Professor Matt Carré
MEng, PhD, CEng, MIMechE, SFHEA
Department of Mechanical Engineering
Professor of Mechanical Engineering
+44 114 222 7839
Full contact details
Department of Mechanical Engineering
Sir Frederick Mappin Building
Matt is an alumnus of the department, having completed a Masters degree here in 1996 and a PhD in 2000.
He became a lecturer in the Department in 2001 and was promoted to Senior Lecturer in 2009, before becoming a Reader in 2014 and then being awarded a personal chair in 2020.
Matt is a Chartered Engineer, a Senior Fellow of the Higher Education Academy, an Elected Fellow of the International Sports Engineering Association and has previously acted as editor of the international journal, Sports Engineering.
Matt leads the Human Interactions Group and is a member of the Leonardo Tribology Centre.
- Research interests
Matt's research interests involve applying mechanical engineering concepts to situations that involve physical interactions between humans and products, devices and surfaces. This can be considered as five main themes:
Behaviour of human skin and tissue under loading
Work on this area was initially focused on fingerpad-object interactions but has since expanded to cover the biotribology of different skin and human tissues.
Further PhD studies have produced numerous papers on the fundamental understanding of the effects of surface roughness, moisture, topical treatments and loading on skin tribology, as well as a range of medical, sports and consumer applications.
Projects combining Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT), Digital Image Correlation (DIC) and tissue loading experiments have delivered increased understanding through imaging the skin at the surface and sub-surface to determine deformation behaviour and morphological changes to underlying structures.
Work continues in an EPSRC Programme Grant "Friction: The Tribology Enigma" and an EPSRC Centre-to-centre Grant "TrEnT: Tribology as an enabling technology", linking up with world class roboticists.
Development of synthetic test-beds for human interactions
Many of the research projects have led to the development of biofidelic systems that simulate aspects of physical human interaction and can be used in place of human participant testing.
These include synthetic test-beds for finger-pad grip, catheter interactions, friction experienced at the foot-sock interface and through the use of incontinence products, vibration transmission in fingers and comfort assessment of ear plugs. These have potential to assess products more effectively or can be used for robotics applications.
Matt's research on human-object interactions is often concerned with the interface between the hand and a product or device. Work has included assessment of medical glove performance, vibrations transmitted to hands and is now being applied to the field of robotics.
This research theme was originally concerned with sports footwear including projects sponsored by the International Tennis Federation but has since diversified to include pedestrian slips, leading to collaboration with the Health and Safety Executive and safety shoe manufacturers.
Work so far has included modelling of shoe-surface interactions; the development of biomechanically informed shoe-traction measurement devices; and an improved understanding of the tribological mechanisms at play in a variety of human-floor interactions.
Design methodologies for products that include human interactions
This research area is driven by real problems experienced by industry and organisations – often in the sectors of consumer goods, sports products, cosmetics and healthcare. Solving these problems aids the improvement of products and, ultimately, enhances the health and/or experience of consumers.
- Development of a new shoe/floor slip resistance test rig. Tribology International, 151, 106500-106500.
- An evaluation of shoe tread parameters using FEM. Tribology International. View this article in WRRO
- View this article in WRRO Efficiency of donning and doffing medical examination gloves. International Journal of Ergonomics, 10(1), 1-17.
- Perceptions and Attitudes Towards Shoulder Padding and Shoulder Injury in Rugby Union. medRxiv, 2020.05.15.20102905. View this article in WRRO
- A critical review of the assessment of medical gloves. Tribology: Materials, Surfaces and Interfaces. View this article in WRRO
- Rubber friction and the effect of shape. Tribology International, 141. View this article in WRRO
- Morphology of a human finger pad during sliding against a grooved plate: A pilot study. Biotribology. View this article in WRRO
- Morphological parametric mapping of 21 skin sites throughout the body using optical coherence tomography. Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials. View this article in WRRO
- Critical shoe contact area ratio for sliding on a tennis hard court. Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology, 232(2), 112-121. View this article in WRRO
- Sub-clinical assessment of atopic dermatitis severity using angiographic optical coherence tomography. Biomedical Optics Express, 9(4), 2001-2001. View this article in WRRO
- The development of a new artificial model of a finger for assessing transmitted vibrations. Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials, 78, 20-27. View this article in WRRO
- Measuring contact area in a sliding human finger-pad contact. Skin Research and Technology, 24(1), 31-44. View this article in WRRO
- Measurement of friction-induced changes in pig aorta fibre organization by non-invasive imaging as a model for detecting the tissue response to endovascular catheters. Biotribology, 12, 24-32. View this article in WRRO
- New Non-invasive Techniques to Quantify Skin Surface Strain and Sub-surface Layer Deformation of Finger-pad during Sliding. Biotribology. View this article in WRRO
- Influence of medical gloves on fingerpad friction and feel. Wear, 376-377(A), 324-328. View this article in WRRO
- Measurement of finger pad forces and friction using finger nail mounted strain gauges. Wear, 376-377(A), 295-304. View this article in WRRO
- A new methodology for measuring the vibration transmission from handle to finger whilst gripping. International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, 58, 55-61. View this article in WRRO
- How do gloves affect cutaneous sensibility in medical practice? Two new applied tests.. Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part H: Journal of Engineering in Medicine. View this article in WRRO
- Controlled peel testing of a model tissue for diseased aorta. Journal of Biomechanics, 49(15), 3667-3675. View this article in WRRO
- The influence of gravimetric moisture content on studded shoe–surface interactions in soccer. Sports Engineering, 1-12. View this article in WRRO
- An evaluation of dexterity and cutaneous sensibility tests for use with medical gloves. Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part C: Journal of Mechanical Engineering Science, 230(16), 2896-2912. View this article in WRRO
- Biomechanical responses to changes in friction on a clay court surface.. J Sci Med Sport. View this article in WRRO
- In vivo measurement of skin surface strain and sub-surface layer deformation induced by natural tissue stretching. Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials, 62, 556-569. View this article in WRRO
- The influence of tennis court surfaces on player perceptions and biomechanical response. Journal of Sports Sciences, 34(17), 1627-1636. View this article in WRRO
- A comparison of friction behaviour for ex vivo human, tissue engineered and synthetic skin. Tribology International, 103, 487-495. View this article in WRRO
- Creating a model of diseased artery damage and failure from healthy porcine aorta. Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials, 60, 378-393. View this article in WRRO
- Evaluation of the effect of medical gloves on dexterity and tactile sensibility using simulated clinical practice tests. International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, 53, 115-123. View this article in WRRO
- Boot-insole effects on comfort and plantar loading at the heel and fifth metatarsal during running and turning in soccer. Journal of Sports Sciences, 34(8), 730-737. View this article in WRRO
- Developing CT based computational models of pediatric femurs. Journal of Biomechanics, 48(10), 2034-2040. View this article in WRRO
- The contributions of skin structural properties to the friction of human finger-pads. Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part J: Journal of Engineering Tribology, 229(3), 294-311. View this article in WRRO
- Factors influencing the perception of roughness in manual exploration: Do medical gloves reduce cutaneous sensibility?. Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part J: Journal of Engineering Tribology, 229(3), 273-284. View this article in WRRO
- Understanding the Friction Measured by Standardised Test Methodologies Used to Assess Shoe-Surface Slip Risk. Journal of Testing and Evaluation, 43(4), 20120334-20120334. View this article in WRRO
- Tennis shoe–court interactions: examining relationships between contact area, pressure and available friction. Footwear Science, 7(sup1), S87-S89. View this article in WRRO
- Effect of varying the volume infill sand on synthetic clay surfaces in terms of the shoe-surface friction. Procedia Engineering, 72, 877-882. View this article in WRRO
- Skin friction at the interface between hands and sports equipment. Procedia Engineering, 72, 611-617. View this article in WRRO
- Influence of clay properties on shoe-kinematics and friction during tennis movements. Procedia Engineering, 72, 889-894. View this article in WRRO
- Shoe-surface friction in tennis: Influence on plantar pressure and implications for injury. Footwear Science, 6(3), 155-164.
- Friction at the tennis shoe-court interface: How biomechanically informed lab-based testing can enhance understanding. Procedia Engineering, 72, 883-888. View this article in WRRO
- A critical review of glove and hand research with regard to medical glove design.. Ergonomics, 57(1), 116-129.
- A study of clinicians' views on medical gloves and their effect on manual performance. American Journal of Infection Control.
- The effects of surface traction characteristics on frictional demand and kinematics in tennis. Sports Biomechanics, 12(4), 389-402.
- The development of an apparatus to understand the traction developed at the shoe-surface interface in tennis. PROCEEDINGS OF THE INSTITUTION OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERS PART P-JOURNAL OF SPORTS ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY, 227(3), 149-160. View this article in WRRO
- Effect of shoe orientation on shoe-surface traction in tennis. Footwear Science, 5(SUPPL. 1). View this article in WRRO
- The effect of normal load force and roughness on the dynamic traction developed at the shoe-surface interface in tennis. Sports Engineering, 1-7. View this article in WRRO
- Combining mechanical and biomechanical testing to improve understanding of shoe-surface effects on traction. Footwear Science, 5(SUPPL. 1).
- Biomechanical and mechanical testing of non-sliding and sliding tennis surfaces. Footwear Science, 5(SUPPL. 1).
- Patient-Specific Finite Element Modelling and Validation of Porcine Femora in Torsion. Strain. View this article in WRRO
- Human finger friction in contacts with ridged surfaces. Wear.
- Understanding the influence of surface roughness on the tribological interactions at the shoe-surface interface in tennis. PROCEEDINGS OF THE INSTITUTION OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERS PART J-JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING TRIBOLOGY, 226(J7), 636-647.
- An assessment of the performance of grip enhancing agents used in sports applications. PROCEEDINGS OF THE INSTITUTION OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERS PART J-JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING TRIBOLOGY, 226(J7), 616-625. View this article in WRRO
- Investigations into soccer aerodynamics via trajectory analysis and dust experiments. Procedia Engineering, 34, 158-163. View this article in WRRO
- Characterising the impact performance of field hockey sticks. Sports Engineering, 1-6.
- Feasibility of using optical coherence tomography to study the influence of skin structure on finger friction. Tribology International.
- Effect of surface texture, moisture and wear on handling of rugby balls. Tribology International.
- Football boundary-layer separation via dust experiments. Sports Engineering, 14(2-4), 139-146.
- Science of synthetic turf surfaces: investigating traction behaviour.. Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology, 225, 147-158.
- Football boundary-layer separation via dust experiments. Sports Engineering, 1-8.
- Geometrically accurate 3D FE models from medical scans created to analyse the causes of sports injuries. Procedia Engineering, 13, 422-427. View this article in WRRO
- Human finger contact with small, triangular ridged surfaces. Wear, 271(9-10), 2346-2353. View this article in WRRO
- Understanding the friction mechanisms between the human finger and flat contacting surfaces in moist conditions. Tribology Letters, 41(1), 283-294. View this article in WRRO
- Soccer ball lift coefficients via trajectory analysis. EUR J PHYS, 31(4), 775-784. View this article in WRRO
- A novel sports ball aerodynamics analysis tool: soccer ball design. Sports Technology, 3(4), 240-252.
- Understanding grip choice and comfort whilst hoovering. Proceedings of World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology, 66, 1338-1343.
- Understanding the Friction Mechanisms Between the Human Finger and Flat Contacting Surfaces in Moist Conditions. Tribology Letters, 1-12.
- Athlete and coach perceptions of technology needs for evaluating running performance. Sports Engineering, 13(1), 1-18.
- The effect of surface geometry on soccer ball trajectories. Sports Engineering, 13(1), 47-55. View this article in WRRO
- The effect of surface geometry on soccer ball trajectories. Sports Engineering, 1-9.
- Trajectory analysis of a soccer ball. AM J PHYS, 77(11), 1020-1027.
- The effect of normal force and roughness on friction in human finger contact. WEAR, 267(5-8), 1311-1318.
- Sports ball aerodynamics: A numerical study of the erratic motion of soccer balls. COMPUT FLUIDS, 38(6), 1091-1100. View this article in WRRO
- Understanding the effect of finger-ball friction on the handling performance of rugby balls. Sports Engineering, 11(3), 109-118.
- Review of the frictional properties of finger-object contact when gripping. P I MECH ENG J-J ENG, 221(J8), 841-850.
- High-speed observations of football-boot-surface interactions of players in their natural environment. Sports Engineering, 10(3), 129-144.
- A new measure of roughness for defining the aerodynamic performance of sports balls. P I MECH ENG C-J MEC, 221(7), 789-806.
- 1542 An Experimental Study on Unsteady Aerodynamic Forces Acting on a Non-Spinning Soccer Ball. The proceedings of the JSME annual meeting, 2007.2(0), 177-178.
- EFFECT OF STUD PARAMETERS ON TRACTION. Journal of Biomechanics, 40, S55-S55.
- Using neural networks to understand relationships in the traction of studded footwear on sports surfaces. Journal of Biomechanics, 39, S183-S183.
- Hybrid method for assessing the performance of sports surfaces during ball impacts. P I MECH ENG L-J MAT, 220(L1), 31-39.
- Predicting the playing character of cricket pitches. Sports Engineering, 8(4), 193-207.
- Oblique impact of thick walled pressurized spheres as used in tennis. P I MECH ENG C-J MEC, 219(11), 1179-1189.
- Understanding the effect of seams on the aerodynamics of an association football. P I MECH ENG C-J MEC, 219(7), 657-666. View this article in WRRO
- An examination of the Clegg impact hammer test with regard to the playing performance of synthetic sports surfaces. Sports Engineering, 7(3), 121-129.
- The playing performance of county cricket pitches. Sports Engineering, 7(1), 1-14.
- Impact of a non-homogeneous sphere on a rigid surface. P I MECH ENG C-J MEC, 218(3), 273-281.
- The dynamic impact characteristics of tennis balls with tennis rackets.. J Sports Sci, 21(10), 839-850.
- The curve kick of a football I: impact with the foot. Sports Engineering, 5(4), 183-192.
- The curve kick of a football II: flight through the air. Sports Engineering, 5(4), 193-200.
- Mechanical testing and characterisation of sports surfaces, The Science and Engineering of Sport Surfaces (pp. 26-69).
- The future of sports surfaces, The Science and Engineering of Sport Surfaces (pp. 179-186).
- Mechanical aspects of shoe-surface interaction, The Science and Engineering of Sport Surfaces (pp. 111-134).
- Introduction: History and development of sports surfaces In Dixon S, Fleming P, James I & Carre M (Ed.), The Science and Engineering of Sport Surfaces (pp. 1-8).
- Preface In Dixon S, Fleming P, James I & Carre M (Ed.), The Science and Engineering of Sport Surfaces (pp. xvi-xvi).
- Tribology in Daily Life: Footwear-Surface Interactions in Pedestrian Slips, Encyclopedia of Tribology (pp. 3825-3830). Springer US
- A Comparison of Test Methodologies to Enable the Improved Understanding of Soccer Boot Traction (P115), The Engineering of Sport 7 (pp. 605-611). Springer Paris
- Shoe Signature Monitoring for Advanced Running Technique (P145), The Engineering of Sport 7 (pp. 35-43). Springer Paris
- Friction between Players’ Hands and Sports Equipment (P7), The Engineering of Sport 7 (pp. 27-34). Springer Paris
- Soccer ball aerodynamics In Peters M (Ed.), Computational Fluid Dynamics for Sport Simulation (pp. 83-102). Berlin Heidelberg: Springer.
- Using CFD to Understand the Effects of Seam Geometry on Soccer Ball Aerodynamics, The Engineering of Sport 6 (pp. 127-132). Springer New York
- Synopsis of current developments: Lawn sports, The Engineering of Sport 6 (pp. 203-204).
- Synopsis of current developments: Soccer, The Engineering of Sport 6 (pp. 313-314).
- The science of swing (pp. 24-24). Centaur Media PLC
- Olympians look to physics (pp. 19-20).
- Biomechanics and Aerodynamics in Soccer, Bioengineering, Mechanics, and Materials: Principles and Applications in Sports (pp. 333-364). Springer US
Conference proceedings papers
- From macroscopic to microscopic : experimental and computational methods to investigate bio-tribology. 7th International Conference on the Development of Biomedical Engineering in Vietnam (BME7) (pp 213-216). Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, 27 June 2018 - 29 June 2018. View this article in WRRO
- Characterizing the microcirculation of atopic dermatitis using angiographic optical coherence tomography. Proceedings of SPIE, Vol. 10037 View this article in WRRO
- Investigation into surface interaction between the contact lens, the upper eyelid and cornea using optical coherence tomography. Optical Fibers and Sensors for Medical Diagnostics and Treatment Applications XVII View this article in WRRO
- High Speed Optical Coherence Elastography for Human Skin Deformation Studies. Photonics West 2016
- Skin Surface and Sub-Surface Strain and Deformation Imaging using OCT and DIC. Photonics West 2016
- Thermo-physiological comfort and frictional characteristics of running socks in different moisture conditions. Textile Bioengineering and Informatics Symposium Proceedings 2016 - 9th Textile Bioengineering and Informatics Symposium, TBIS 2016, in conjunction with the 6th Asian Protective Clothing Conference, APCC 2016 (pp 778-783)
- Parametric Study of Simulated Tennis Shoe Treads. Procedia Engineering, Vol. 147 (pp 443-448)
- Investigating Foot-sock Friction: A Comparison of Two Different Methodologies. Procedia Engineering, Vol. 147 (pp 759-764)
- Development of a Novel Portable Test Device to Measure the Tribological Behaviour of Shoe Interactions with Tennis Courts. Procedia Engineering, Vol. 147 (pp 550-555)
- Skin surface and sub-surface strain and deformation imaging using optical coherence tomography and digital image correlation. Optical Elastography and Tissue Biomechanics III
- Optical coherence elastography for human finger-pad skin deformation studies. Optical Elastography and Tissue Biomechanics III
- Frictional Interaction between Running Sock Fabrics and Plantar Aspect of First Metatarsal Head in Different Moisture Conditions. Procedia Engineering, Vol. 147 (pp 753-758)
- User-Informed re-design of a sonography system to reduce Work-Related Musculoskeletal Disorders. Proceedings of the Third European Conference on Design4Health 2015. Sheffield, 13 July 2015 - 16 July 2015.
- Investigating a methodology to measure moisture in skin–textile friction experiments. Footwear Science, Vol. 7(sup1) (pp S15-S16) View this article in WRRO
- Frictional Behaviour of Running Sock Textiles Against Plantar Skin. Procedia Engineering, Vol. 112 (pp 110-115) View this article in WRRO
- Tennis Shoe Outsole Temperature Changes During Hard Court Sliding and Their Effects on Friction Behaviour. Procedia Engineering, Vol. 112 (pp 290-295) View this article in WRRO
- Proceedings of the British Medical Ultrasound Society 46th Annual Scientific Meeting 9–11 December 2014, The Point, Emirates Old Trafford, Manchester, UK. Ultrasound, Vol. 23(2) (pp NP1-NP42)
- Studies on the Friction Coefficient of Human Skin and Skin Substitutes. Proceedings of International Conference on Biotribology (ICoBT)
- Simulation based upon medical data offers a fast and robust method for the prediction of fracture risk. 6TH ASIA-PACIFIC CONGRESS ON SPORTS TECHNOLOGY (APCST), Vol. 60 (pp 459-466) View this article in WRRO
- The influence of surface characteristics on the tribological interactions at the shoe-surface interface in tennis. ENGINEERING OF SPORT CONFERENCE 2012, Vol. 34 (pp 866-871) View this article in WRRO
- A Performance-Based Approach to Medical Glove Design. Proceedings of Design for Health Conference 2011
- Review of test methods relevant to medical glove design. Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society (pp 700-704)
- Understanding the traction of tennis surfaces. Procedia Engineering, Vol. 13 (pp 402-408) View this article in WRRO
- Improving the performance of soccer boots on artificial and natural soccer surfaces. ENGINEERING OF SPORT 8: ENGINEERING EMOTION - 8TH CONFERENCE OF THE INTERNATIONAL SPORTS ENGINEERING ASSOCIATION (ISEA), Vol. 2(2) (pp 2775-2781)
- Boot-insole effects on heel and fifth metatarsal loading for running and turning in soccer.. Footware Science, Vol. 1(1: Proceedings of the Ninth Footwear Biomechanics Symposium) (pp 27-28). Stellenbosch, South Africa, 10 June 2009 - 12 June 2009.
- Shoe signature monitoring for advanced running technique (P145). ENGINEERING OF SPORT 7, VOL 2 (pp 35-43)
- Friction between players' hands and sports equipment. ENGINEERING OF SPORT 7, VOL 1 (pp 27-34)
- A comparison of test methodologies to enable the improved understanding of soccer boot traction. ENGINEERING OF SPORT 7, VOL 1 (pp 605-611)
- Experimental investigation of the effects of surface geometry on the flight of a non-spinning soccer ball. IMPACT OF TECHNOLOGY ON SPORTS II (pp 397-402)
- Human perception of different aspects of field hockey stick performance. IMPACT OF TECHNOLOGY ON SPORTS II (pp 485-490)
- Improving the understanding of grip. IMPACT OF TECHNOLOGY ON SPORTS II (pp 129-134)
- The flight trajectory of a non-spinning soccer ball. Impact of Technology on Sport II (pp 385-390). Singapore, September 2007.
- Applying engineering principles to improve the performance of sports equipment: Recent developments at the University of Sheffield. Proceedings of UK-China Sports Engineering Workshop (pp 9-14)
- The measurement of all the important 3-d parameters of a spinning football by optoelectronic methods. CHALLENGES IN REMOTE SENSING (pp 33-38)
- Understanding human perception of field hockey stick performance, Vol. 3 (pp 237-242)
- Studies on the oblique impact of a cricket ball on a cricket pitch, Vol. 1 (pp 235-240)
- Track cycling: An analytical model, Vol. 1 (pp 115-120)
- A fresh approach to sports equipment design: Evolving hockey sticks using genetic algorithms, Vol. 3 (pp 81-86)
- Modelling traction of studded footwear on sports surfaces using neural networks, Vol. 3 (pp 403-408)
- Better by design: Developing teaching concepts through group work. Proceedings of the International Conference on Innovation, Good Practice and Research in Engineering Education 2006, EE 2006 (pp 522-526)
- Embedding experiential learning in engineering education. Proceedings of the International Conference on Innovation, Good Practice and Research in Engineering Education 2006, EE 2006 (pp 512-517)
- A player-perception study of the comfort of soccer boots. The Impact of Technology on Sport 3 (pp 201-205). Honolulu, Hawaii, USA, 21 September 2010 - 23 September 2010.
- View this article in WRRO Vibration transmissibility measurement of glove materials under different grip forces. Human Responses to Vibration. Southampton, UK, 9 September 2015 - 10 September 2015.
- Special Issue on Tribology of Sport. PROCEEDINGS OF THE INSTITUTION OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERS PART J-JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING TRIBOLOGY, 226(J7), 587-587.
Current and recent research projects led by or involving Professor Carré include:
- TrEnT: Tribology as an Enabling Technology, to be applied in robotics applications (sponsored by EPSRC).
- Programme Grant "Friction: The Tribology Enigma" (sponsored by EPSRC).
- Using Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) to understand the properties that affect the friction of human skin (sponsored by EPSRC).
- Developing a synthetic test-bed to assess shoulder padding as used in rugby (sponsored by World Rugby).
- Understanding physical interactions of earplugs to improve comfort (sponsored by IRSST, Canada)
- Improving design and performance of medical gloves (sponsored by Synthomer).
- Tennis shoe-surface interactions (sponsored by EPSRC and the International Tennis Federation).
- UNITISS" - Understanding interactions of human tissue with medical devices (sponsored by a Marie-Curie EU grant and in collaboration with Philips).
- Teaching activities
- MEC202 Mechanics of Deformable Solids
- MEC456 Human Factors and User-centred Design