About the project

This website is part of a project funded by the Natural Environment Research Council of the UK which focuses on testing the instability theory of subglacial bedform production.

Drumlin map

Chris Clark, Andrew Fowler, Richard Hindmarsh, Chris Stokes, Felix Ng, Matteo Spagnolo, Heike Gramberg, Paul Dunlop Anna Hughes, and Sarah Greenwood have all been working on the project either mapping and measuring bedforms to learn about their properties or by developing theoretical and numerical models of how they might form.

We list some publications further below.

Our published maps

These can be downloaded (at no cost) from the Journal of Maps.

  • Dunlop, P. and Clark, C.D. (2006). Distribution of Ribbed Moraine in the Lac Naococane Region, Central Québec, CanadaJournal of Maps. 2006, 59-70.
  • Stokes, C.R., Clark, C.D., Lian, O.B. and Tulaczyk, S. (2006). Geomorphological map of ribbed moraine on the Dubawnt Lake palaeo-ice stream bed: a signature of ice stream shutdown? Journal of Maps. 2006, 1-9.
  • Hättestrand, C. and Clark, C.D. (2006). The glacial geomorphology of Kola Peninsula and adjacent areas in the Murmansk Region, RussiaJournal of Maps. 2006, 30-42.
  • Greenwood, S.L and Clark, C.D. (2008). Subglacial bedforms of the Irish Ice SheetJournal of Maps, v2008, 332-357.
  • Hughes, A.L.C., Clark, C.D., and Jordan, C.J. (2010). Subglacial bedforms of the last British Ice SheetJournal of Maps, v2010, 2543-565.
  • doi:10.4113/jom.2010.1111


A Drumlin bibliography 

To aid drumlin researchers, here is a list of over 500 publications that we know of. Please help us update it.

A Drumlin bibliography (PDF, 212KB)

Papers and abstracts

Some of our own papers on subglacial bedforms, with abstracts.

Papers and abstracts (PDF, 104KB)

If you really want to know how drumlins form

Check out this short movie that shows, for the first time, geophysical observations of a drumlin initiating from a flat plane and growing into the classical half-egg shape.

The landforming process took just over 2.5 hours, and we have compressed this evolution into a time-lapse movie of less than two minutes.


Clark, C.D., 1990. Remote sensing scales related to the frequency of natural variation; an example from palaeo-ice flow in Canada. IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, 28, No.4, 503-508.

Clark, C.D., 1993. Mega-scale glacial lineations and cross-cutting ice-flow landforms. Earth surface processes and landforms, 18, 1-29.

Clark, C.D. and Wilson, C., 1994. Spatial analysis of lineaments. Computers and Geoscience, v20, No.7/8, 1237-1258.

Clark, C.D., 1994. Large scale ice-moulded landforms and their glaciological significance. Sedimentary Geology, v91, 253-268.

Clark, C.D. (1999) Glaciodynamic context of subglacial bedform generation and preservation. Annals of Glaciology, V28. 23-32.

Clark, C.D. and Meehan, R.I. (2001). Subglacial bedform geomorphology of the Irish Ice Sheet reveals major configuration changes during growth and decay. Journal of Quaternary Science, 16 (5), 483 –496.
doi:10.1002/jqs.627 Tulaczyk, S.M., Scherer, R.P. and 

Clark, C.D. (2001). A ploughing model for the origin of weak tills beneath ice streams: a qualitative treatment. Quaternary International, 86/1, 59 –70.

Stokes, C.R. and Clark, C.D. (2002). Are long bedforms indicative of fast ice flow? Boreas, 31, 239 – 249.

Clark, C.D., Tulaczyk, S. M., Stokes, C.R., and Canals, M. (2003). A groove-ploughing theory for the production of mega scale glacial lineations, and implications for ice-stream mechanics. Journal of Glaciology, 49, 165, 240-256. doi:10.3189/172756503781830719

Smith, M.J. and Clark, C.D. (2005). Methods for the visualisation of digital elevation models for landform mapping. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms, 30, 885 – 900.

Dunlop, P. and Clark, C.D. (2006). Distribution of Ribbed Moraine in the Lac Naococane Region, Central Québec, Canada. Journal of Maps. 2006, 59-70.

Stokes, C.R., Clark, C.D., Lian, O.B. and Tulaczyk, S. (2006). Geomorphological map of ribbed moraine on the Dubawnt Lake palaeo-ice stream bed: a signature of ice stream shutdown? Journal of Maps. 2006, 1-9.

Dunlop, P. and Clark, C.D. (2006). The morphological characteristics of ribbed moraine. Quaternary Science Reviews. 25, 1668 – 1691. doi:10.1016/j.quascirev.2006.01.002

Stokes, C.R., Clark, C.D. and Winsborrow, M.C.M. (2006) Subglacial bedform evidence for a major palaeo-ice stream and its retreat phases in Amundsen Gulf, Canadian Arctic Archipelago. Journal of Quaternary Science, 21, 4, 399 – 412. doi:10.1002/jqs.991

Stokes, C.R., Lian, O.B., Tulaczyk, S. and Clark, C.D. (2008). Superimposition of ribbed moraines on a palaeo-ice-stream bed: implications for ice stream dynamics and shutdown. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms, 33, 593 – 609. doi:10.1002/esp.1671

Dunlop, P., Clark, C.D., and Hindmarsh, R. C. A. (2008). Bed Ribbing Instability Explanation: Testing a numerical model of ribbed moraine formation arising from coupled flow of ice and subglacial sediment. Journal of Geophysical Research., 113, F03005. doi:10.1029/2007JF000954

Greenwood, S.L and Clark, C.D. (2008). Subglacial bedforms of the Irish Ice Sheet. Journal of Maps, v2008, 332-357. Clark, C.D., Hughes, A.L.C.,

Greenwood, S.L., Spagnolo, M., & Ng, F.S.L. (2009). Size and shape characteristics of drumlins, derived from a large sample, and associated scaling laws. Quaternary Science Reviews., 28, 677-692. doi:10.1016/j.quascirev.2008.08.035

Ó Cofaigh, C., Dowdeswell, J.A., King, E.C., Anderson, J.B.,. Clark, C.D., Evans, D.J.A., Evans, J., Hindmarsh, R.C.A., Larter, R.D., and Stokes, C.R. (2010). Comment on Shaw J., Pugin, A. and Young, R. (2008): “A meltwater origin for Antarctic shelf bedforms with special attention to megalineations”, Geomorphology, 117, 195 – 198.

Hughes, A.L.C., Clark, C.D., and Jordan, C.J. (2010). Subglacial bedforms of the last British Ice Sheet. Journal of Maps, v2010, 2543-565. doi:10.4113/jom.2010.1111

Spagnolo, M., Clark, C.D., Hughes, A.L.C., Dunlop, P. and Stokes, C.R. (2010). The planar shape of drumlins. Sedimentary Geology, 232, 119-129. doi:10.1016/j.sedgeo.2010.01.008

Greenwood, S.L. and Clark, C.D. (2010). The sensitivity of subglacial bedform size and distribution to substrate lithological control. Sedimentary Geology, 232, 130-144. doi:10.1016/j.sedgeo.2010.01.009

Clark, C.D., (2010). Emergent drumlins and their clones: from till dilatancy to flow instabilities. Journal of Glaciology, v51, 200, 1011 – 1025. http://www.igsoc.org/journal/current/200/j10J210.pdf

Spagnolo, M., Clark, C.D., Hughes, A.L.C., Dunlop, P. (2011). The topography of drumlins; assessing their long profile shape. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms. 36, 790-804. doi:10.1002/esp.2107

Chapwanya, M., Clark, C.D. and Fowler, A.C. (2011). Numerical computations of a theoretical model of ribbed moraine formation. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms, 36, 1105 – 1112.

Stokes, C.R., Spagnolo, M., and Clark, C.D. (2011). The composition and internal structure of drumlins: Complexity, commonality, and implications for a unifying theory of their formation. Earth Science Reviews,107, 398 – 422.

Spagnolo, M., Clark, C.D., Hughes, A.L.C. (2012). Drumlin relief. Geomorphology, 153-154, 179 – 191.

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