The Andrew Sherratt Fund

Grants of up to £1000 awarded to postgraduate students of any academic institution in the world for research projects in Old World Prehistory.

Applications for the 2019 fund are now closed.  Thank you to everyone who has applied, we will be in touch in due course to advise as to the outcome of your application.



In celebration of the gifted vision of our colleague Prof. Andrew Sherratt regarding old World Prehistory, a memorial fund was established after his death in 2006 by the Department of Archaeology, University of Sheffield, to support international scholarship particularly for those at the beginning of their careers.

The purpose of the fund is to assist postgraduate students in Old World Prehistory, from academic institutions anywhere in the world, to travel or gain access to resources that would otherwise be unavailable to them.

The Department of Archaeology invites applications annually for grants from the Fund for amounts up to £1,000.

Applicants are required to provide their name, affiliation and qualifications, the name and email address of a referee, and a statement explaining in no more than c. 300 words (2000 characters) how much they are applying for, exactly why it is needed and the relevance and importance of the proposed research trip to their current research project.




Reports from previous Andrew Sherratt Fund recipients



2018


Yannis Chatzikonstantinou

Yannis Chatzikonstantinou

MA Student of Prehistoric Archaeology

Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece

Identifying the effects of fire on bone structure. Macroscopic and microscopic analysis of burnt human remains from the Early Minoan cemetery at Koumasa, Crete

Image of Yannis

Ongoing work which consists part of my MA thesis to be submitted at the Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece, under the supervision of Dr. Sevi Triantaphyllou, focuses on the pyrotechnology and the effect of fire in the manipulation of the deceased in the Bronze Age Aegean through experimental approaches. Cremation is a burial practice, which has been adopted by numerous cultures throughout time and space. The effect of fire on human remains is one of the most powerful techniques of transforming the body after death and breaking it into several parts without, however, fully destroying it. The exposure of the body to fire causes various physical, chemical and mechanical alterations which involve shrinkage, fracturing, warping, complete deformation, as well as removal of the organic component and the modification of the inorganic crystal component of the bones. Varying degrees of heat-induced effects predominate on human remains due to fire set up deliberately in direct contact to the human body and these are interpreted as the result of an elaborate and time-consuming procedure widely known as cremation. Similar effects are also evident when burning is applied on funerary contexts as an act of fumigation, practical cleansing of the human bones, or a symbolic practice.

The macroscopic analysis took place in the Archaeological Museum of Mesara on Crete and lasted two months (June-July 2018). The investigation included the systematic recording of excavation information, as well as observations related to the palaeodemography, taphonomy and preservation of the skeletal assemblage (Figure 4). Taking into account, that a large number of skeletal elements was burnt and affected by fire, a special database was created in order to enter in detail observations related to thermal alterations. Features of interest related to the effects of fire on the human remains involve: burning level, colour change, propagation of fractures and changes to the mechanical strength of bone, e.g. shrinkage, warping, deformation and relative cortical preservation.

Alistair Dickey

Alistair Dickey

PhD Candidate

University of Liverpool

Textiles of the elite and non-elite at ancient NekhenImage of Alistair Dickey

The Andrew Sherratt Award has enabled me to travel to Egypt to begin analyses on recently excavated textiles at the Predynastic site of Hierakonpolis (ancient Nekhen). Located approximately halfway between Luxor and Aswan, just north of Edfu, on the West Bank of the Nile, this site has yielded a tremendous quantity of early textile material from recent excavations. Examination of the textiles forms an integral element of my PhD research at the University of Liverpool, which is supported by a Collaborative Doctoral Award from the AHRC. My PhD seeks to investigate Neolithic to Old Kingdom Egyptian cloth, with a particular focus on the social, technological and international contexts of cloth and textile production, and with reference to the extensive holdings of textiles at Bolton Museum.

Although Hierakonpolis has archaeological strata from many periods of Egyptian history, its Predynastic remains have been particularly revealing and insightful in our understanding of early Egyptian culture. As one of the largest urban centres during the Predynastic period (Bard 2017: 8-9; Friedman 2011: 34), it is key in our understanding of early Egypt and its progression towards state formation during the Naqada III period. Indeed, during the period c.3800 – 3500 BC the site covered almost 3 km 2 , a sophisticated city encompassing cemeteries, cult centres, different neighbourhoods, industrial areas and more. Indeed, the recent excavations have revealed societal features already present at Predynastic Hierakonpolis that are typically associated with the emergence of the unified state and Dynastic Egypt (Friedman 2011).

Hierakonpolis and other sites are providing important archaeological information to explore early Egyptian technologies and trace their development during the Predynastic. My research focuses on the role of textile technology during this foundational period of Egyptian history. Our understanding of textile technology during the Predynastic is predominantly based on excavated textile fragments and spindle whorls, as the only pictorial representation pertains to a drawing of a ground (horizontal) loom on a ceramic dish from Badari in Middle Egypt (Brunton and Caton-Thompson 1928). Although thousands of early burials were excavated in Upper Egypt during the 20 th century (Hendrickx and Van den Brink 2002) textile survival has unfortunately been limited. Previous work conducted on some of the textiles at Hierakonpolis (Jones 2001, 2002, 2007, 2008) has provided thought-provoking data and demonstrated the valuable source of information these textiles constitute, however, much remains unknown.

I would like to take this opportunity to thank the generosity of the Andrew Sherratt Fund, which has enabled me to conduct my research at Hierakonpolis in 2018. My thanks also to The Hierakonpolis Expedition, under the direction of Dr Renée Friedman for the privilege to work on the textile remains and continued support in their study.

Carly Henkel

Carly Henkel

MSc Archaeobotany

Leiden University

Detecting Anthropogenic Disturbance to Prehistoric Vegetation Image of Carly Henkel

The Orkney Isles are famous for their incredibly well-preserved and sophisticated Neolithic stone structures. This prehistoric choice of architecture amidst a currently treeless landscape has prompted numerous palaeoenvironmental investigations into the history of Orkney’s flora. The results of these studies demonstrate that while the archipelago may not support tree taxa today, the islands once boasted a significant degree of woodland coverage during early prehistoric times (Bunting 1994; de la Vega-Leinert 2007; Farrell 2014). By the latter half of the Neolithic period, however, much of this woodland had suffered a serious decline, which eventually led to the altogether loss of trees on Orkney (Farrell 2014).

My MSc research entails a plant macrofossil analysis of late Mesolithic and early Neolithic sediment horizons associated with the rare remains of a submerged forest recently exposed on Mainland Orkney during a severe storm (Timpany et al. 2017). The current body of Orcadian palaeoenvironmental research largely comprises palynological analyses from lake basin sediments and peat deposits. While these investigations have revealed much about Orkney’s vegetational
history, uncertainties regarding its prehistoric woodland remain unanswered. My analysis of the submerged forest horizons will compliment past and future pollen studies by providing a local, macrofossil identification of the prehistoric woodland components, as well as offering a potentially higher-resolution understanding for vegetational succession in the immediate area, such as the extent to which autogenic or biogenic factors may have impacted the woodland during the late Mesolithic and early Neolithic periods (Farrell 2014).

In preparation for the analysis of my thesis research material, The Andrew Sherratt Fund generously financed a period of lab work with Dr. Evi Margaritis at The Cyprus Institute in Nicosia. This lab work comprised the analysis of prehistoric botanical assemblages in order to gain familiarity with contemporary plant exploitation practices and their effects on the surrounding environment. Emphasis was placed on recognizing plant macrofossil evidence of anthropogenic activity and discerning biogenic disruptions to local plant ecologies.

Katarina Jerbic

Katarina Jerbic

PhD Candidate

Flinders University

Zambratija BayImage of Katarine Jerbic

My thesis is based on the results of a research project in Zambratija Bay in the Croatian Adriatic, investigating a 6000 year‐old settlement, submerged 3m underwater. This unique situation happened due to the Holocene global sea‐level uplift, a process which started after the melting of the glacier ice accumulated in the Last Glacial Maximum. The site, discovered in 2008, was recognised as hundreds of wooden piles protruding out of the 3‐meter‐deep seabed, alongside a peat platform and Prehistoric pottery scattered around the area. The piles, one of which revealed an age of 4230‐3980 cal BC which, together with the peat, indicated an unexpected connection to the well‐known Prehistoric pile‐ dwellings around the Alps. The found Prehistoric pottery showed that Zambratija represents either a multilayered settlement or one that has been used intermittently through multiple periods, starting as early as Late Neolithic, and ending in the Late Bronze Age.

My research aims were therefore developed to test the hypothesis that Zambratija is a Prehistoric pile‐dwelling settlement, originally placed over a freshwater or brackish environment, with cultural connections to both the Alpine and Mediterranean traditions, that was submerged over time due to postglacial sea‐level and Holocene climate change. The theoretical approach to the thesis is that of Climate Change Archaeology, where past human behaviour patterns indicate the adaptive pathways to rapid climate change, and give valuable input into the modern day environmental and climate
change debates.

During my first visit to York in November/December 2017, I analysed the sediments and environmental proxies – foraminifera, from cores ZAM‐1 and ZAM‐2, under the guidance of Prof. Roland Gehrels, my external supervisor from the Department of Environment and Geography at the University of York, UK. The data obtained from these two cores was not giving clear archaeological information to give answers about how the Prehistoric population interacted with the environment, so a necessity occurred to analyse at least one more core – ZAM‐7.

The funds that were obtained for me by the Andrew Sherratt grant were spent on a 5‐week visit to York in July/August 2018. There, I continued my laboratory analysis of identifying and interpreting archaeological and environmental proxies of sea‐level change from core ZAM‐7.

Martina Monaco

Martina Monaco

PhD Candidate

University of Sheffield

The emergence of elites in Prehistoric Cyprus from a bioarchaeological perspective

Image of Martina Monaco

The generous contribution provided me to by the Andrew Sherratt Fund has been essential to cover the costs of a one month stay in Nicosia (Cyprus). During this period, I was able to carry out an in- depth examination of the human remains belonging to the Chalcolithic site of Erimi Bamboula, curated at the Museum of Limassol, and the Bronze Age osteological collections excavated from the sites of Marki Alonia, Dhenia Kafkalla and Alambra Mouttes, stored in the Larnaka District Museum and the Archeological Museum of Nicosia.

This activity took place within the wider context of my PhD project, designed to explore the emergence of elites in Prehistoric Cyprus from a bioarchaeological perspective. Indeed, the rise of elites and social complexity in Mediterranean Prehistory is widely discussed in recent scholarly debate. Yet, the fundamental assumption that, in stratified societies, elite groups differed in terms of activity, physical stress and health – for example that elites performed less laborious and physically- demanding activities than other social actors – has rarely been approached from a bioarchaeological perspective. This gap in knowledge is particularly noticeable in Cypriot archaeological literature: here, many important cemeteries are known largely from the work of late nineteenth-century excavators who devoted little attention to human skeletal remains.

The main focus of my project is exploring an activity profile of each skeleton to detect variation among the members of these communities, and between the different sites. For this purpose, I recorded evidence related to three skeletal markers argued to be the most powerful in the reconstruction of general levels of activity: extra masticatory dental wear (caused by the use of teeth as tools), osteoarthritis (inflammatory degradation of joints resulting in bone modification) and entheseal changes (indicative of extent of muscle use).

Ozlem Saritas

Ozlem Saritas

PhD Candidate

University of Liverpool

Smithsonian Institute, Washington DC

Image of Ozlem Saritas

The generous award of the Andrew Sherratt Fund allowed me to visit the Smithsonian Institute in Washington DC to collect material from Hallancemi, an important site in Anatolia. The large collection of pigs from Hallancemi held at the Smithsonian span from 10200 BC to 9200 BC. I am extremely grateful for Prof. Melinda Zeder who previously examined the site extensively, and provided advice on the material. This research project used dental morphology of pigs to examine early management and subsistence strategies in Central Anatolia.

Currently, I am in the second year of my doctoral research, which explores the development of hunting and possible herd management strategies at the Neolithic site of Boncuklu Hoyuk (c. 8300-8100 cal. BC) in Central Anatolia from 9 th through 8th millennium cal. BC. My research aims to provide new information on a neglected aspect of Neolithic communities’ life in Central Anatolia, which is an important region for understanding the onset of animal husbandry and its eventual global adoption. The contributions of zooarchaeological analysis from Boncuklu Hoyuk will help illuminate early hunting and herding strategies in this area, and, based on the chronological and regional scale comparison with other Neolithic sites throughout Anatolia will help to reveal patterns of domestication and animal husbandry in this
region.

It is well established that a complex of domesticated animals and plants originated in the ‘Fertile Crescent’ of Southwest Asia. However, the initial spread of domesticated pig out of the Levantine zone and across Central Anatolia is relatively poorly understood and evidence of pig management is equally limited. By comparison, other domesticates (e.g. sheep and goats) have been extensively examined in this region. To address this question, I am using advanced scientific methods, including geometric morphometric to investigate the domestication status of pig at Hallançemi and Gordion with other contemporary sites from the 9 th Millennium BC onward. If applied to multiple contemporaneous sites with long occupation phases (such as those I propose), this interdisciplinary approach will provide a greater understanding of the human past in this region.

Rupert J Birtwistle

Rupert J Birtwistle

PhD Candidate

University of Leicester

The Lower to Middle Palaeolithic transition: hominin technical behaviour in Azerbaijan between 400-200kya

Image of Rupert Birtwistle

The disappearance of the handaxe and subsequent appearance of Levallois technology ca. 300-250kya is commonly used to define the Lower to Middle Paaeolithic boundary (Porat et al. 2002; Tyron 2006). Levallois technology itself is one of a number of conceptual techniques termed Prepared Core Technologies (PCT’s). Such innovations have profound implications that stretch beyond research into lithic technologies themselves, as changes in hominin mentality, geography of sites and social organisation appear to underpin the transitional process (Hayden 1993; Hopkinson 2007). The factors affecting regional and even localised transitions could be influenced by cultural innovation, cultural transmission or even a complete biological change in hominin populations (Foley and Lahr 1997; White et al. 2011; Hopkinson et al. 2013; Adler et al. 2014). Sites containing evidence for conceptual techniques are known from Europe, Western Asia and Africa (Dibble and Bar-Yosef 1995) and the technique is thought to have been employed by at least three different hominin species: Late Homo heidelbergensis, Homo neanderthalensis and Modern Humans (Stringer 2002).

The Caucasus region is of particular interest for understanding the nature of this transition, for two reasons. Firstly, the transition from Lower to Middle Palaeolithic stone tool technologies is currently unchartered and undated (Adler et al. 2014), and current evidence from the Caucasus differs from Europe and Africa, suggesting that Levallois technology is embedded within the properties of the Acheulean techno-complex. Secondly, the Caucasus is positioned on a primary migration route for early humans dispersing from Africa into Eurasia and therefore is an important region for understanding how Levallois technology was introduced.

As a self-funded student I am extremely grateful for the support of the Andrew Sherratt Fund. The Andrew Sherratt Fund was responsible for my accommodation costs during my fieldwork in Baku this summer. The support invested by the fund has been fundamental to my project, enabling me to gather all of my primary data.

Vivek Singh

Vivek Singh

PhD Candidate

Indian Institute of Science Education & Research, Mohali

Rome, Italy

Vivek

My doctoral research aims to understand the Lower Palaeolithic evidence of Central India throughgeological and landscape studies, technological analysis of artefacts and degrees of use-wear on excavated artefacts and experimental specimens. Use-wear analysis is an important component and it is important to know the precise activities/functions carried out by the early hominins. Lastly, there are few use-wear studies done in Indian prehistoric research and no Indian experts are available for training or interaction in the subject. Therefore, my goals was to spend time abroad with a specialist (Dr. Cristina Lemorini, Sapienza University of Rome, Italy) in the use-wear analysis of lithic assemblages, so I can apply that knowledge in my doctoral research. The Andrew Sherratt Grant generously facilitated this and below, I provide a detailed description of my visit to Italy which lasted for about one month (7 th Oct- 6 th Nov).

In Italy, various experiments were conducted on flakes made from quartzite recovered from the central Narmada Basin (India) at the Laboratory of Technological and Functional Analysis Prehistoric Artefacts (LTFAPA). The training at LTFAPA was done under the supervision of Prof. Cristina Lemorini and the work was divided into the following sections: 1) technological observations of quartzite flakes from Kanjera South; 2) observation of flint flakes from the reference collection of LTFAPA; 3) direct experiments on wood, bone and skin using the flakes on Indian quartzite and 4) direct observation of these utilized flakes under microscopes.

For the first and second part of the work, ten experimentally utilized (blind test) quartzite flakes from Kanjera South (Oldowan site from Africa) and flint flakes from the reference collection of LTFAPA were analysed under both stereomicroscope and metallographic microscopes. This helped me understand the micro-fractures, abrasion and polish which occurs on the edge of an artefact.

For the third and fourth part of the work, nine experiments were conducted: two flakes (one fine- grained and one coarse-grained) were used for scraping of wood and two flakes (one fine-grained and one coarse-grained) were used for the cutting of wood. For bone working, two flakes (one fine-grained and one coarse-grained) were used. The respective duration of these experiments was two hours each. For skin processing, three quartzite flakes were utilised for different time intervals depending on the activity, such as cutting or scraping. All these flakes were first cleaned with hot water and soap, and then with de-ionised water in an ultrasonic tank for ten minutes. The organic residues of bone and skin/meat are firmly attached and to remove these, the flakes were cleaned with a neutral phosphate-free detergent Derquim and then with de-ionised water in an ultrasonic tank for 10 minutes.

After a thorough cleaning, flakes were observed under both stereomicroscope and metallographic microscope. Unlike flint, the abrasion on quartzite is of two types: the first on the matrix and second on the crystals of the quartzite. The stereomicroscope helped in understanding the edge removals and rounding on the edge of the flakes. With the help of the metallographic microscope, abrasion and polish on the surface of matrix and crystals were observed.

I would like to thank Prof. Cristina Lemorini and the lab members of LTAFPA for their help during my stay in ‘Sapienza’ University of Rome, Italy. I also thank Department of Archaeology, the University of Sheffield for granting me the Andrew Sherratt Grant which provided me with this rare opportunity to further my knowledge and long-term research goals.

Hannah Lee

Hannah Lee

MSc Human Osteology & Funerary Archaeology

University of Sheffield

Limassol, Cyprus

Image of Hannah

The generous support of the Andrew Sherratt fund allowed me to undertake a month-long research trip to Limassol, Cyprus, in order to study the material that comprised my MSc dissertation in Human Osteology and Funerary Archaeology. I am a part-time student at the University of Sheffield who works as well as studies; this funding was therefore invaluable in allowing me to conduct this research. 

My MSc dissertation Parts of a New Whole: First Steps Towards a Bioarchaeological Interpretation of Late Bronze Age Cypriot Attitudes Towards Death and the Body used the skeletal remains from a single Late Cypriot chamber tomb from the Ekali district of modern Limassol as a study sample. It incorporated funerary taphonomy methodology in an attempt to elucidate a complex, multi-stage funerary process, including secondary burial practices. Such mortuary practices are common in Late Bronze Age Cyprus, and may involve activities such as exhumation and reburial or the preferential removal of certain skeletal parts; as such, they are highly complex and difficult to understand, yielding assemblages of mixed or commingled remains from different individuals. These assemblages are often poorly preserved and fragmented as well, taking into account the complexity of the mortuary process in addition to natural and anthropogenic post-depositional factors, such as swirling water and ancient or modern looting. The first step to the research process was, therefore, to obtain a coherent and quantitative dataset from the poorly-preserved, highly comminuted and commingled assemblage from Tomb 357. This was achieved by using a funerary taphonomy approach which involved recording aspects such as skeletal element, age, sex, pathologies and all macroscopic taphonomic alterations. In the eastern Mediterranean as a whole, archaeological skeletal remains are often recovered in such a state, given the prevalence of secondary burial practices, environmental factors and looting. Incorporation of taphonomic factors into their analysis through standardised recording protocols has only recently been gaining traction. As such, this project helps fill a methodological lacuna in eastern Mediterranean osteoarchaeology.

These data were then parsed using statistical and mathematical methods to obtain number of individuals and the representation of skeletal elements. In order to analyse attitudes towards death and the body, a bioarchaeological approach, involving the contextualisation of skeletal data with historical and archaeological evidence, was taken. The skeletal evidence from T.357 was studied in the wider context of Late Bronze Age Limassol, which allowed me to hypothesise the existence of a wider mortuary program, as well as possible symbolic qualities attributed to certain skeletal elements. 

This research would not have been possible without the Andrew Sherratt fund as the main source of financial support. Furthermore, the assistance of the tomb’s excavator, Ms Polina Christofi (Department of Antiquities, Cyprus), and my supervisor, Dr Efthymia Nikita (CyI STARC) was also invaluable. The completed dissertation was highly commended by the Sheffield Centre for Aegean Archaeology.

Laura Magno

Laura Magno

PhD Candidate

Universitè Chatolique Louvain la Neuve

Sissi, Crete

Photo of Laura Magno on site

My PhD project focuses on the identification of patterns in cultural sediments and soils formation processes within Late Bronze Age Mediterranean Settlements. The advanced Late Bronze Age, and especially the 13th c. BC, is seen as one of the early periods of globalisation or internationalism, witnessing the existence of a cross-Mediterranean network of exchange hubs, connecting the West, Central and East. Such contacts should not solely be seen in terms of exchange of material culture but also as a way through which knowhow, technology and ideas were spread. This hypothesis
opens to the possibility of establishing comparisons on features that are not restricted to material culture such as practices of intra-site management strategies including household activities, management of animals, dumps and waste disposal. All these features can be investigated through geoarchaeological techniques.

The site of Sissi, on Crete, is one of the bronze age settlements that I am currently investigating for my PhD. It is strategically located on maritime and land crossroads and it has yielded extensive remains of a large complex, surrounded by open areas, suddenly abandoned near the middle of the 13 th c. BC, providing undisturbed contexts reflective of the situation prior. Thin sections for micromorphology and samples for infrared spectroscopy were collected in the site and analysed during my stay at the American Scholl for Classical Studies in Athens (ASCSA). The ASCSA Malcom H. Wiener Laboratory for archaeological science provided the equipment support necessary for the study of the thin sections and for the chemical analysis. I also had the chance to join one of the ASCSA’s projects in Pylos where the geoarchaeological team of the Wiener Laboratory is currently investigating cultural stratigraphy through the techniques I use in my project. The preliminary results obtained from the samples were presented at my home institution during my PhD mid-term exam.

The Andrew Sherratt Fund covered the ASCSA membership and the Laboratory fees for the use of microscopes, iinfrared spectroscopy equipment and library. It also helped me with the travelling
costs within Greece and between Greece and Belgium. The visit and the work performed at the Laboratory were essential to my PhD project. Performing analysis in an institution within Greece facilitated the obtaining of the permission for destructive analysis from the Greek Ephorate. Moreover, they allowed me to work on data that I needed for my PhD mid-term exam.

Lamia Sassine

Lamia Sassine

PhD Candidate

University of Sheffield

Elusive Phoenicians: perceptions of Phoenician identity and material culture as reflected in museum records and displays

LamiaThanks to the Andrew Sherratt fund, I was able to undertake a significant part of the fieldwork which was an essential step towards my PhD thesis. My research focuses on the material culture of Phoenicia, usually defined as the region in which several Iron Age (c.1200-300 BCE) city-states lay in the central Levantine coast, as well as the colonies established by those city-states in the Mediterranean, referred to as the ‘Punic world’. The project aims to investigate the part played by different historical and modern perceptions of Phoenician culture and identity in the presentation and interpretation of what is and has been regarded as Phoenician material culture in different Mediterranean and European museums. Given the chequered history of perceptions of Phoenicians in different national and intellectual contexts from antiquity until relatively recently, it seems likely that attitudes to what constitutes objects of Phoenician material culture will also have varied from place to place and from time to time.

The project is centered on examining the displays of material that has been qualified as Phoenician in various museums across the Mediterranean in order to investigate the different perceptions of Phoenician cultural identity, which is still hazily defined. The main aim of the research is to gain an understanding of the processes that led to objects being identified as Phoenician and what this means in terms of preserving and presenting them.

Concretely, this means I study museum displays across the Mediterranean to see what is identified as Phoenician, why it is identified as such, and how it is interpreted. Where available, I also consult accession records and archives to see whether views of what is Phoenician have changed over time. Among questions asked are: Do different museums show similar conceptions of what is or is not Phoenician, and how selective are they in this respect? To what extent does what is displayed as ‘Phoenician’ derive from historical stereotypes inherited from past attitudes, and to what extent does it now seem legitimate to identify it as Phoenician (e.g. as a result of find location or context, or more nebulously by style, material or manufacturing technique)? Does museum labelling indicate instances in which views of whether or not an object is Phoenician may have changed since the object was acquired?

The aims, in short, are to gain a better understanding of the history of perceptions of Phoenician identity and how these have affected identification and presentation of Phoenician material culture.

The grant allowed to travel to Tunisia and Malta in order to conduct field research in three museums: National Bardo Museum, Carthage National Museum, and National Museum of Archaeology, Valletta. Museums in both Tunisia and Malta are crucial to the research project in that both played a central role in the Phoenician Iron Age network, and particularly the Punic world. In addition, these were the first museums from the central Mediterranean I was able to integrate in my research.

For the most part, my trip was very successful in that I managed to gather a lot of data about the National Bardo Museum and the National Museum of Archaeology in Valletta. Unfortunately, I had not been informed that the Carthage Museum would be closed for renovation, but I still managed to meet one of the curators who gave me some information and will provide me with images and details about the new displays once they are set up.

This trip was enlightening in many ways. I found out that the term “Phoenician” is much better defined in the Western Mediterranean, but that it takes up a different meaning in different parts of it. For example, in Tunisia, it is only used to designate the short transition preceding the rise of Carthage, whereas in Malta it is used continuously from the 8th to the 2nd century BC. I was also confronted to completely different exhibition narratives, with the Valletta museum focusing much more on interpretation and information where the Bardo museum has a much more minimalistic approach when it comes to presentation of material. Taking these observations and others, and laying them out against fieldwork I have already done in other museums, I will be able to start building solid foundations to the core of my research.
I am therefore extremely grateful to have been allocated the Andrew Sherratt fund for 2018, which covered my travel and living expenses for a crucial segment of my project.

2017


Diana Nuku-shina

Diana Nukushina

PhD Candidate, University of Lisbon

Mid-Holocene hunter-gatherers and shell midden site structure and functionality in Atlantic Europe and Japan

Diana Nukushina's trip to Japan

My PhD project ‘Mid-Holocene hunter-gatherers and shell midden site structure and functionality in Atlantic Europe and Japan’ aims to analyse and compare the intra-site spatial and functional patterns within Late Mesolithic and Jomon shell middens, by focusing on archaeological data from southern Portugal, northwest France and Japan.

Shell middens are a world-wide phenomenon, with sites found adjacent to different aquatic environments. Japan is one of the densest areas in prehistoric shell middens, having more than 3000 sites attributed to the Jomon period (Takahashi et al., 1998; Matsui, 1999; Habu et al., 2011), which is generally defined as the time when the Japanese Archipelago was inhabited by mainly hunter-gatherers groups with pottery use for more than 10000 years (Habu, 2004).

The Andrew Sherratt Fund covered part of the travel expenses of my six-month stay at the Laboratory of Archaeology of Okayama University, Japan, where I was supervised by Prof. Naoko Matsumoto. During this period, I was able to collect a large amount of information, through bibliographical research and the analysis of lithic material, and I could analyse diverse Jomon shell midden sites and aquatic contexts. I also profited from the discussions on shell middens and the Jomon period with different researchers.

English publications on Japanese Archaeology have recently increased, but they are far from being representative of the overall research. During this stay, I could notice the particularities of archaeological practise in Japan, dominated by rescue archaeological fieldworks made on an administrative basis. The amount of obtained data is impressive, but most results are only published in Japanese-written field reports, local/regional journals and monographies. Despite recent efforts to publish the field reports online, many of them are still inaccessible. Moreover, a lot of Japanese archaeologists lack fluency in other languages, limiting the contact with foreign researchers and the internationalization of their work. Under these circumstances, directly approaching the documentation sources and researchers becomes essential.

During my stay, I undertook my bibliographical research on the Jomon period, shell middens and lithic production, namely at the libraries of the Laboratory, Okayama University and Prefecture. I re-analysed the knapped lithic material from Hikozaki shell midden (Okayama pref.), the largest Early Jomon shell midden in Western Japan, with an extensive occupation from the Initial to the Final Jomon. The material was deposited at the History and Culture Centre of Nadasaki and the Centre for Archaeological Operations of Okayama City. A techno-typological and spatial analysis supported by GIS software allowed me to obtain more information on lithic production at the site and the contexts of deposition of the artefacts in relation to the structures and the stratigraphy. I also observed Jomon lithic collections from Okadai Tsushima site at the Centre of Archaeological Operations of Okayama University and Asanebana shell midden at the Okayama University of Science.

By visiting distinct sites, associated museums / archaeological operations centres and aquatic environments in the Seto Inland Sea, Tokyo Bay and Biwako lake, I established contact with different realities and archaeologists, and was able to better understand the diversity of the Jomon shell middens, especially the differences between Western and Eastern Japan, as well as the research problems of these sites. I also received some training on Jomon archaeology and Japanese research methodologies, by joining the doctoral course seminars and other activities of the Laboratory of Archaeology in Okayama University, conferences and fieldworks, notably the shell gathering fieldwork at Banzu tideland, Tokyo bay (organized by Prof. Takeji Toizumi from Waseda University and Shinya Shoda from Nara National Research Institute for Cultural Properties), and the excavation of the Jomon site Iwabushi, at Tottori Prefecture, directed by Prof. Naoko Matsumoto.

I am extremely grateful for the support of the Andrew Sherratt Fund and to all the Japanese archaeologists who assisted me on this (not so easy) journey to collect data on Jomon shell middens, which represents a crucial step for my comparative research project.

Few references

Habu, J., 2004. Ancient Jomon of Japan. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge [etc.].
Habu, J., Matsui, A., Yamamoto, N., Kanno, T., 2011. Shell midden archaeology in Japan: Aquatic food acquisition and long-term change in the Jomon culture. Quaternary International 239, 19–27.
Matsui, A., 1999. Postglacial hunter-gatherers in the Japanese Archipelago: maritime adaptations. In: Fischer, A. (Ed.), Man and Sea in the Mesolithic: Coastal Settlement Above and Below Present Sea Level, Oxbow Monograph. Oxbow Books, Oxford, pp. 327–334.
Takahashi, R., Toizumi, T., Kojo, Y., 1998. Archaeological Studies of Japan: Current Studies of the Jomon Archaeology. Nihon Kokogaku (Journal of the Japanese Archaeological Association) 5, 47–72.

Anđa Petrović

Anđa Petrović

PhD candidate, University of Belgrade

Anda Petrovic

The Andrew Sherratt Grant covered my travel and living expenses during one month stay at the Laboratory of Technological and Functional Analyses of Prehistoric Artefacts (LTFAPA), 'Sapienza' University of Rome, Italy.

Work and training at LTFAPA were under the supervision of professor Cristina Lemorini, where I was involved in series of activities that had a goal to extend my knowledge on use-wear analysis on chipped stone artefacts. Activities described beneath were directly connected to my PhD thesis entitled Mesolithic-Neolithic
transition in Iron Gates (Serbia): Human activities from use-wear perspective. The study visit at LTFAPA in September 2017 had three stages of research:

1) observation and analysis of the LTFAPA’s reference collection
2) Series of experiments - making of the candidate’s own reference collection needed for the PhD research project
3) analyzing part of a sample from site Lepenski Vir

The first stage of the study consisted of observing one of the most famous reference collection located at LTFAPA. All sorts of materials (hard, medium, soft) and activities were analysed under the Stereomicroscope (Nikon SMZ-U 0.75x to 7.5x). All the observations and notes were checked with the professor and discussed in details. The key points were examining the edge rounding and differences between the materials together with the impact of the other variables (a motion that was used for, raw material quality, etc). All the experimental tools from reference collection were later on treated with the Metallographic microscope as well.
Afterwards, series of nine experiments were made: bone cutting, bone scraping, wood cutting, wood scraping, shell working (2 activities combined on one experimental tool), plant working, soapstone engraving, and hide scraping. The experimental tools were used for 30 minutes. The results were observed under the stereomicroscope and metallographic microscope (Nikon Optiphot 10-40x, used with Nikon Digital Camera DXM1200).

The main goal of these series of experiments was to see how the traces developed and note the process using the highpower approach. This was of the utmost importance for my future research and thesis since the
use-wear and residue analysis is consisted out of complex methodology, the learning of the highpower
approach was remarkably essential in this phase of training. This approach to functional analyzing of the chipped stone artefacts demands time and the main variables that were explored are polish localization, polish distribution, polish extension, and polish texture.

The experiment I made helped me also with an understanding of the cognitive strategies of prehistoric communities or individuals. Edge efficiency, raw material quality, but also the chosen area for use, angle, and
the invested effort into the activity are very important elements for analyzing the use-wear traces. At the end, a couple of artefacts from Lepenski Vir house 54 were observed with both approaches and photos were taken. Results and further analysis on this specific matter are expected in 2018, and the results will be presented at AWRANA (The Association of Archaeological Wear and Residue Analysts) conference (2018) Beyond use‐wear traces: on tools and people in Nice, France. The artefacts represent one part of the sample from Lepenski Vir site, one of the sites that will be under the scope of my PhD thesis that is dealing with Late Mesolithic and Early Neolithic communities in Danube Georges and with their everyday life. A special part of the thesis, later on in discussion will be dedicated to the spatial analysis of certain sites, like Lepenski Vir, Padina, Vlasac, etc, so that functionally observed data could be contextualised and we could finally say something more on the space use as well.

This study stay at LTFAPA, 'Sapienza' the University of Rome would not be possible without the generous Andrew Sherratt Grant, and I am extremely grateful for this tremendous opportunity. This award supported my complete travel and living cost in Rome in September 2017, together with laboratory equipment fundamental for use-wear analysis.

Che-Hsien Tsai

Evin's researchChe Hsien Tsai

PhD Candidate, University of Sheffield

A time of change? Technological transfer in Ceramics of the EBI-II Aegean

Studies of the Early Bronze Age Aegean have often stressed the transition from EB I to EB II as a turning point in terms of technology, the organisation of craft production, and the ways in which people socialised and interacted in a material world. Such discussions involved craft specialisation, developments in pyrotechnology (primarily metallurgy) and in ceramic terms, an increase in the exchange of pottery and its increased use in more formalised settings of commensality. Pottery provides us with the possibility of examining technological and organisational changes through examining production, such as standardisation, developments in firing technology, and its imitation of other materials, primarily metal vessels.

The recent excavations at the prehistoric settlement of Kontopigado-Alimos in West Attica presents the rare opportunity to examine such early development in pottery production. Not only does it have clear evidence for pottery production, it also has plentiful evidence of metallurgical activity (silver and copper alloys) and obsidian working. It hosts well-dated deposits of EH I and EH II periods which have a unique potential to study the technological changes in pottery in the diachronic sequence.

The Andrew Sherratt Fund has supported part of my travel expenses to West Attica between January and June which allow me to investigate the Early Helladic pottery assemblage (approximately 6000 sherds) at Kontopigado.

During my trips to West Attica, I was able to carry out an in-depth study of the pottery assemblage in terms of style, fabric and forming techniques. The preliminary result confirmed the following:

1) Kontopigado is one of important pottery production centres during the EB I-II period. The EH I pottery is characterised by medium fine slipped and burnished shallow bowls and bowls, semi-coarse plain pottery and coarse cheesepots. The EH II pottery assemblage shows a spectrum of closely related fabrics which is possibly developed from the EH I period. The new appearance of small fine tableware and a wider range of shapes such as cups and dishes are mostly associated with the very fine fabrics. The highly burnished surface and the colour of the slip leads to the metallic appearance of the fine tableware. Furthermore, the discovered wasters not only indicate the existence of pottery production workshop(s) on the site but also confirm the fine tableware are produced on the local workshop(s).

2) Close connection with other production centres such as Aegina and the Cyclades. Both EH I and EH II periods present the Aeginetan and possibly Cycladic fabrics all over the pottery units. The decorated feature on the lip is shared by both the Aeginetan and few local vessels suggesting a possible imitation or sharing decorative elements. Furthermore, discussions with Dr Kerasia Douni have confirmed that the local white-slipped finewares from Kontopigado are present as imports in nearby Koropi, Attica.

3) The revolutionary technological changes in pottery production during the EB I-II period. The change from red slipped and burnished pottery in the EH I to the early EH II pottery which is thin-walled, skeuomorphs metal drinking and pouring vessels requires a radical change in firing technology. The introduction of fine tableware with the metallic appearance in the EB II period and the marked stylistic and technological changes in pottery production existed not only at Kontopigado but also throughout the wider Aegean area at the same time.

By the end of my trip, it is worth asking how distant centres come to be characterised by similar practices at the same time? Therefore, the aim is to explain how such specific technological developments, particularly in the control of temperature and atmosphere in firing, but also in the radically changed choices of raw materials, happen simultaneously. Considering the existing ceramic traditions in different areas and the common phenomenon of very fine tableware in the EB II Aegean suggests we might rethink the level of connectivity and the flow of information and techniques in potting communities. It allows us to consider the relationship between horizontal and vertical technological transmission and the differences in scale of technological change from local communities of practice to broad patterns of the adoption and innovation over a wider geographical area.

I am extremely grateful for this award as it helped me to start my research trip to gain access to the core material and information that are not able to obtain in the UK.

Mateja Hul-ina

Mateja Hulina

PhD Candidate, University of Zagreb

Dietary Practices of Neolithic populations in Croatia

Mateja Hulina

The Andrew Sherratt Fund covered part of expenses of my two months visit to Univeristy of Tübingen, Germany, in order to perform organic residue analysis on Neolithic pottery which will be important part of my PhD disertation.

The topic of my dissertation is "Dietary practices of the Neolithic populations in Croatia" and it will encompass the Neolithic period of the eastern Adriatic coast and continental Croatia. It includes analysis of organic residues (lipids) from pottery vessels to determine how they were used and subsequently discover their purpose (i.e. cooking or storage), which is very important as it is the first time a large amount of Croatian pottery was analyzed for lipid residues. Results will be combined with known facts about Neolithic diet (animal and plant remains) in Croatia and will contribute to a better understanding of the Neolithic populations dietary practices through time.   Topic of special interest to me is dairying and I am hoping to discover a proof that it was practiced since the Neolithic times in this area.

In Tübingen I worked in laboratory of Department for Early History (Institut für Ur- und Frühgeschichte und Archäologie des Mittelalters) under supervision of prof. Cynthianne Spiteri and her team.

Shards for analysis were chosen representing different pottery types and vessel part, when possible from well documented contexts, all belonging to Neolithic sites in Croatia. Some samples were recovered directly from excavations and some from museum collections. All pottery shards were sampled from inner surfaces, but external surfaces of some vessels were also sampled to test for exogenous contamination.

Samples were ground to dust and lipids extracted using direct acid extraction with sulphuric acid and methanol following Correa Ascencio and Evershed (2014).  Derivatisation was carried out using N,O-Bis(trimethylsilyl)trifluoroacetamide (BSTFA) and the derivatised compounds were then analysed using Gas Chromatography-Flame Ionisation Detector (GC-FID) and Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS).

I also learned different methods of lipid extraction (solvent extraction) which was used for selected samples.  Obtained results (chromatograms) were analysed in Agilent MSD Chemstation Classic Data Analysis.  Lipid preservation was very good and it was possible to select samples for isotope analysis (GC-c-IRMS) which will be done in the UK at later date.

This visit and work performed there was essential to my research as it allowed me to obtain enough samples to be able to asses how pottery vessels were used in Croatian Neolithic, and wether dairying was present. All that data will be able to contribute to the understanding of diet of Neolithic peoples from Croatia. I am most grateful for the opportunity.

Maurizio Gatta

Maurzio Gatta

PhD Candidate, University of York

Archaeological implications of the MIS 5 coastal geomorphological reconstruction in central Italy

Maurizio Gatta

The coastal area of southern Latium between Rome and the Monte Circeo is characterised by a considerable presence of prehistoric sites, with particular reference to Middle Palaeolithic open-air sites, of which over eighty have been identified at present (Gatta et al. 2016). This density makes the region an excellent place to study Neanderthals.

Unfortunately, most of these open-air sites returned abundant lithic industries but no bones or other datable remains, which mostly did not preserve due to the destructive action of the acidic volcanic component of the coastal area deposits. Therefore, a dating of these sites has often only been possible basing on typological studies of lithic industries recovered. However the so-called “Pontinian” (Blanc, 1939), the particular lithic industry of the region, cannot provide detailed small-scale chronologies since it is highly standardised and uniform for thousands of years. A different approach was, therefore, necessary to provide further age constraints to the archaeological sites of the region.

The Andrew Sherratt award offered me the extraordinary opportunity to carry out extensive investigations in the coastal Latium area, together with a collaborative group of researchers including geologists and palaeontologists, fulfilling a first chronological constraint for some areas where several sites have been discovered. The project consisted of three phases: the first involved surveys of the coastal area and collection of the abundant lithic finds and rare faunal remains; the second phase concerned a geomorphological study of the paleosurfaces combined with U-series, ESR and 40Ar/39Ar dating, following the methodologies already successfully outlined by Marra et al. (2015; 2016); finally, a complete study of finds from each site has been carried out. Lithic industries were compared to analyse whether technological or typological changes were detectable among sites with different chronologies, similarly, bone remains were analysed to age constraint the presence of several faunal taxa in central Italy.

Results obtained so far, albeit preliminary, are of great scientific interest and improve our understanding of the region during prehistory. We have been able to provide an age reference to several key sites of the Latium region and carried out a complete study of finds discovered. The latter allowed us to notice some striking evidence regarding the local palaeontology and lithic technology and will soon be published. In addition to shed light on some relevant Middle Palaeolithic sites and the Neanderthal presence of central Italy, this study also has a secondary role, improving the understanding of geological processes at the origin of deposits formation. This research indicates that there is a potential for future studies. A large number of open-air sites are still undated at present or generally considered to be Middle Palaeolithic, the application of this multidisciplinary approach to further paleosurfaces could partially remedy this situation and provide at least a relative dating for some of them.

I am extremely grateful to the Andrew Sherratt Fund that has contributed to the travel expenses of this research. Moreover, I had the opportunity to deepen my knowledge of the region, learn new scientific skills and create new work connections with international scholars.

References

Blanc, A.C. 1939. Un giacimento aurignaziano medio nella Grotta del Fossellone al Monte Circeo, Atti della XXVII Riunione della Società Italiana per il Progresso delle Scienze: 1–7.
Gatta M., Achino, K.F., Ceruleo, P., La Rosa, M., Silvestri, L., Rolfo, M.F. 2016. PONT-AIR: Pontinian open-air project, Antiquity Project Gallery 352.
Marra, F., Ceruleo, P., Jicha, B., Pandolfi, L. Petronio, Salari, L. (2015) A new age within MIS 7 for the Homo neanderthalensis of Saccopastore in the glacio-eustatically forced sedimentary successions of the Aniene River Valley, Rome. Quaternary Science Reviews 129, 260–274.
Marra, F., Florindo, F., Anzidei, M., Sepe, V., 2016. Paleo-surfaces of glacio-eustatically forced aggradational successions in the coastal area of Rome: assessing interplay between tectonics and sea-level during the last ten interglacials. Quaternary Science Review, 148, 85–100.

Sergios Mene-laou

Sergios Menelaou

PhD candidate, University of Sheffield

Being the only known Early Bronze Age (EBA) site on the island of Samos (eastern Aegean), Heraion has offered the opportunity to undertake a holistic study of the pottery and related domestic, stratified contexts. Recent excavations (2009-2013) revealed rich ceramic assemblages spanning the 3rd millennium BC, which among other research objectives form the basis for defining the locally-manufactured versus imported pottery and, therefore, determining for the first time a secure provenance through the application of an integrated typological/morphological, macroscopic, petrographic, and SEM analytical methodology.

The diachronic examination of the ceramic data includes two broad objectives which form part of my ongoing PhD research and were partly implemented due to the generous Andrew Sherratt Fund grant. More particularly, this award offered me the opportunity to carry out a number of trips between December 2016 and May 2017 with the aim to investigate both pottery circulation issues and questions related with the reconstruction of the local ceramic production system (firing regime, surface modification, etc.). Since the ceramic material under study is almost completely unpublished, the data collected over the period of these trips is highly significant and original and provide a complete picture to date regarding specific research questions of the project.
For the first aim I visited Amsterdam (University of Amsterdam) and Vienna (Austrian Academy of Sciences) in order to carry out a comparative petrographic examination of the ceramic thin sections from the EBA sites of Miletus and Çukuriçi Höyük in western Anatolia respectively, which are currently under study or are being published by other researchers. Through this work I was able to identify technological correlations with the Heraion material, as well as possible fabric matches that either correspond to imported pottery or reflect similar technological traditions during the EB I and EB II periods. For the clarification of these issues, more analytical work should be undertaken as the area of the southeast Aegean and western Anatolia is generally neglected and analytically underrepresented.


a pottery sample from Sergios' research Sergios' research Sergios' research Sergios' research

The second aim was focused on the reconstruction of certain technological steps of the pottery manufacturing process through the Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) analysis. The training on the use of the SEM equipment was carried out at the NCSR Demokritos Institute at Athens, where I also selected the potential samples that represented the main fabric groups identified through the petrographic analysis and various vessel shapes and function categories. A number of 50 samples were singled out while in Athens, although finally 22 were analysed at the University of Barcelona. The SEM aimed at characterising micromorphologically the fabrics and surface of the samples under examination, including the estimation of the firing temperature and atmosphere, microstructure of the clay body and discrimination between calcareous or non-calcareous compositions, and surface treatment (slip, decoration, etc.). The acquired data were further integrated with the macroscopic and microscopic (petrographic) analytical results, the overall study of which offer a unique opportunity to unravel diachronic changes/continuities of the technological processes and subsequently infer possible craft or cultural developments at a local scale.

I am grateful to the Andrew Sherratt Fund award that has contributed towards my travel and accommodation expenses, for without I would not be able to undertake significant parts of this work and especially the SEM analysis in Barcelona. Through these research trips I had the opportunity to deepen my knowledge on certain aspects of my PhD topic, learn new scientific and analytical techniques, and expand my networks with international scholars working at different areas.

Penelope Fore-man

Penelope Foreman

PenelopeForeman

PhD Candidate, Bournemouth University

Colour Out of Space – Colour in the monuments of Neolithic Atlantic Europe

Colour is an important human experience – the colours in our daily lives can signify danger, special occasions, social class, membership of certain groups, and many other expressions of human behaviour. The aim of this research is to survey a sample of Neolithic monuments across Atlantic Europe, and see if there are any commonalities, significant patterns, and demonstrable signs of specific colour selection that may hint at colour being an important part of Neolithic cosmology – regionally, locally, or culturally. To supplement data recorded at sites in Wales and England, this research trip was aimed at visiting sites in the Netherlands, Denmark and Sweden, to look at similarities and differences as compared to British sites.

Sites were visited and recorded in three ways – by use of a reflective journal to document weather conditions, lighting, the setting and atmosphere of the sites, and any reactions by visitors; by using a purpose built colour sensor to record stone colours; and recording my own perception of the colours present in the site.

Drenthe, Netherlands

The boulder clay of the region is rich in stone deposited by receding glaciers at the end of the last ice age. The stones are everywhere – gardens are built around them, streets lined with them, art crafted from them. The Hunebeds of the Drenthe region represent a dense clustering of Neolithic funerary monuments, and today they are connected via a series of paths and cycles routes, a modern day procession around the ancient ritual landscape. Beginning at the Hunebed Centre in Borger, where the largest hunebed in the region is located, a survey of over a dozen monuments was overtaken over the course of several days. Although data is yet to be formally analysed, it is immediately clear that the stone here has a distinct element of colour selection – the vivid pink and oranges of the granite, contrasted with deep greys, or pale beige – some with a surface that sparkles with surface inclusions, others smooth to the touch. The initial pattern seems to be one of contrast – that in one area of each monument; stones stand out from their neighbours due to a particular colour or, in some cases, noticeable texture. Over the coming weeks analysis will occur to see if this occurs in particular spots in relation to compass direction, particular solar orientations, and specific areas of each monument (i.e., in a specific corner of a chamber or section of passage).

Møn, Denmark

An island popular with tourists for its white cliffs, beaches, and unspoilt natural landscapes, Møn is a small island with a big story to tell. The remains of Neolithic chambered tombs are well preserved, for the main part easy to access, and entering them is an experience in itself. A small sample of five sites was taken on the island, due to accessibility of sites (some are sited in wheat field that cannot be accessed in the summer). As was the case in Drenthe, initial readings of the data collected suggests a deliberate choice of contrasting stone, particularly for the stones within the chambers themselves; the most startling example of this was the chamber at Sprovedyssen, where the stone opposite the entrance to the chamber stood out not only for its striking pale orange colour, but for the tactile, rugged surface.

Falbygdens, Sweden

Another region rich in monuments, lying in clusters across the landscapes. The town of Falköping was the hub for this portion of the trip, home to both the Falbygdens museum and a cluster of monuments that have become intricately woven into the fabric of suburbia, forming parts of gardens, parks, and even industrial estates. Sites around the town were surveyed, along with the group just outside the town at Karleby, and a passage grave at the multi-period funerary landscape at Ekornavallen, just north of Falköping. Interesting patterns emerged – some of the sites used almost uniform colour in their construction, with only a single stone in contrast; whilst others used dramatically contrasting stones throughout construction. Small nuances in colour will be picked up by analysis of the colour readings taken with the sensor. Interestingly, the local stone here is rich in fossils (polished examples can be seen in local buildings, notably for the internal steps of the Falbygdens museum), though they are rarely seen in the stones selected for monument construction – with the exception of Kyrkerör in Falköping, where one of the passage stones has a large fossil in relief on the internal face.

Further analysis of these and other site visits will be presented at EAA Maastricht (paper available online after close of conference), online at http://suspiciousminds.wordpress.com, and in forthcoming papers.

Laura Baiges Sotos

Laura Baiges Sotos

PhD candidate, University of Sheffield

Mountain Gorillas in Rwanda

Laura Baiges Sotos

The generous award of the Andrew Sherratt fund has supported my six-week trip to Rwanda, where I was invited to be part of the Mountain Gorilla Skeletal Project to study a unique skeletal collection of mountain gorillas hosted at the Karisoke Research Centre, as part of my on-going research on degenerative joint disease (DJD) in primates as palaeoanthropological models.

Evidence of DJD has repeatedly been reported in the archaeological record in anatomically modern humans and in our lineage, having been found in australopithecines, as well as in Neanderthals. Its development has often been attributed to the acquisition of bipedalism as our main locomotor strategy, with the underlying idea that specific patterns of DJD are a typically human phenomenon. However, DJD is not only present in humans, but it is also prevalent in many vertebrates, including non-human primates. In my research I explore the nature of DJD in relationship to locomotor adaptation and interaction with supports available in determined habitats of extant non-human primates in order to cast some light on how DJD may have developed in the human lineage.

Mountain gorillas are closely related to humans and their locomotor behaviour and habitat use are well documented, thanks to many studies that have been going on for decades at the Volcanoes National Park (Rwanda), making them a good target species for my study. The skeletal collection at Karisoke is already one of the biggest (if not the biggest) collections in the world of mountain gorillas, but one of the attributes that make this collection unique is the fact that most of the individuals of the collection have known IDs and they have been studied in life. As part of my stay I have been able to acquire valuable data on DJD for the adult mountain gorillas, but I also had access to their life history information, such as age, body mass, cause of death and other major health conditions (e.g., fractures, amputations, trauma or infections), thanks to the collaboration with the Mountain Gorilla Veterinary Project (or Gorilla Doctors). These data allow for control of possible confounding factors, such as age, sex or body mass differences, and help me understand what role they play in the development of DJD in mountain gorillas, which could potentially be transferred to other non-human primate species.

Laura Baiges Sotos

One of the main tasks of the Mountain Gorilla Skeletal Project during the summer season is the recovery of mountain gorilla and golden monkey skeletons. As part of the team, during these weeks I was also part of the excavation team and we excavated and curated the skeletons, recording any particular phenomena on them. This is an incredible experience for a researcher like me, as I never had the chance of excavating non-human primates but, most importantly, it made me more aware of how much effort and work is put towards building and maintaining a skeletal collection of these characteristics.

As a temporary research member of Karisoke Research Centre, I was also invited to present my research at the Karisoke Science Seminar series, which led to constructive, stimulating discussion with experts on gorilla behaviour and veterinaries. Therefore, being in this project has given me great networking opportunities, from which academic collaborations were established with some work in common already being in preparation.

Rwanda is one of the very few countries where mountain gorillas still live in the wild. During my stay in Africa I had the chance of being in the forest in several occasions and I had the immense privilege of seeing mountain gorillas. Observing these animals in the wild was, not only an incredible and very emotional personal experience, but also very enriching from the scientific point of view. I could see how they move and interact with their habitat, even if only for a short time, which has put into context a very big part of my research. In short, this stay has broadened my professional horizons, for I had the chance of working alongside brilliant researchers, from whom I have learned new skills and who helped me improve my research, but my trip to Rwanda has also been a fantastic personal experience that I will never forget.

Dora Olah

Dora on her research tripDora Olah

PhD candidate, University of Sheffield

My doctoral research aims to investigate and understand the phenomena of the Early Bronze Age Aegean marble figurines which specific roles and functions remained enigmatic. What is particularly interesting is that similar marble figures appear in different but related cultures in a wide region of the Aegean world, not just including figurines from the quiet well-known Cycladic island and Crete, but also the generally less well investigated western Anatolia and to a certain extent, the Greek mainland. Using careful contextual information I am investigating how these figures crosscut and interconnect cultures in different but related regions and whether and in what ways their roles and functions may differ in different regions. The functions and roles of these figurines remain enigmatic, because until very recently the major part of them have had little or no associated contextual information. However, in the last few years excavations and publications have greatly increased the number with full and reliable contextual information, and my project is to collect, systematize and analyse such information in the hope that this may help shed light on the functions and significance of these artefacts.

The figurines in question are in different museums in Greece and Turkey. One of my major aims is to gain access to the archaeological materials and observe all of these artefacts in order to examine the figures at first-hand, looking for further information about their patterns and regularities in their physical features, characteristics and conditions such as signs of pigments, breakage, repairs, which are not always clear from publications.Dora's drawings

The Andrew Sherratt memorial fund helped me to undertake and carry out a research trip in Turkey where I gained access to a significant number of the southwest Anatolian figurines on display in different Museums in southwest Turkey. I am so grateful for this generous grant which gave me an excellent opportunity and entirely covered my travel costs and living expenses during one month stay (23 October – 19 November) in Turkey.

During this period I was able to visit the Archaeological Museums in Antalya, Afyon Archaeological Museum in Afyonkarahisar, Archaeological Museum in Konya, Hierapolis Archaeological Museum in Denizli, Istanbul Archaeology Museum in Istanbul and the Museum of Anatolian Civilization in Ankara. These museum visits allowed me to see and observe more than 100 figurines on display coming from secure archaeological contexts. They also enabled me to observe the archaeological materials from a close viewpoint with several aspects and allowed me to take photos, make notes and draw the figurines from first-hand.

Besides the analysations of the figurines, I visited not only important archaeological museums and sites such as Kusura, Beycesultan, Çatalhöyük but also I found opportunity to work on my database in research centres (such as Research Center for Mediterranean Civilizations, Koç University, Antalya) and in the libraries of different Archaeological Departments ( such as Ankara University in Ankara, Boğaziçi University in Istanbul) where I had the chance to build out academic relationships. Expending my networks and using my recently gained connections, I also would like to take the opportunity to undertake and carry out further research and study in Turkey in the near future.Dora's artefacts

I am so grateful for the Andrew Sherratt fund which entirely covered my travel and living cost allowing me to gain access to the archaeological materials with further study and observation of the artefacts, expanding my database of my research. All of these freshly gained data and information will be able to contribute to the better understanding of the phenomenon of the southwest Anatolian marble figures which has been essential for my research.

Ravindra Devra

Ravi on fieldworkRavindra Devra

PhD candidate, Indian Institute of Science Education & Research Mohali

Discovery of Prehistoric Sites in the Central Thar Desert (India)

This project has been started with the aim of discovering new prehistoric sites in the central Thar Desert. The Andrew Sherratt fund supported the travel, food, stay and field supply expenses of this research. The target area was arid core of the desert which is covering Jaisalmer district of Western Rajasthan State. The objective of selecting this area was to fulfil the gap between Middle Palaeolithic of the Sindh (Pakistan) and the Prehistoric Site Complex of Didwana in the Rajasthan (India). These two ends are shaping western and eastern margins of the Thar Desert respectively. About thousand km distance has been covered by a car from the benchmark Palaeolithic site of the Thar Desert, 16R (of Didwana complex) to the 400 km west near the Kanod playa lake of Jaisalmer district. About twenty locations have been marked for calcrete deposit in the geological formation to understand quaternary stratigraphy and about ten localities have been identified for archaeological potential. Palaeolothic site of Jankipura (Didwana), Kathoti, Jayal, have been revisited in Nagaur district. Dharna, Rol (east), Chenar, Nagaur town, Indas, Singar, Panchori, Palina, Lordiyan, Jaloda has been visited (Nagaur and Jodhpur District) for the archaeological potential in the intermediate zone from eastern margin towards arid core.

Rich Palaeolithic site in primary context has been discovered near Jayal village, and many other sites are marked for the similar artefacts occurrence in the surroundings. The landscape in this area is filled with aeolian/ glacial silt successively followed by lithic artefact occurrences along with thick calciumrich hard sediments (calcrete). Although calcrete layer in contact with red sediment does not reveal any Palaeolithic. However, the superimposing red sediment has microlithic (i.e. fluted core from the bank of a pond in Nagaur town) and uppermost sand formation is containing the antiquity of ceramic-based younger cultures (chalcolithic or early historic) e.g. Singar village. Remarkably, in this region Microlithic technology did continue during late Mesolithic, Chalcolithic and Iron Age. Sometimes fine sediment based on hard kankar deposit also yielded microlithic and pottery remains together.

Ravi's researchConclusions:
Prepared core and Microlithic blade are the most common lithic technology identified at these sites (Table). From the Didwana Complex up to a hundred odd km west in Nagaur district, sediment deposits have potential of prehistoric sites in stratified context, beyond that the landscape is drastically changing. Only surface sites with lesser density are occurring in the west (Jodhpur and Jaisalmer district) which is occasionally exposed from sand cover. Another notable thing is, western part has different type of raw material for lithic tool manufacturing which is of relatively poor quality or its availability was limited. Whereas eastern part has plenty of quartzite and quartz in form of gravel deposit and from the outcrops of Aravalli Hills. This field study is one of the attempt to understand the spread of Prehistoric occupation on the eastern margin of the Thar Desert. Any subsequent effort for scientific dating of sediment contexts of prehistoric sites would lead this small study to a greater dimension.

Eóin Parkin-son

EoinEóin Wesley Parkinson

PhD Candidate, University of Cambridge

This research investigates variations in body size and habitual behaviour in human populations from the central Mediterranean during the Neolithic and Copper Age through 3D scanning technology and metric analysis of long bone morphology. This PhD project ‘Body size, skeletal biomechanics and habitual behaviour in the Neolithic and Copper Age central Mediterranean’ informs on how socio-cultural, environmental and economic change impacted on the human skeleton in prehistory.

Osteologists have used skeletal biomechanics to reconstruct activity in archaeological populations, with methods traditionally focused on structural analysis of the long bones in cross section. This project uses 3D laser scanning technology and cross sectional geometric (CSG) properties to biomechanically examine the morphology of the humerus, femur and tibia (Davies, Shaw and Stock, 2012). Analysis was undertaken using a portable NextEngine 3D laser scanner and standard osteometric equipment. Previous studies of long bone biomechanics have lent insights into subsistence strategies, mobility behaviours, activity and sexual dimorphism in past populations, whilst analysis of body size, represented by body mass and stature estimations, acts as a general indicator of health in past populations (Ruff, 2008; Larsen, 2015).

The Andrew Sherratt fund contributed towards my travel expenses for a three week research visit to northern Italy to analyse human remains from the Copper Age necropolis of Forlì-Celletta curated at Università Ca' Foscari di Venizia and Middle Neolithic caves of Liguria curated at the Museo Archeologico del Finale, Genova. During this period I was able to collect a large amount of data from northern Italy which will be drawn into broader comparative analysis other with Neolithic and Copper Age groups from Malta, Sardinia, central and southern Italy and the Alps.
The assemblages analysed represent significant opportunities for understanding prehistoric lifestyles in Italy. Forlì-Celletta is a Copper Age necropolis situated on the Po plain (Bertoldi et al., 2012), and will enable me to investigate habitual activity and mobility behaviours in early metal working populations on the Po Valley, as well as provide useful contextual data for already published biomechanical properties for “Ötzi” the Tyrolean Iceman (Ruff et al., 2006). The analysis of Neolithic individuals from Liguria will provide an opportunity to contextualise the results of a series of landmark studies (Marchi, Sparacello and Shaw, 2011).

Eoin's scanMy time in northern Italy also provided me with an opportunity to visit the Museo Civico Archeologico, Bologna, which allowed me to further engage with the archaeology of northern Italy and contextualise my ongoing research, whilst also allowing me to work alongside active researchers in Italian bioarchaeology and prehistory.
The results of this research will be presented at the 87th Annual Meeting of the American Association of Physical Anthropologists in Austin, Texas, 10-14th April 2018, and further publications.
I would like to thank the Andrew Sherratt Fund Committee for generously supporting this research, Dr. Monica Miari (Soprintendenza Archeologia, le province di Ravenna, Forlì-Cesena e Rimini), Prof. Francesca Bertoldi (Università Ca' Foscari di Venizia) and Dr. Fiorella Bestetti (University of Macerata) for granting access to the Forlí-Celletta assemblage, and Dr. Vitale Sparacello (Université de Bordeaux), Dr. Daniele Arobba (Museo Archeologico del Finale) and the Soprintendenza Archeologia, Genova, for access to Ligurian Neolithic and Copper Age assemblages. Further thanks must go to the University of Cambridge Dorothy Garrod memorial fund and Prehistoric Society Coles Award for providing additional financial support for this research.

Hannah Lee

Hannah LeeHannah Jingwen Lee

MSc Student, University of Sheffield

The generous donation of the Andrew Sherratt Fund allowed me to undertake a six-week field season on the University of Cambridge/Boeotian Ephorate of Antiquities excavation at Prosilio, Boeotia, central Greece. The goal of this excavation was to open Tomb 2 from the Prosilio chamber tomb cemetery, excavate the dromos and undertake excavation and analysis of the chamber. The Prosilio tombs date from the Mycenaean period (Late Bronze Age) and are located ca. 1km away from the palatial centre of Orchomenos, which dates to the same time period. Mycenaean chamber tombs are rock-cut tombs cut into soft limestone deposits, comprising a dromos, or passageway, a stomion, the entrance to the chamber which is often blocked with a dry-stone wall, and the chamber, where burials and grave goods are deposited. Such tombs can be variable in terms of construction and deposition patterns; for example, benches are sometimes found running along chamber walls and burials have sometimes been found in dromoi. The project design emphasised a holistic and multidisciplinary excavation which aimed to obtain as much data as possible about Prosilio Tomb 2. To this end, the team included a GIS and survey specialist, an osteologist, a geoarchaeologist and a curator as well as the usual complement of students and workmen.

Hannah Lee on excavationI have pre-existing ties with the Prosilio project, and it was significant in informing my interest in osteology and Greek prehistory. Having participated in the very first field season in summer 2014, I was present for the discovery of Tomb 2 and the realisation that what we had here was a monumental chamber tomb with an 18-metre long dromos. After the 2017 field season, it can confidently be said that Tomb 2 is one of the largest Mycenaean chamber tombs ever discovered. Thus, having the opportunity to be there right from the start was an incredible experience, cementing my budding interest in funerary archaeology and allowing me to realise that I was also interested in studying osteology, preferably in the context of Bronze Age Greek archaeology. Indeed, I am currently completing a part-time MSc in Human Osteology and Funerary Archaeology at the University of Sheffield. The Prosilio project also had ties to Sheffield, and I was extremely grateful and honoured to have been able to meet Dr John Bennet, currently on secondment at the British School at Athens, and work again with Dr Ioanna Moutafi, who completed her PhD in human osteology at Sheffield.

Therefore, my summer fieldwork allowed me to gain more experience in all aspects of a field season – survey, excavation and finds processing. Most pertinently, I was able to assist Dr Moutafi in excavating and removing the human remains found in Tomb 2, valuable experience which will stand me in good stead for my MSc dissertation, which will also focus on a Late Bronze Age chamber tomb and the analysis of the skeletal material found there. I am grateful to the Andrew Sherratt fund for covering accommodation expenses for this trip, which has been a formative experience in many ways.

Izaro Quevedo-Semperena

IzaroIzaro Quevedo-Semperena

MA Student, University of Basque Country

The Cantabrian Mountains in the North of Spain are a natural accident which delimits the cultural transmission between the Ebro valley and the Cantabrian Region. Abundant evidence of contacts has been attested between both during the Pleistocene showing the circulation of raw materials and, probably, technological knowledge. However, no research has been undertaken to highlight the cultural influences during the Holocene.

My MD research aims to explore the cultural influences in pottery technology during the Bronze Age, focusing on an important and relevant archaeological site, San Adrian Cave. This cave is located at Aizkorri range and it constitutes a natural pathway between the Golf of Biscay and the Ebro Valley. Applying mineralogical techniques, this research aims to explore the raw material procurement in pottery technology, and the different technological choices employed in the manufacture. The relevance of the research is focused on the current state of the art of the period in the Basque Country. It is an unknown period and the research is somewhat obsolete, also, the studies carried out in the Cantabrian Region are focused on prestige goods and funerary contexts, something that makes we ignore how was the structure and organization of this communities. Focusing on pottery technology, this research has allowed us to reconstruct the social behaviour of the population who lived in San Adrian during the Bronze Age.

The Andrew Sherratt Award Fund covered the expenses of my one-month research trip to University of Sheffield, to assist to the course of Introduction to Ceramic Petrography at the Department of Archaeology, in order to perform thin section analysis on the Bronze Age pottery technology, which was a crucial trip and give me the opportunity to improve my skills in this topic. In Sheffield I worked under the supervision of prof. Peter Day and his team in the laboratory of petrography, one of the leading teaching departments in UK, specially in ceramic petrography and it has a very strong record supporting research in different parts of the world. I am extremely grateful for this award as it helped me during a crucial stage of my research and offered me the opportunity to study a new technique, for without I would not be able to undertake significant parts of this work.

Izaro's research

The Cantabrian Mountains Thin section
Chelsey Schrock

Chelsey Schrock chelsey Schrock

MSc Human Osteology and Funerary Archaeology student, University of Sheffield

The Perspective of the Invisible: An Osteoarchaeological Approach to Understanding Childhood in Ancient Boeotia, Greece

The generous award provided by the Andrew Sherratt fund supported my one-month research trip to Athens, Greece in order to perform data collection on a subadult population as a part of my MSc dissertation. The subadult demographic, in this study defined as any individual aged 18 or younger, has been widely ignored, overlooked, and discarded in past archaeological contexts. This research was conducted at the Fitch Laboratory located at the British School at Athens. The ability to study this material at the BSA also allowed me access to key bibliographic resources, which are not available at the University of Sheffield library, as well as the ability to translate the previous studies of this site which were only published in Greek.

The osteological material was excavated from the site of Acraephia in Boeotia, Central Greece. This material, as well as cemetery information from this site, was studied in an attempt to shed new light on childhood and mobility (social as well as genetic) over the course of the Archaic period to the Roman period (700BC-400AD) within one continuously used cemetery. Relevant previous studies on subadults have exhibited a centralized focus on Athens and drew conclusions using cultural materials and literary sources as primary data. The very limited and biased historical accounts on the region of Boeotia necessitates the study of all available archaeological evidence, which studying at the BSA has provided me with.

The cemetery’s periods of use span a time of intermittent war and peace with tensions both within and between the regions of Greece starting in the late archaic which culminated to the Persian wars (480BC), the Peloponnesian war (431–404 BC), the imposition of the Macedonian rule by Phillip the First and Alexander the Great (353 BC – 323 BC) and others, which eventually ended with the occupation of this region by the Romans. The city of Acraephia and its associated cemetery survived the entirety of these events. The constant periods of war and destruction would not only have a direct health effect on the population, but it would also encourage population mobility within and between the regions of Greece. This would manifest as fluidity in culture, kinship relations, and social mobility, which can be observed within skeletal and mortuary data. The two main questions my research aims at addressing pertain to:

a) life quality changes within the subadult population as attested through osteobiographical markers on health and disease
b) the extent to which familial relationships are reflected in the cemetery organization through osteoarchaeological evidence of biodistances.

My analysis employed an interdisciplinary approach utilizing traditional osteological methods and limited published funerary data from the cemetery at Acraephia to analyze childhood and the role of subadults in ancient Boeotia contemporary with the cemetery’s use. This data was then compared with the popularized Athenian model of childhood to observe correlations and deviations. The osteoarchaeological evidence of the non-adult subsample were also combined with data on adults collected by Dr. Efthymia Nikita (The Cyprus Institute), as well as with mortuary data provided by the excavators of this material (Drs. Victoria Sabetai and Alexandra Harami) and historical information.

The examination of preservation, demography, paleopathology, and kinship provided insights to:
a) The direct and indirect environmental stressors that afflicted the youngest members of society in ancient central Greece
b) Interesting kinship ties were revealed within cemetery burial clusters, which were not visible archaeologically
c) New parameters to apply to obtain a more complete image of ancient Boeotia through an overlooked segment in society.

Given the poor preservation, the wealth of information provided by the skeletal material further affirms the assertion that the study of the osteology of subadults provides valuable insights in bioarchaeological contexts. This ongoing project headed by Dr. Efthymia Nikita promises to yield a wealth of comparative information of an important region of ancient Greece through the study of adults as well as children, enabling a holistic view of each time period based on skeletal and mortuary analyses.

The ability to study this material at every phase of the post-excavation process, collaborate with academic professionals during research collection, and being exposed to an exemplary laboratory environment made this an invaluable experience for myself as an archaeologist. I am incredibly grateful to BSA for hosting me and to the Andrew Sherratt fund for making my travel and stay possible.

Didem Turan

didem TuranDidem Turan

MA student, Ege University

First of all, I would like to thank Sheffield University for making it possible for me to take advantage of the Andrew Sherratt Fund 2017. This fund have been covered the costs of visiting the Mesolithic sites in Greece, which constitute an important part of my Master's thesis.

The subject of my thesis is “The Evaluation of Taş Ocakları Mevkii (Mordogan) Chipped Stone Tools In The Context of The Mesolithic Aegean”. Within the scope in this research, I'm examining the Western Anatolia, Aegean islands, the mainland of Greece and Eastern Mediterranean Early Holocene hunter collecting communities. The basis of my research is the technological and typological examination of the Mesolithic chipped stone tools are found in 2015 Karaburun Archaeological Survey and the examination of the relationship with other regions. In Western Anatolia, until researched the Karaburun, there isn't any area dating the period of Mesolithic. For this reason, Greece and islands, where intensive studies have been carried out, constitute the main Mesolithic areas that I can compare.

In the first part of my research trip, I visited Stélida, which a Palaeolithic and Mesolithic site in Naxos Island. I took part in the project for a week as a team member with the support and approval of the director of the Stélida Archaeological Research Project Assoc. Prof. Tristan CARTER. I joined the fieldwork and found the opportunity to study the Mesolithic chipped stone tools that were unearthed in the Naxos Archaeology Museum. I have studied the chipped stone tools typologically and compared it typologically and technological with the chipped stone tools found in Karaburun Archaeological Survey. In addition to, I visited a new Mesolithic area named Roos, which was discovered in Naxos Island. I would like to thank Assoc. Prof. Tristan CARTER and his team members for their hospitality and helping me with my research.

Didem Turan

In the second part of my research, I visited Ikaria Island, one of the island near the Western shores of the Anatolian Peninsula. Despite the completion of the excavations, I found the opportunity to visit the Mesolithic settlement area and examined the natural environment of the Mesolithic hunted-gatherers.Didem Turan


2016



Maurizio Gatta

Maurizio Gatta

PhD Candidate, University of York

Understanding Late Pleistocene landscapes of Central Italy: a multidisciplinary approach

Maurizio Gatta

The Lazio region (central Italy) was an extremely hospitable environment in the Middle and Upper Palaeolithic. Abundant evidence of a widespread human and wildlife presence has been attested, showing a great adaptation and exploitation of the landscape. Despite this until now no one has undertaken a complete and comprehensive reconstruction of the coastal area (e.g. the so-called Pontine Plain) during the late Pleistocene, as many sites were investigated during the last century (Blanc, 1938, 1939; Mussi & Zampetti, 1978) and prior to the development of modern analyses techniques.

My PhD research aims to undertake a complete and comprehensive reconstruction of the Pontine Plain environment. The final aim is to determine, by comparing the obtained reconstruction with the environmental characteristics of contemporary national and Mediterranean contexts, whether the area can be considered a refugium, a well-delimited area where environmental conditions were more stable and favourable for human and animal life compared to neighbouring regions.

The study is based on a strong collaboration of which I am the promoter between the leading University of York and few Italian research centres (i.e. the University of Rome La Sapienza, University of Rome Tor Vergata, University of Rome Roma Tre, the Soprintendenza per i Beni Archeologici del Lazio e dell’Etruria Meridionale, CNR- Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche and the National Institute of Geophysics and Volcanology in Rome) which aims to remedy the situation.

The primary case study of this thesis are the finds collected from the site "Cava Muracci", a travertine quarry which has been the subject of archaeological investigations since 2012. This site has provided faunal remains among the most numerous of the region, a large number of coprolites of cave hyena and a good lithic assemblage.  A multi-disciplinary approach, based on archaeozoological, palaeoecological and geological data, provided the original contribution of this research to the archaeological knowledge of the territory. The integration of these approaches will allow us to paint a broader and more complex picture of environmental factors on a regional scale, making a great contribution to shed light on a field of Italian prehistory still in shadow. The study is well established, a range of focused analysis have already been undertaken, including radiocarbon dating, stratigraphic analyses (Gatta et al., in press; Gatta & Marra, in press), pollen analysis on coprolites (Gatta et al., 2016) and taphonomic and taxonomic studies of fauna remains. The results obtained so far, although preliminary and worthy of further study, have exceeded all expectations demonstrating the importance of this research not only for archaeology but also geology and ecology of the region.

The Andrew Sherratt Award supported a series of crucial trips between UK and Italy for the realisation of surveys in the excavation area, collection and transport of samples for analyses and the realisation of the summer excavation. I am extremely grateful for this award as it helped me during a crucial stage of my research and offered me the opportunity to carry out analyses which had a huge impact on my PhD and were subsequently published.

References
Blanc, A. C. (1938). Una serie di nuovi giacimenti pleistocenici e paleolitici in grotte litoranee del Monte Circeo. Rendiconti dell’Accademia Nazionale Dei Lincei, (17), 201–209.
Blanc, A. C. (1939). Il Monte Circeo: le sue grotte paleolitiche ed il suo uomo fossile. Boll. Reale Società Geografica Italiana, (17), 485–493.
Gatta, M., Giaccio, B., Marra, F., Rolfo, M. F., & Jicha, B. in press. Trace-element fingerprinting of the 70–36 ka Colli Albani eruptive units: a geochemical tool for archaeological and tephra studies in central-southern Italy. Quaternary Research.
Gatta, M., & Marra, F. in press. Tephrostratigraphic database of Late Pleistocene landscapes of Central Italy. Quaternary Newsletter.
Gatta, M., Sinopoli, G., Giardini, M., Giaccio, B., Hajdas, I., Pandolfi, L., … Sadori, L. (2016). Pollen from Late Pleistocene hyena (Crocuta crocuta spelaea) coprolites: An interdisciplinary approach from two Italian sites. Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, 233, 56–66. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.revpalbo.2016.07.005
Mussi, M., & Zampetti, D. (1978). Siti preistorici di superficie nel territorio di S. Felice Circeo (Prov. di Latina). Quaternaria, (XX), 41–48.

Yvette Marks

Yvette Marks

PhD Candidate, University of Sheffield

The inception and transmission of metallurgy: A regional approach

There has been a recent resurgence in studies considering the adoption and early transmission of metallurgy. However the area of the Aegean has been overlooked, as it has not been considered a major contributor to the transmission debate. My MSc dissertation highlighted how the Aegean response to metallurgy is a very unique and independent one. This therefore needs further investigation to understand how the Aegean fits in to the larger picture of metallurgical transmission, but to also understand how people reacted to the idea of metallurgy and responded to it dependant on their skills, location and resources. Therefore my PhD is focused on readdressing the material evidence for metal production in the Neolithic and Bronze Age Aegean.

In order to achieve this I am carrying out an in depth study of material evidence for copper and silver production across the Aegean. During this study I am compiling a database of evidence for metal production, aiming to gather data from original sources such as excavation reports as well as examining material evidence in person. Gaining the information for such material from these sources, allows me to gather necessary technical information and see the material as a whole assemblage, not as an interpreted reproduction.

Yvette Marks

Due to a generous award presented to me by the Andrew Sherratt memorial fund, I was able to undergo a very important research trip to Greece. This allowed me to carry out research which has had a huge impact on my project. During my trip I was able to access reports un available to me in the UK, meet with Yannis Bassiakos to discuss archaeological material published and unpublished, see unpublished material first hand as well as carryout a topographic survey of two sites pivotal to my research.

During my research one thing that has become evident, is that the metallurgical tradition in the Late Neolithic and Early Bronze Age is an isolated and unique tradition. There is a tradition of using finely made, perforated furnaces, which are wind powered rather than bellow powered. The sites where this material is evident, appear to be sites specifically for the smelting of ores, they are associated with a nearby habitation site, but are located in such places for the natural resources needed for metal production. The metallurgical activity is organised large scale production, not independent family activity. The material evidence highlights how this technology is a development of ceramic skill, applied to the idea of smelting metal ore. It also shows how in tune the people of these societies were with their land and resources, wind-powered smelting is an activity highly dependent on time and place.

Yvette Marks

My visit to Greece not only allowed me to consult reports on early surveys and excavations, but allowed me to carry out my own topographic surveys, assess material evidence first hand and discuss this material and my ideas with Yannis Bassiakos, who has carried out an depth studies of the material evidence from Kythnos and Chrysokamino, two of the largest metal production sites with wind-powered perforated furnaces in the Aegean.

This research trip highlighted three major considerations. Firstly, the difference in craft of this specific technology between sites during this period. Comparison of the two main sites with this technology, Chrysokamino and Kythnos, shows difference in production skill and style of the furnaces. There is a significant difference in thickness of the furnace chimney walls and the perforations are of a different orientation. The difference in the style of these furnaces is at first surprising, however it shows independent response and skills.

Secondly, the topographic surveys showed how in tune the people of the societies were with their land. They understood the seasons, weather patterns and natural resources. These locations had been chosen for a reason and they understood how to utilise these natural resources.

Thirdly, being able to see material evidence from the sites which is not published, allowed me to see the larger picture of craft within these societies. Being able to look at ceramic vessels as well as metallurgical ceramics allowed me to understand craft and traditions. On Crete, there is a tradition of pyrotechnical ceramics, where the vessels bear perforations. Vessels from braziers, to incense burners, all bearing perforations. This shows a development of pyrotechnical ceramics from domestic items to metallurgical. Showing how craftspeople have adapted their skill from one pyrotechnical activity to another.

This research trip not only allowed me to gain access to material and information, but allowed me to gain a better insight to craft and life on Crete and therefore better understand the response to metallurgy.


Ting An

Ting An

PhD Candidate, University of Cambridge

My project is looking at whether there is any co-relation between the spread of Chinese crops and material culture before the 2nd millennium BC. It consists of two parts, i.e. a comparative study on painted pottery from Cucuteni-Tripolye Culture (Southeast Europe), Anau Culture (Central Asia) and Yangshao Culture (China); and a re-examination of early Chinese millet evidence in Europe. It is significant in terms of not only clarifying the chronological sequence, but relating to the larger debate over whether the migration in Neolithic is stimulated from the bottom up, or the top down.

On the one hand, after having a comprehensive literature review on the typology and technology of concerned painted pottery, I conducted research trips to Romania, China, Ukraine and Russia for first-hand study. On the other hand, co-relating with findings of ‘similar Chinese painted pottery’, there are increasing numbers of Chinese millet findings (both grains and imprints on other materials) in Cucuteni-Tripolye culture as well (Pashkevich, 2000).

I analysed flotation samples from Baia (a Cucuteni culture site in Romania, dated to be around 4534cal. BC) and identified as many as 84 millet grains, from which I had 5 AMS C14 radiocarbon dating. The results however, turned out to be more than 4,000 years later than the site itself, which put such evidence in a problematic situation. The other half of evidence, i.e. millet impressions, thus becomes very crucial. There are a number of millet imprints found across Neolithic sites in East Europe.

In Cucuteni-Tripolye culture sites particularly, individual imprints of millet started to appear during the first phase (4550-4200 cal BC), though there are question marks after them due to the ambiguity of identification. When it comes to the third phase, the prevalence of millet imprints was highlighted. According to Kuzminova et al (1989: 119), millet impressions were found on as many as 70 fired clay figurines. However, no image of such impressions at all were presented in any paper before. The identification method is unclear either, leaving the results doubtful. After all, archaeobotanists tend to put question marks after the findings of Panicum miliaceum, the imprints of which, are actually very difficult to be differentiated from those of Setaria viridis, setaria glauca or Echinochloa crus-galli (Rassmann et al, 2015). Moreover, there are no equivalent millet grains with secure dates accompanying these imprints. Therefore, it is still problematic whether there is indeed any robust evidence of Chinese millet in Europe at all before the 2nd millennium BC.

In order to answer this question, with the help of Andrew Sherratt Fund, I conducted this research trip to Ukraine and spent 2 weeks over there re-examining crop impressions found on materials from Bolsoy-Kuyalnik, Usatovo and Mayaki. I was focused on materials from these three particular sites, because it was highlighted in previous literature that findings of millet impressions are concentrated in the settlements of Bolsoy-Kuyalnik, Usatovo and Mayaki which are in the steppe zone on the border with tribes of Usatovo culture (Yanushevich 1976, 1986; Kuzminova 1990: 126; Pashkevich 1980:234 – 242; Pashkevich 1990: 131 – 134; Pashkevich 2003: 194 – 200; Pashkevich 2005: 231 – 245).

During my visit at Odessa Archaeological Museum, I examined 5697 pieces of ceramics sherd from hillfort and grave of Usatovo - Bolshoy Kuyalnik, 456 pieces of ceramic fragments and 2 boxes of clay daub from hillfort Mayaki; and 21 anthropopathy figurines and their fragments from grave of Usatovo. Using plasticine and Coltene President dental impression material, I made casts of ‘voids’ with similar dimension to that of millet, and then have them examined under microscope first, before choosing out the most likely ones and re-examining them with Scanning Electron Microscope. Eventually, I shall be able to present, what the ‘millet imprints’ are actually like in SEM images.

I brought back overall 31 pieces of impressions casts, all of which were made on ceramic fragments or clay daubs, rather than figurines as in Kuzminova et al (1989: 119). I am currently still in the middle of laboratory work but my recent SEM images does not agree with the argument that these voids could be millet impressions at all. Further analysis is yet to be conducted. If all of these casts turn out to be otherwise, then Pre-2000 BC millet evidence in Europe is invalid, referring to an even horizon with crops and metallurgy circulating together in the 2nd millennium BC, while communication of painted pottery technology may have occurred earlier, according to the result of my other half of PhD project.

Vasiliki Anevlavi

Vasiliki Anevlavi

MSc Student, University of Peloponnese

Anevlavi's research

The island of Keros and the islet of Dhaskalio are two of the most important archaeological sites in the Cyclades, dating to the Bronze Age. According to Prof. Colin Renfrew these two sites are considered as the first maritime sanctuary in the world. This theory is based on the hundreds figurine fragments and marble vessels found in the Special Deposits South and North (looted) as well as the settlement of Dhaskalio.

In this work, a brief report on the history of the excavations and surveys at these areas is presented, as well as, the typology of the figurines and the geology of Keros Island and the geology and soil micromorphology of the Special Deposit South. A theoretical chapter of the marble weathering is discussed and the results of the preliminary research by Maniatis and Tambakopoulos in 2015 are reported.

The experimental part of the study is focused on the scientific examination and analysis of the weathering state of the marble and the depositions on the surface of a representative number of marble figurines and the red deposition of a fragment of a marble basin. The analyses were performed using a stereoscopic microscope, a petrographic microscope and a Scanning Electron Microscope with analytical equipment. The samples were examined and analyzed in two forms: (1) as received (ASR) and (2) in polished cross-sections. The examination and analysis showed cracks of different size going through whole marble grains and soil depositions formed at the surface of the grains entering at places inside the grain boundaries. A sequence of weathering events could also be detected. These indicate that the figurines were severely weathered under different environmental conditions and episodes. The intense red depositions on the interior of the marble basin were identified as the valuable mercury sulfide pigment Cinnabar.

The Andrew Sherratt Fund covered the use of the Scanning Electron Microscope and the laboratory consumables (alcohol, acetone, polishing paper, resins, weighing paper, SEM consumables), as well as the accommodation expenses in Athens and the bus and boat tickets during the research.

Anevlavi's research

Abigail Desmond

Abigail Desmond

MPhil Candidate, Oxford University

As a postgraduate research student at the University of Oxford, I am currently engaged in a study of bone tools from the site of Taforalt, located in northeastern Morocco. The cave contains early MSA deposits associated with the Aterian, as well as around 10,000 years of Iberomaurusian deposits, ranging in age from 22,292-21,825 cal BP to 12,698-12-548 cal BP (Barton et al. 2013). The Iberomaurusian levels at Taforalt boast one of the oldest and largest prehistoric North African cemeteries, with between 100-200 individuals excavated to-date (Humphrey et al. 2012, Ferembach 1962). Along with nascent funerary practices, this industry represents the earliest occurrence of a North African Epipalaeolithic/LSA technology (Barton and Bouzzougar 2013). The Iberomaurusian at Taforalt is an excellent early exemplar of a complex hunter-gatherer society, with evidence of a move toward increased sedentism, a broad-spectrum diet with intensification in plants and edible molluscs, the use of cemeteries, etc. (Humphrey et al. 2014). Beginning in 2005, excavation began on a number of undisturbed burials located in Sector 10 (near the rear of the cave). Thirteen partially articulated individuals (as well as additional unarticulated elements from other individuals) were recovered, and samples were directly dated to between 15,077 cal B.P. and 13,892 cal BP (Humphrey et al. 2014). All but 2 of the 42 bone tools recovered since 2003 (95%) were excavated from Sector 10, but their status as funeral goods is uncertain due to a lack of direct association, potentially owing to the nature of the burials themselves (e.g. disturbed and intercutting graves). Additionally, it is difficult to know whether bone tools were equally ubiquitous in areas of the cave without burials such as those excavated by Armand Ruhlmann in the 1940’s, or by Abbé Jean Roche in the 1950’s-1970’s.

Abigail Desmond

With the funds awarded to me by the Andrew Sherratt Bursary, I was able to locate and analyse archaeological material excavated by Abbé Jean Roche, housed in Rabat’s National Archaeological Museum. During my visit I was able to identify, record, and photograph nearly 200 more bone tools, some of which represent completely new types. This significantly increases the total number of tools recovered during more recent excavations, and suggests a well-developed bone-tool industry at Taforalt in the Iberomaurusian. The discovery and analysis of the tools in the Archaeological Museum’s collections has greatly enlarged my total sample size, and will allow for a much more robust and in-depth interrogation of the bone tool complex present at Taforalt, as well as within the Iberomaurusian as a whole. Additionally, I may be able to use provenance data linked with Abbé Jean Roche’s tool collections to understand whether the tools are concentrated strictly in burial and/or cemetery areas, or whether they appear regularly in other areas of the cave as well.

Abigail Desmond's research

Preliminary results show that many tools which appear to have been broken at the base actually display signs of repeated use-wear, which I believe is commensurate with being held in the hand (e.g. rounding, smoothing, and polish atop the breaks) (Campana 1989). This may suggest that these tools were unhafted and/or hand-held, and evidence for a variety of different crafting activities is implied by differential use-wear patterns on the tips of the tools. Most show degrees of smoothing on the working end, indicating continuous, repeated contact with material softer than bone; e.g. grasses or other plant material, hides, skins, etc.. It would suggest that the Iberomaurusians practiced a wide-range of crafts on different perishable materials. Analysis of archaeobotanical and faunal evidence from the site has shown the presence in all levels of large numbers of barbary sheep (Ammotragus lervia), whose notable hides may have been processed and used for clothing, bedding, containers, etc. (Barton and Bouzzougar 2013). Esparto grass is also a ubiquitous component in the Iberomaurusian botanical record at Taforalt; Esparto grass crafting is still prevalent in both Morocco and Spain today, where it has been used to make basketry, matting, cordage, nets, and even shoes (Humphrey et al. 2014).

I am most grateful to the Andrew Sharratt Bursary for this award, as it has allowed me to locate and analyse primary materials which would otherwise have been unavailable to me. The data gleaned during this trip will form a crucial component of my postgraduate research, and I am thankful for the opportunities provided to me by this grant.

Mariacarmela Montesanto

Mariacarmela Montesanto

PhD Candidate, University of Liverpool

Iron Age pottery material from Sabuniye and Alalakh

Thanks to the generosity of the Andrew Sherratt memorial fund I was able to travel to Antakya, Hatay and to Istanbul to study part of the material dated to the early Iron Age levels coming from the sites of Sabuniye and Alalakh. The opportunity to study this material has been crucial in realising the full-potential of my Ph.D project at the University of Liverpool.

The transition from the Late Bronze to the early Iron Age in the Eastern Mediterranean and the Near East is recognised as a period of major social and historical significance. It witnesses the end of the Hittite Empire and the emergence of new polities in these areas. Despite being at the centre of these changes, the Late Bronze-Iron Age transition in the Amuq region and the Orontes Delta Valley remains poorly understood, in terms of chronology and its local impact. A key question is the degree to which changes evident in the archaeological records should be credited to population movements or to the reorganization of social, economic and political structures by the local population.  The former explanation has been emphasised by recent study of locally-made Late Helladic IIIC pottery in the Amuq and adjacent regions. However, the issue of continuity and change can only be understood by considering the entire corpus of pottery found in the principal sites of the Amuq and the Orontes Delta. The local pottery coming from Sabuniye and Alalakh should be a sensitive indicator of cultural and economic change, reflecting local ceramic traditions.

Mariacarmela Montesanto

The site of Sabuniye lays on a hill south of the Orontes Delta. It was first and briefly excavated by Leonard Woolley in the 1930s. The site was only mentioned in his final report on the excavations carried out in Al-Mina and he argued that Sabuniye was occupied during the Late Bronze Age as a residential area by Greek merchants and that it was swept away when the course of the Orontes river changed. New research on the site were conducted by Prof. Pamir during the Orontes Delta survey and the excavations in 2008 and 2009.

The site during the Late Bronze Age, contrary to what Woolley believed, was a sea-port for the city of Alalakh and it was inhabited at least up to the Hellenistic period and was contemporary to the site of Al-Mina.

The material coming from the 2008-2009 excavation seasons are kept in the Hatay Archaeological Museum and I analysed them in February-March 2016. Unfortunately the site has been heavily plowed and the archaeological remains have been disturbed by modern cultivations. Because of this I was not able to properly study the material in its context but only from a typological point of view.  The majority of the material can be dated to Iron Age II-Iron Age III (11th/10th to 4th century BC) and I particularly focused on the Iron Age II material that is mainly composed by simple local ware, red slip ware and Cypro-Geometric III and Cypro-Archaic I ware (ca. 850-600 BC).

The site of Alalakh is located in the Amuq Valley and during the Late Bronze Age it was the capital city of the kingdom of Mukish. The site was first excavated by Woolley and renewed survey and excavations took place in 2003 with a team directed by Prof. Yener. Scholarship believed the site was destroyed at the end of the Late Bronze Age by the Sea Peoples, but new findings are proving the previous statements wrong. Iron Age levels have been found in recently opened squares located on top of the mound and close to the Palace and Temple area first excavated by Woolley while residual Iron Age vessels have been found in almost all the excavated area in the topsoil levels. The material coming from these levels are kept in the dighouse depot and in Koç University, Istanbul. I was able to study them in June-July 2016 and in September-October 2016. The pottery from Iron Age Alalakh can be dated to early 12th-10th century BC and it mainly consists of local simple ware, red slip ware and painted ware.

All the material analysed from both of the sites has been registered and the relevant pieces were drawn and photographed. The study of the pottery material coming from the Iron Age levels of the two sites allowed me to have a general overview of what was going on in between the Late Bronze-Iron Age transition in the Amuq Valley and Orontes Delta valley.

Peter Leeming

Peter Leeming

PhD Candidate, University of Exeter

I wish to express my thanks for the opportunity that the Andrew Sherratt funding has given me. I managed to visit four museums which had archaeological specimens for me to study and an additional museum where I was able to learn vital contextual information. Following conversations with the museum staff whom I met, I also anticipate writing a short article (or two) and including some of the findings in a forthcoming general paper and hand list.

Peter Leeming

Peter Leeming

I used the Sherratt Award funding to travel to Ireland and Northern Ireland, to study material related to my research interest held in their museum collections. My PhD was focused on fossils discovered on archaeological sites from the Neolithic and Bronze Age in Britain and Ireland. I had managed to visit and study most of the English and all of the known Scottish and Welsh material, but not the Irish examples.

I arranged to visit all of the known collections in a period of one week, working my way north up the island of Ireland. I began by travelling to Tralee in Co. Kerry to view the important collection of fossils from the Ballycarty Chambered Tomb, ones which are argued to be humanly placed within the chamber and not merely accidental inclusions or background noise.

Following this I spent two days at the National Museum of Ireland, Dublin, where I examined all of their fossil holdings. Many of these are unfortunately unprovenanced. Several highlights are the fossil shark’s teeth (which are probably imported), an amulet from a crannog which is the twin of one from Iron Age Denmark and possibly assigning a find to its correct chambered tomb by comparing it with the antiquarian illustration of the find.

Whilst at Dublin I also had the pleasure of meeting Dr Matthew Parkes of the Natural History Department of the Museum. He kindly looked at some of the fossils with me and provided very useful information for further study.

The next stop was the Institute of Technology, Sligo, where Dr Marion Dowd kindly let me examine the unpublished fossil finds from Glencurran Cave, Co Clare.

The final collection to be studied was at the Co Fermanagh Museum, Enniskillen in Northern Ireland. A curious fossil object from Altanagh and a small collection of fossil crinoids from Kiltierney Deerpark are held in their collections.

Although it had no material to be specifically studied, my arrival in Belfast on the Friday afternoon left me with enough time to visit the Ulster Museum and study objects on display in their prehistoric, geological and natural history galleries. This provided further information about the context of the material I had been studying.

In addition to thanking the trustees of the Andrew Sherratt Fund, I extend thanks to the following in particular: Sarah O’Farrell, Collections and Documentation Officer, Kerry County Museum, Tralee; to Mary Cahill, Keeper of Irish Antiquities, and Margaret Lannin, Senior Technical Assistant and Matthew Parkes, all of the National Museum of Ireland; to Marion Dowd, Institute of Sligo and Sinead Reilly, Development Officer: Collections and Exhibitions, Enniskillen Castle Museum. I also extend thanks to all of the people who rendered me assistance with enquiries and other matters whilst visiting the above institutions.

Ian Ostericher

Ian OstericherIan Ostericher

PhD Candidate, University of Cambridge

The generous support of the Andrew Sherratt Fund enabled my successful completion of fieldwork in pursuit of my doctoral dissertation at the University of Cambridge. My dissertation work centres on the environmental reconstruction of a river valley in the forest-steppe of northern Mongolia, focusing particularly on anthropogenic landscape and vegetation changes after the introduction of nomadic pastoralism in the region in the late 2nd millennium BC. Using a combination of buried soil data, pollen analysis and monumental and settlement archaeological sites, this work seeks to better understand the relationship between people, land use, environment and climate in the sensitive forest-steppe ecotone where the boreal forest and grassland steppe interface.

In addition to contributing to archaeological knowledge of nomadic pastoralism, this research has important modern implications for climate change and land use. The forest-steppe ecotone is significantly at-risk from contemporary rising global temperatures under a general pole-ward vegetation shift. Because the region is a considerable carbon sink, such destabilisation could have major climate-forcing effects in terms of atmospheric CO2 release. To better understand and predict the environmental effects of rising temperatures, it is imperative to understand how human land use has affected and maintained the forest-steppe vegetation balance.

The funds provided to this project by the Andrew Sherratt Fund significantly contributed to fieldwork travel costs and sample shipment from Mongolia to the UK.

Katia Achino

Katia Francesca Achino

PhD Candidate, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona

This project was initially aimed at recollecting and analysing the available data about the occurrence and distribution of lakeside settlements in Slovenia and its surroundings, with a particular focus on the possibility of reconstructing the formation and deformation processes which produced the preserved archaeological record. This would allow me to carry out intra-site spatial analysis of the recollected data in an attempt to explore the spatiality of activities performed during the past in pilot sites.

When this application was prepared, it was thought to be quite exclusively focused on two case-studies with close affinities between their chronological framework and subsistence activities (especially deer hunting) 1) Mali Otavnik, in Slovenia; 2) Villaggio delle Macine, a Bronze Age lakeside settlement located near Rome, in Italy, that was analysed in the applicant’s PhD thesis.

Thanks to the kind cooperation of researchers (as Andrej Gaspari and Miran Erič), that organized and participated in both the rescue activities of the Slovenian submerged site and the analysis of the retrieved material evidence, I was able to recollect all the available data (publications, databases, photographic materials and maps) related to this site, that I could have not fully accessed and analysed without their help. Moreover, the kind availability of other researchers from the Centre of the Slovenian Academy of Sciences and Arts (ZRC SAZU) (especially Anton Velušček and Borut Toškan) enabled me to include other pilot case-studies, such as Resnikov Prekop, in my research. They allowed me to have total access to the published archives as well as excavation reports and maps, which were only partially available to me before my stay in Ljubjana. Thanks to them and to the additional cooperation of Irena Šinkovec of Muzej in galerije mesta Ljubljiane (MGML), I was able to analyse the material evidence recollected during all the excavation campaigns.

Gaining my working data from their primary sources enabled me to gather the necessary technical information required to compile a database of evidence essential to perform intra-site spatial analysis.

Regarding the site of Resnikov Prekop, the dataset was particularly focused on the three trenches excavated during fieldwork carried out by ZRC SAZU (coordinated by Anton Velušček) in 2002 at the site. Once the database was produced, I had to process the spatial information using the indispensable high-quality software and programs in the LAQU (Laboratory of Quantitative Archaeology) of Barcelona (Autonomous University of Barcelona), to which I am scientifically and academically affiliated, in order to carry out intra-site spatial analyses. The combination of results provided by previous multidisciplinary studies performed by members of ZRC SAZU, published in the monograph dedicated to the site, together with newly edited research on the environmental changes of the area and the new intra-site spatial analyses shed new light on the formation and deformation processes which took place at Resnikov Prekop.

Moreover, during the review of material evidence from all the excavation campaigns carried out at the site, a horse anklebone was identified among the remains of the 1950-60s’ fieldwork, which has raised interest for local researchers as this species was not included in previous reports related to this archaeological context. In view of the briefly mentioned achieved results, an extension of my stay for two additional months was arranged. The aim of this additional visiting period is two-folded. On the one hand, it will allow me to expand my intra-site spatial analysis research on specific categories of material evidence (as, for instance, faunal remains) from further Slovenian case-studies. On the other hand, it will enable me to continue the study of horse domestication and exploitation during the Prehistory of this geographic area, following the discovery of the above-mentioned ankle bone. I am most grateful to the Andrew Sherratt Bursary for this award that has partially covered the travel and living costs of this research; it also offered me the outstanding opportunity to obtain a better understanding of Slovenian pile-dwelling archaeological contexts through a direct collaboration with researchers that performed the analyses and to do extremely interesting exchanges of opinions and knowledge.

Gabriella Longhitano

Gabriella LonghitanoGabriella Longhitano

PhD Candidate, University of Liverpool

Textile activity and its tools: indicators of cultural identity and interaction processes in Sicily and Aeolian Islands (XIII-VI century BC)

The Andrew Sherratt Fund has allowed me to travel to Sicily and Aeolian islands in order to collect and analyse material from a number of museums.  The analysis constitutes the core of my Ph.D project which aims to investigate the traditions of textile manufacture in the indigenous cultures of Sicily and the Aeolian Islands between the XIII and VI centuries BC.

These islands have been crossroad of cultures for millennia and the Iron Age represents one of the best stage to explore cultural interactions with Greek and Punic incomers who established colonies in Sicily from the eighth century B.C. Moreover, according to the references in ancient authors, it is widely believed that Sikels, Ausoni and Morgeti entered the Aeolian Islands and Sicily from continental Italy during the Late Bronze and Early Iron Ages. This movement of peoples and consequent interaction and impact upon the populations already resident on the islands are crucial in the literature. Moving from the surviving literary sources, the archaeological work has searched to identify the different people, although it is often difficult to reconcile such references with the material remains. Nevertheless, the results of cultural contacts were varied and distinctive and brought changes in a range of fields varying from domestic and funerary architecture to material culture. Also, the attention has been focused on how communities perceived and constructed their own identities and recently archaeologists have stressed the importance to investigate the response of the indigenous communities, for long time neglected, to the interaction process.

The study of textile tools and technologies aims to understand the changing in social and individual identity as expressed through dress and clothing more widely. In particular, the analysis of textile implements allows to examine any changes in textile technology and to explore the indigenous peoples’ agency in adopting, adapting or rejecting foreign technologies.

A key question is the degree to which intense and prolonged contacts with incomers affected indigenous textile traditions, and vice versa. By collecting and recording spindle whorls, loom weights, spools and other kind of textile implements, I am able to investigate the range of indigenous traditions of making and using textile tools and how these were used for spinning and weaving specific types of thread and cloth, beyond the economic role of this craft. On the other hand, it enables to explore the entanglement of this craft with society and individuals who perform it. This study aims also to add a female dimension by considering the implications for women as agents in cultural interaction and by investigating the emotional ties between the textile tools and their owners. Because women seem regularly to be involved in manufacture and decoration, it is possible sometimes to access the habits of the owners for personalising their own textile tools, for example, by impressing objects to which they were closely and emotionally attached. The specific roles of individuals involved in craft production can be approached particularly well by studying burials. The presence of textile equipment can be a way of tracking movements of women as so in some cases may be explained as consequence of inter-marriage and other kinds of social phenomena.

More than 500 textile tools that come from a number of sites and different contexts (settlements, cemeteries and sanctuaries) across Eastern, Central Sicily and the Aeolian islands (Lipari, Milazzo, Naxos, Metapiccola, Cugno Carrube, Monte Finocchito, Grammichele, Centuripe, Noto, Siracusa, Megara Hyblaea, Morgantina, Sabucina, Polizzello, S. Giuliano) have been recorded in the database, drawn and photographed. It has been recorded the details of each item, such as location, site-type, period, find-context, type/shape, decoration/marking/modification, use-wear marks, preservation; raw material; fabric and inclusions; dimensions and weight. Quantitative and qualitative analyses will show how these tools were used and distributed over time and space. Further, technical features (size, shape, weight, thickness etc.) help to reconstruct the type, quality, properties and uses of the textile produced. This approach will make it possible to understand the role of textile craft and the degree of cultural impact on this craft, on indigenous communities and women during the Iron Age.

Angela Catania

Angela CataniaAngela Catania

PhD Candidate, University of Sheffield

The Sherratt fund gave me the possibility to cover the expenses for the trips to Greece that I have done between February and May in order to study the larnakes on which my research project focuses.  Larnakes are clay coffins and represent one typology of burial receptacle adopted during the last phase of late Bronze Age in the island of Crete.

My research firstly aims to answer the following two questions:

  1. if larnakes represent a burial receptacle adopted through the island of Crete, if there are any differences in their regional distribution and if the Minoans consider them a material class with a specific function; and
  2. which is their social significance expressed through the data set (shape-morphology-decoration of larnakes + burial context; tomb typology-grave goods-skeletal remains).
    This would then help to understand which is the relation between larnakes and other burial receptacles and which is the function of larnakes in terms of social relations.

To address my research questions, I have collected and built a database with the information on larnakes and their burial context (including grave goods and skeletal remains) from publication, preliminary reports and my examination of study collections. In particular, I have examined the larnakes stored in museums in Crete, Mainland Greece and the United Kingdom. This took extensive time and effort given the amount of material (over 850 larnakes) and their location (in museums in East, West and Central Crete as well as Mainland Greece and the United Kingdom). Therefore, the funds from the Sherratt fund have been essential in allowing me to travel around Greece and complete a fundamental step of my research.

I have received through the British school of Athens the permits to study 104 larnakes stored in the exhibition spaces and the storages of the National Archaeological Museum of Athens and the archaeological museums of Thessaloniki, Heraklion, Rethymno, Chania, Sitia and Ierapetra. My study took eight weeks and involved completing a macroscopic analysis, measuring and taking photos of coffins and fragments of coffins and, in some instances, understanding the region or even the site of provenience of the item.

For each larnax, I completed a data form in which I registered information concerning conditions of preservation, restoration method, dimensions (height, width, length) and morphological features (e.g. shape, feet, handles, holes, panel work, base framework, presence of plastic figurine, fabric characteristic, slip, painted decoration). Each data form is complete with photos of the item. All these information have been compared to the pre-existing preliminary reports and publications and registered in my database. Once my research will be completed I will provide all the data and photo documentation to the museums where the materials are stored to update the museum collections archives. Furthermore, this study will provide data currently missing from publications and preliminary reports.

As mentioned above, some of the larnakes examined lacked precise information about context and provenance (e.g. larnakes, lids and fragments stored at the National Archaeological Museum of Athens and larnakes stored at the Ierapetra collection). Thanks to the macroscopic study of these items combined with the information in the museum entry registers, I was able to identify the region of provenance of these items and, in some instances, to hypothesize the site from which they come from.

Four museums allowed me to take notes on unpublished materials (Archaeological Museum of Rethymno, Chania, Sitia, Ierapetra collection). This is very relevant for my research because it will allow me to build a wider repertoire which will be very useful for analysis and comparison. Visiting the museum collections allowed me to view a considerable amount of grave goods related to the burial contexts, to explore the burial landscape of Crete and thus develop a better knowledge of the different geographical contexts in Crete.

As shown above, the data collected during the study trips funded by the Andrew Sherratt fund has been essential for my research. Having direct access has allowed me to collect information using a standard methodology and to build the core case study for the analysis that I have done on the artefacts. Not only was I able to collect information that I couldn’t get anywhere else (i.e. measurement, manufacture characteristic, complete and precise study of painted decoration) but I also developed a better knowledge of the different regional geographical contexts which has a primary importance for the contextual study of Late Minoan larnakes burials.