegration and SHM of bridges. Structural Health Monitoring 2011: Condition Based Maintenance and Intelligent Structures (pp 63-71). Stanford, California, September 2011.
- Cross E, Koo KY, Brownjohn JMW & Worden K (2010) Long-term monitoring and data analysis of the Tamar Bridge. ISMA 2010
- Koo KY, Cross E, Worden K, Brownjohn JMW, List D, Cole R & Wood T (2010) Long-term Structural Health Monitoring for Tamar Suspension Bridge. IABMAS 2010
- Cross E & Worden K (2010) An approach to nonlinear cointegration with application to structural health monitoring data. EWSHM 2010
- Cross E, Worden K, Sturgeon RJ & Chen Q (2010) A tutorial on Cointegration for engineers - a tool for non-stationary time series analysis. 10th International Conference on Recent Advances in Structural Dynamics
- Cross EJ & Worden K (2010) An approach to nonlinear cointegration with a view towards SHM. Proceedings of the 5th European Workshop - Structural Health Monitoring 2010 (pp 875-881)
- Cross EJ, Koo KY, Brownjohn JMW & Worden K (2010) Long-term monitoring and data analysis of the Tamar Bridge. PROCEEDINGS OF ISMA2010 INCLUDING USD2010 (pp 1345-1358). Leuven, Belgium, 20 September 2010 - 22 September 2010.
- Sturgeon R, Cross E, Worden K, Brownjohn JMW, Koo KY & Chen Q (2009) Elimination of long-term trends in SHM data using cointegration. IWSHM 2009
- Cross E & Worden K (2009) Approximation of the Duffing oscillator frequency response function using the FPK equation. 7th International Conference on Modern Practices in Stress and Vibration Analysis
- Brownjohn JMW, Worden K, Cross E, List D, Cole R & Wood T (2009) Thermal effects on performance on Tamar Bridge. Structural Health Monitoring of Intelligent Infrastructure - Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Structural Health Monitoring of Intelligent Infrastructure, SHMII 2009
- Cross EJ & Worden K (2009) Approximation of the Duffing oscillator frequency response function using the FPK equation. Journal of Physics: Conference Series, Vol. 181(1)
- Dervilis N, Worden , antoniadou , cross , Barthorpe , Alessio Datteo , Giorgio Busca & Alfredo Cigada () Experimental evaluation of environmental effects on a polymer-coated aluminium structure: a time-series analysis and pattern recognition approach. ISMA2016 View this article in WRRO