Image of Xavier L'HoiryDr Xavier L'Hoiry

Lecturer in Criminology and Social Policy

(Law LLB, MA Criminology, PhD Criminology)

Telephone: 0114 222 6404 (external), 26404 (internal)
Room: Elmfield, LG17

Twitter: @lhoiry


Xavier joined the department as a Lecturer in Criminology and Social Policy in September 2015 having previously worked at the department between 2012 and 2014. Previous to this, he completed his undergraduate law degree at Durham University in 2006. During these studies, Xavier's interests moved towards the sociology of deviance and the criminal justice system. As a result, following his undergraduate studies Xavier undertook an MA in Criminology at the University of Leeds. He subsequently completed a PhD in Criminology at Teesside University.

Xavier's doctoral thesis concerned law enforcement and government definitions of organised crime and the impact upon contemporary police measures. As part of this research, Xavier carried out an ethnographic case study of an active tobacco smuggling enterprise. He subsequently worked as a research associate at the Universities of Sheffield and Leeds on international and domestic research projects concerning surveillance and policing.

He is currently actively conducting research in the areas of organised crime, policing and surveillance and welcomes enquiries on these themes.


Xavier's research interests are centred around the following:

  • Organised crime;
  • Illicit enterprise and entrepreneurship;
  • The illicit economy;
  • Policing;
  • Surveillance studies.

Following the completion of his doctoral studies, Xavier worked with Professor Clive Norris on an EU FP7 project. The project concerned several aspects of the ongoing development of surveillance technologies and the subsequent impact upon democracy with a particular focus on the democratic right of access to personal data. Full project findings and publications are available here:

Subsequent to this, Xavier joined the University of Leeds, working with Professor Adam Crawford and Stuart Lister on an ESRC Knowledge Exchange project concerning various aspects of policing including community engagement and partnership working as a dynamic for culture change. Working closely alongside West Yorkshire Police, the project was a pilot ahead of the N8 Policing Research Partnership. More information is available here:

Most recently, Xavier has completed a number of research projects which have involved working in close collaboration with colleagues in law enforcement. One of these projects was undertaken research as part of the N8 PRP’s Staff Exchange scheme which seeks to engage academics and law enforcement practitioners on joint research projects. The project in question explored the feasibility of applying restorative approaches to organised crime offending. More information and a link to the project’s written findings is available here

Xavier has also recently undertaken research with South Yorkshire Police concerning neighbourhood policing and community engagement practices. Moreover, he has recently completed a study of collaborative working within the police on behalf of North East Transformation, Innovation and Collaboration and the N8 PRP.

Xavier is actively pursuing various research interests and developing further publications in the fields of organised crime, policing and surveillance. He welcomes any research-related enquiries in these areas with a view to building greater partnerships with key stakeholders and research end-users and developing future research.


Xavier's approach to teaching focuses on interaction and enquiry-based learning and is shaped by his own experiences of and preferences of academic and non-academic research and teaching. He seeks to encourage students to engage with materials in critical ways to challenge popular (mis)understandings around criminological issues and enable students to form their own thoughts on key questions in contemporary criminology and social policy.

Xavier also hopes to develop key employability skills of students to serve them beyond their undergraduate studies whether in academic or non-academic pursuits. With that in mind, he delivers teaching in a manner which develops team work, presentational skills, critical analytical processes and innovative approaches to research.

Xavier currently delivers teaching on:

  • SCS1007: Introducing Criminology
  • SCS2021: Crime, Justice and Social Policy
  • SCS3038: Organised Crime and Illicit Enterprise

Postgraduate Supervision

Xavier encourages enquiries for postgraduate supervision in any area of criminology but is particularly keen to supervise projects concerning organised crime, illicit entrepreneurship, surveillance and policing.

To find out more about our PhD programmes, go to:
Studying for a PhD in Sociology


Publications since 2005


Norris, C., De Hert, P. L’Hoiry, X. and Galetta, A. (eds) (2017) The Unaccountable State of Surveillance. Springer

Journal articles

Crawford, A. and L'Hoiry, X. (2017) 'Boundary crossing: networked policing and emergent ‘communities of practice’ in safeguarding children', Policing and Society, DOI: 10.1080/10439463.2017.1341508

L’Hoiry, X. and Norris, C. (2015) ‘The Honest Data Protection Officer’s Guide to Subject Access Requests’ (2015) International Data Privacy Law 5 (3): 190-2014

L’Hoiry, X. (2013) ‘‘Shifting the stuff wasn’t any bother’ – illicit enterprise, tobacco smuggling and government definitions’, Trends in Organized Crime, 16(4): 413-434. doi: 10.1007/s12117-013-9188-2

L’Hoiry, X. (2013) ‘Tobacco Smuggling – An introduction to the literature’, European Journal of Crime, Criminal Law and Criminal Justice, 20: 415-444. doi: 10.1163/157181712X667431

Book chapters

Norris, C. and L'Hoiry X. (2017) 'Times of crises and the development of the Police National Automatic Number Plate Recognition System in the UK' in Boersma, K. and Fonio, C. (eds) Big Data, Surveillance and Crisis Management, London: Routledge

L’Hoiry, X. ‘Donald Cressey’ (2013) in Encyclopedia of White Collar and Corporate Crime, 2nd Edition, Lawrence Salinger (ed) Sage Publications

L’Hoiry, X. ‘The Tobacco Industry’ (2013) in Encyclopedia of White Collar and Corporate Crime, 2nd Edition, Lawrence Salinger (ed) Sage Publications


D'Souza, N. and L'Hoiry, X. (2017) 'The Feasibility of Undertaking Restorative Approaches with Serious and Organised Crime Offending', available at

Crawford, A. and L’Hoiry, X. (2015) ‘Partnerships in the Delivery of Policing and Safeguarding Children’, available at:

Norris, C., and L’Hoiry, X. ‘Exercising Rights in Surveillance Regimes’ (2014) in Increasing Resilience in Surveillance Societies – submitted to European Commission in May 2014 (725 pages) available at

Media articles, blogs and other publications

D'Souza, N. and L'Hoiry, X. (2017) 'Could talking help tackle organised crime?' The Conversation, available at

L’Hoiry, X. and D’Souza, N. (2016) ‘Restorative Approaches and Organised Crime’, N8PRP, available at:

L’Hoiry, X. and Norris, C. (2014) ‘The Data Retention Bill means we have no privacy rights at all’ The Conversation, available at:

In the news

Cross-border champions
Police Professional, 15 November 2017.

Pink Panther arrests mark victory for intelligence operation
Financial Times, November 2017.