Professor Steve Fotios

PhD BEng(Hons), PGCE, FHEA, FSLL, MILP, MEI

School of Architecture

Professor of Lighting and Visual Perception

Editor, Lighting Research and Technology

Associate Director, CIE Division 4

Profile

I have taught in the School of Architecture since 2005, having previously taught at UMIST (1993-1998), Robert Gordon University (1999-2000) and Sheffield Hallam (2000-2005).

I supervise research of lighting; how does lighting affect our perception of space and our ability to perform visual tasks. A main application for this work is lighting for pedestrians and cyclists. We also conduct research on research methods, for subjective evaluations such as spatial brightness, discomfort from glare and pedestrian reassurance, and objective evaluations such as the interpretation of eye tracking data. This work, conducted within the Lighting Research Group, has led to new national and international guidance for lighting design.

I established two fora for PhD students of lighting: LumeNet, the research methods workshop, and BrightLights, where new researchers find out about the established researchers.

Qualifications

PhD; UMIST, 1997

Research interests

I am interested in lighting, visual perception and visual performance, for electric lighting and daylighting.

Questions include:

  • Lighting for pedestrians and cyclists: how does lighting affect safe movement and perceived safety?
  • Approaches for establishing appropriate lighting conditions in design guidance.
  • The influence of test procedure on the results of an experiment – unintentional experimental bias.
Publications

Show: Featured publications All publications

Journal articles

All publications

Journal articles

Conference proceedings papers

  • Fotios S (2019) Which metrics are needed to specify good lighting for pedestrians?. Proceedings of the 29th CIE Session (pp 62-67), 14 June 2019 - 22 June 2019. View this article in WRRO RIS download Bibtex download
  • Fotios S, Hamoodh K & Clanton N (2019) What are you looking at? Testing Nancy’s rules for pedestrian interactions. Proceedings of the 29th CIE Session (pp 1669-1674). Washington D.C., USA, 14 June 2019 - 22 June 2019. View this article in WRRO RIS download Bibtex download
  • Fotios S, Uttley J, Bohm A & Qasem H (2019) The influence of road lighting on cyclist numbers and safety. Proceedings of the 29th CIE Session (pp 68-76). Washington D.C., USA, 14 June 2019 - 22 June 2019. View this article in WRRO RIS download Bibtex download
  • Fotios S, Mao Y & Yao Q (2019) Hazard detection: testing the caveats of previous studies. Proceedings of the 29th CIE Session (pp 1768-1773). Washington D.C., USA, 14 June 2019 - 22 June 2019. View this article in WRRO RIS download Bibtex download
  • Fotios S & Liachenko-Monteiro A (2019) Uniformity predicts pedestrian reassurance better than average illuminance. Proceedings of the 29th CIE Session (pp 1746-1752). Washington D.C., USA, 14 June 2019 - 22 June 2019. View this article in WRRO RIS download Bibtex download
  • Kent MG, Fotios S & Altomonte S (2018) Experimental biases in discomfort glare evaluations. PLEA 2018 - Smart and Healthy within the Two-Degree Limit: Proceedings of the 34th International Conference on Passive and Low Energy Architecture, Vol. 1 (pp 288-294) View this article in WRRO RIS download Bibtex download
  • Fotios S & Uttley J (2018) INFLUENCE OF AMBIENT LIGHT LEVEL ON PEDESTRIAN ACTIVITY AND ACCIDENTS ON PEDESTRIAN CROSSINGS. PROCEEDINGS OF THE CONFERENCE AT THE CIE MIDTERM MEETING 2017 23 – 25 OCTOBER 2017, JEJU, REPUBLIC OF KOREA RIS download Bibtex download
  • Fotios S, Bisegna F, Mattoni B, Liachenko-Monteiro A & Uttley J (2018) FIELD SURVEYS OF REASSURANCE IN TWO EUROPEAN CITIES USING BOYCE’S DAY-DARK APPROACH. PROCEEDINGS OF THE CONFERENCE AT THE CIE MIDTERM MEETING 2017 23 – 25 OCTOBER 2017, JEJU, REPUBLIC OF KOREA RIS download Bibtex download
  • Mattoni B, Burattini C, Bisegna F & Fotios S (2017) The pedestrian's perspective: How do illuminance variations affect reassurance?. 2017 IEEE International Conference on Environment and Electrical Engineering and 2017 IEEE Industrial and Commercial Power Systems Europe (EEEIC / I&CPS Europe), 6 June 2017 - 9 June 2017. RIS download Bibtex download
  • Winter J, Fotios S, Voelker S & CIE (2016) GAZE BEHAVIOUR WHEN DRIVING AFTER DARK ON MAIN AND RESIDENTIAL ROADS. PROCEEDINGS OF CIE 2016 LIGHTING QUALITY AND ENERGY EFFICIENCY (pp 395-401) RIS download Bibtex download
  • Fotios S, Castleton H, Lin Y, Yang B & CIE (2016) VARYING FACIAL EXPRESSIONS IN STUDIES OF INTERPERSONAL JUDGEMENTS AND PEDESTRIAN LIGHTING. PROCEEDINGS OF CIE 2016 LIGHTING QUALITY AND ENERGY EFFICIENCY (pp 275-282) View this article in WRRO RIS download Bibtex download
  • Fotios S, Uttley J & Yang B (2014) Lighting for pedestrians: what are the critical visual tasks?. CIE conference 2014: Lighting Quality and Energy Efficiency (pp 164-173). Kuala Lumpur, 23 April 2014 - 26 April 2014. View this article in WRRO RIS download Bibtex download
  • Fotios S, Yang B & Edwards P (2014) Empirical evidence towards appropriate lighting characteristics for pedestrians. CIE conference 2014: Lighting Quality and Energy Efficiency (pp 833-842). Kuala Lumpur, 23 April 2014 - 26 April 2014. View this article in WRRO RIS download Bibtex download
  • Fotios S, Dong M, Yang B & Lin Y (2014) Interpersonal judgements, lamp spectrum and task difficulty. CIE conference 2014: Lighting Quality and Energy Efficiency (pp 357-366). Kuala Lumpur, 23 April 2014 - 26 April 2014. View this article in WRRO RIS download Bibtex download
  • Fotios S (2014) Road lighting and pedestrian reassurance after dark. A review of the evidence. CIE conference 2014: Lighting Quality and Energy Efficiency (pp 843-852). Kuala Lumpur, 23 April 2014 - 26 April 2014. View this article in WRRO RIS download Bibtex download
  • Uttley J, Unwin J, Fotios S & Hara N (2013) Identifying critical visual tasks of pedestrians after dark. 10th Biennial conference on Environmental Psychology. Magdeburg, Germany, 22 September 2013 - 25 September 2013. RIS download Bibtex download
  • Fotios S, Uttley J & Cheal C (2013) An Approach To Setting Illuminances For Subsidiary Streets. Lux Europa (pp 206-211). Krakow, 17 September 2013 - 19 September 2013. View this article in WRRO RIS download Bibtex download
  • Fotios SA, Unwin J & CIE (2013) RELATIVE WEIGHTING OF LIGHTING ALONGSIDE OTHER ENVIRONMENTAL FEATURES IN AFFECTING PEDESTRIAN REASSURANCE. PROCEEDINGS OF THE CIE CENTENARY CONFERENCE TOWARDS A NEW CENTURY OF LIGHT (pp 23-31) View this article in WRRO RIS download Bibtex download
  • Fotios S, Yang B & CIE (2013) MEASURING THE IMPACT OF LIGHTING ON INTERPERSONAL JUDGEMENTS OF PEDESTRIANS AT NIGHT-TIME. PROCEEDINGS OF THE CIE CENTENARY CONFERENCE TOWARDS A NEW CENTURY OF LIGHT (pp 990-998) View this article in WRRO RIS download Bibtex download
  • Fotios S & Yang B (2013) Exploring Interpersonal Judgements Between Pedestrians. Lux Europa (pp 231-236). Krakow, 17 September 2013 - 19 September 2013. View this article in WRRO RIS download Bibtex download
  • Fotios S & Unwin J (2013) Lighting and pedestrian reassurance at night time. Lux Pacifica (pp 252-255). Bangkok, 6 March 2013 - 8 March 2013. View this article in WRRO RIS download Bibtex download
  • Fotios S, Uttley J, Hara N & CIE (2013) CRITICAL PEDESTRIAN TASKS: USING EYE-TRACKING WITHIN A DUAL TASK PARADIGM. PROCEEDINGS OF THE CIE CENTENARY CONFERENCE TOWARDS A NEW CENTURY OF LIGHT (pp 234-240) View this article in WRRO RIS download Bibtex download
  • Fotios S & Yang B (2013) Exploring Interpersonal Judgements between Pedestrians. Lux Pacifica (pp 248-251). Bangkok, 6 March 2013 - 8 March 2013. View this article in WRRO RIS download Bibtex download
  • Gadakari T, Fotios S, Mushatat S & Newman R (2012) Exploring the Social Aspect of Sustainability in Intelligent Environments. SASBE 2012: Emerging Economies Proceedings (pp 273-284), 27 June 2012 - 29 June 2012. RIS download Bibtex download
  • Fotios S, Unwin J & Yang B (2012) Lighting in Residential Roads: What do we need to perceive?. Predicting Perceptions: The 3rd International Conference on Appearance. Edinburgh, 17 April 2012 - 19 April 2012. View this article in WRRO RIS download Bibtex download
  • Fotios S, Uttley J & Cheal C (2012) What Is The Right Light Level For Residential Roads?. Lux Pacifica (pp 256-259). Bangkok, 6 March 2013 - 8 March 2013. View this article in WRRO RIS download Bibtex download
  • Fotios S, Goodman T & CIE (2012) RESEARCH ON LIGHTING IN RESIDENTIAL ROADS. PROCEEDINGS OF CIE 2012 LIGHTING QUALITY AND ENERGY EFFICIENCY (pp 21-37) RIS download Bibtex download
  • Fotios S, Uttley J, Cheal C & CIE (2012) USER CONTROL AND SATISFACTION WITH DIFFERENT ILLUMINANCE RANGES. PROCEEDINGS OF CIE 2012 LIGHTING QUALITY AND ENERGY EFFICIENCY (pp 185-195) RIS download Bibtex download
  • Fotios S & CIE (2012) STREET LIGHTING - ARE THE CURRENTLY RECOMMENDED LIGHTING LEVELS RIGHT?. PROCEEDINGS OF CIE 2012 LIGHTING QUALITY AND ENERGY EFFICIENCY (pp 516-516) RIS download Bibtex download
  • Fotios S, Goodman T & CIE (2011) PROPOSED UK GUIDANCE FOR LIGHTING IN RESIDENTIAL ROADS. 27TH SESSION OF THE CIE, VOL. 1, PTS 1 AND 2 (pp 345-356) RIS download Bibtex download
  • Fotios S, Ramasoot T & CIE (2011) WHICH COMES FIRST, THE LAPTOP OR THE LIGHTING?. 27TH SESSION OF THE CIE, VOL. 1, PTS 1 AND 2 (pp 830-840) RIS download Bibtex download
  • Fotios SA, Logadottir A, Cheal C, Christoffersen J & CIE (2011) USING ADJUSTMENT TO DEFINE PREFERRED ILLUMINANCES: DO THE RESULTS HAVE ANY VALUE?. 27TH SESSION OF THE CIE, VOL. 1, PTS 1 AND 2 (pp 203-212) RIS download Bibtex download
  • Ramasoot T & Fotios S (2008) Acceptability of screen reflections: Lighting strategies for improving quality of the visual environment in the Classrooms of the Future. PLEA 2008 - Towards Zero Energy Building: 25th PLEA International Conference on Passive and Low Energy Architecture, Conference Proceedings RIS download Bibtex download
  • Panyakaew S & Fotios S (2008) Agricultural waste materials as thermal insulation for dwellings in Thailand: Preliminary results. PLEA 2008 - Towards Zero Energy Building: 25th PLEA International Conference on Passive and Low Energy Architecture, Conference Proceedings RIS download Bibtex download
  • Ramasoot T & Fotios S (2008) Acceptability of screen reflections: Lighting strategies for improving quality of the visual environment in the Classrooms of the Future. PLEA 2008 - Towards Zero Energy Building: 25th PLEA International Conference on Passive and Low Energy Architecture, Conference Proceedings RIS download Bibtex download
  • Panyakaew S & Fotios S (2008) Agricultural waste materials as thermal insulation for dwellings in Thailand: Preliminary results. PLEA 2008 - Towards Zero Energy Building: 25th PLEA International Conference on Passive and Low Energy Architecture, Conference Proceedings RIS download Bibtex download
  • Panyakaew S & Fotios S (2008) Agricultural waste materials as thermal insulation for dwellings in Thailand: Preliminary results. PLEA 2008 - Towards Zero Energy Building: 25th PLEA International Conference on Passive and Low Energy Architecture, Conference Proceedings RIS download Bibtex download
  • Ramasoot T & Fotios S (2008) Acceptability of screen reflections: Lighting strategies for improving quality of the visual environment in the Classrooms of the Future. PLEA 2008 - Towards Zero Energy Building: 25th PLEA International Conference on Passive and Low Energy Architecture, Conference Proceedings RIS download Bibtex download
  • Fotios S () Lighting for cycling: detecting road surface hazards. 28th Session of the CIE (pp 217-222). Manchester, 28 June 2015 - 4 July 2015. RIS download Bibtex download
  • uttley J, Fotios S & cheal C () Using lighting to make pavements safer for pedestrians. Experiencing Light (pp 106-109). Eindhoven, 10 November 2014 - 11 November 2014. RIS download Bibtex download
  • Fotios S, castleton H, Cheal C & Yang B () Lamp spectrum does not affect pedestrians’ judgements of the emotion of others as conveyed by facial expression. 28th Session of the CIE (pp 740-744). Manchester, 28 June 2015 - 4 July 2015. RIS download Bibtex download
  • Keskin Z & Fotios S () Daylight and seating preference in open-plan spaces. 28th Session of the CIE (pp 1217-1222). Manchester, 28 June 2015 - 4 July 2015. RIS download Bibtex download
  • Fotios S, Yang B & Lin Y () How much light do we need to judge another persons’ intentions?. 28th Session of the CIE (pp 317-323). Manchester, 28 June 2015 - 4 July 2015. RIS download Bibtex download
  • Fotios S, Cheal C, Uttley J, Castleton H & Qasem H () Misleading ratings of perceived safety. 28th Session of the CIE (pp 1628-1631). Manchester, 28 June 2015 - 4 July 2015. RIS download Bibtex download
  • Uttley J, Fotios S & Cheal C () Pavement obstacle detection at mesopic levels: a step toward applicable context.. 28th Session of the CIE (pp 1623-1627). Manchester, 28 June 2015 - 4 July 2015. RIS download Bibtex download
  • Fotios S & Atli D () The Berman brightness experiment repeated: A discussion of methodology and metrics for spatial brightness. 28th Session of the CIE (pp 817-823). Manchester, 28 June 2015 - 4 July 2015. RIS download Bibtex download
Research group
Grants
  • LightCAP: Cognition, Attention, Perception. A European Training Network under the Marie Skłodowska-Curie actions framework. £530,337, March 2020 to February 2024
  • HAROLD: HAzards, ROad Lighting and Driving. EPSRC grant ref EP/S004009/1, £578,684, January 2019 to June 2022
  • Impairment To Peripheral Detection When Driving. Experiments Investigating The Effect Of Fog And The Transition Between Lit And Unlit Sections Of Road. Project funded by Highways England under TTEAR Work Package 584 – Impact of Road Lighting Review; 1st February 2016 to 31st March 2017
  • MERLIN-2: Further empirical evidence of lighting for pedestrians. £454,085. EPSRC award to S Fotios, June 2015.
  • MERLIN: Mesopically Enhanced Road Lighting: Improving Night-vision. £417,588. EPSRC award to S Fotios, March 2011.
  • Lighting for the classroom of the future; acceptability of screen glare. £31,009. EPSRC award to S Fotios (PI) & R Parnell (CI), May 2008.
  • Street Lighting: A metric for specifying white light. £172,936. EPSRC award to S Fotios, June 2008.
  • Obstacle Detection: Investigating the effects of source type and luminance. £26,780. Philips Lighting sponsored project, June 2007.
  • Research into the effects of road surface material on road lighting performance. £33,002. Department for Transport sponsored project, January 2005.
  • Research into the circuit wattage of discharge lamps used in public lighting. £30,282. Department for Transport sponsored project, June 2004.
  • Purchase of a spectroradiometer. £34,276. EPSRC award to S Fotios, July 2004.
  • White Light: an investigation of the perception of exterior lighting. £137,665. EPSRC award to S Fotios, June 2003.
Teaching interests

My teaching discusses heating, ventilation and lighting services using a bottom-up approach, questioning firstly whether there is a need for particular services, and then whether provision be met through design of the building form and format – a mixture of conservation and passive approaches. Is it possible for dwellings in the UK to be comfortable in winter without mechanical heating systems?

Of course in many situations mechanical systems are needed, and thus services are discussed to give the architect sufficient ideas for practice: what services are needed, where are the main items located and what size are they, and what questions should I ask the building services consultant?

These ideas are delivered through lectures and tutorials for studio projects. Currently, my teaching centres on two areas:

  • Supervision of PhD students investigating lighting
  • Part I and II: Environmental design - lighting

This is what a former student thought of my teaching:

Of course, any new housing wouldn’t be complete without insulation and central heating! This was the first time we have ever done a detailed services task and I think my naivety probably came through as this assignment took far longer than anticipated! However, Steve Fotios – a very enthusiastic module leader who remained passionate about every type of radiator, ventilation system and water system – had produced detailed notes which were a massive help! It is also worth mentioning that this submission wouldn’t have been the same without our very own tutorials from an ARUP engineer!

Jordan Egglestone

Who says architects only draw pretty pictures? (Jegglestone, Wordpress)

Professional activities

Journals

  • Editor, Lighting Research & Technology
  • Associate Editor, Leukos

Committees

Institution of Lighting Professionals (ILP)

  • British Standards (BSI). Member of BSI road lighting committee CPL/34/8 (2007-) producing the 2013 and 2020 updates of BS5489-1
  • Illuminating Engineering Society of North America (IESNA). Member of three committees: Vision Science; Lighting for Outdoor Public Spaces; Discomfort Glare
  • International Committee on Illumination (CIE). Associate Director, Division 4. Chairman of TC4-51, Optimising Road Lighting for Drivers. Member of committees on lighting for cycling, lighting urban objects, the impact of outdoor lighting, and discomfort from glare.

Conferences

  • Founder of LumeNet, the international methods workshop for PhD students. 
  • Scientific Committee, CIE 2021 Session, Malaysia

(As of July 2020)