Who benefits from growth? 谁从发展中受益?

Our economic future in Chinese and British eyes
中英两国人民眼中的经济未来

Professor Sir Keith Burnett, Vice-Chancellor and Principal of the University of Sheffield, addressed students at Nanjing University on the subject of political economy and the future for young people of both nations.

1. Who benefits from growth? Our economic future in Chinese and British eyes 谁从发展中受益?中英两国人民眼中的经济未来

It is my very great honour and pleasure to be invited to speak to you today.
今天应邀来此发表演讲,我深感荣幸。

I visit you as the President of the University of Sheffield which has a very special relationship with this wonderful place of learning. We are honoured to be your partners within our model Confucius Institute.
我作为谢菲尔德大学校长来访。谢菲尔德大学与南京大学这所声誉卓著的学府有着一种非常特殊的关系:我们合作共建共同的示范孔子学院,对此我们深感荣幸。

I am also a great admirer of your Chancellor Professor Zhang Yibin who I consider to be a true teacher and philosopher.
我也非常敬佩你们的书记张异宾教授,我认为他是一位真正的教师和哲学家。

Professor Zhang Yibin and I have met together now both in England and in China, and in both countries we have talked together from the heart on issues that matter. We have eaten together, listened to stories from each other’s lives and experience, discussed the challenges we face within education, and I have read his scholarly insights on history and political philosophy.
我和张异宾教授先后在英中两国会面,会谈时我们就一些重要的问题进行过诚挚的交流;我们也曾经一起就餐,聆听彼此的人生故事和经历,探讨教育领域所面临的挑战。我还阅读过他有关历史和政治哲学方面的学术见解。

You are indeed fortunate to be led in your education by a man who thinks so deeply about the importance of learning and what will best serve the needs of his students. His insights and his humility mix with his dedication to learning, and bring honour to this wonderful university and city.
他深刻理解教育的重要性,同时又深知如何最大化地服务于学生需求。由这样的人作为大学的领导者,你们真的非常幸运。他的卓见、谦逊和对教育的无私奉献相结合,给这所美好的大学和城市带来了荣耀。

2. Seeing together - Chinese and British eyes 共同审视-中英视角

My subject today is given in the spirit of the partnership between our two nations at a time which President Xi has called 'a golden age' of collaboration between us. But I also speak to you in the spirit of our two universities, both dedicated to understanding, excellent teaching and as partners together within the Confucius Institute.
习主席说目前是我们中英两国合作的“黄金时代”。我今天演讲的主题与我们两国的合作相关、与这样的黄金时代相关。与此同时,我今天演讲还与我们两所大学相关。我们两校都致力于理解、致力于提供最优秀的教育,而且是共建孔子学院的伙伴。

I am going to talk about issues which affect all our lives at a time of change for both our nations.
我将探讨一些在这个变化的时代影响我们两国全体民众生活的问题。

I will speak about economics and how this affects who we have become and who we might be. I will also speak about education.
我将会谈到经济,谈到我们走到今天,经济在其中扮演了怎样的角色,谈到经济会怎样影响我们的未来。我还会谈到教育。

I also want to speak to you young people about what you need for your future, and to share with you the thoughts of young people like you in the West.
我还会与你们青年人谈谈你们需要为未来做什么, 并与你们分享像你们一样的西方青年的所思所想。

Most of all I will focus on the people, and I will do all this by trying to find ways we can understand by looking together. We will try to see more by looking through Chinese and British eyes.
最为重要的是,我将关注于人,我会通过共同审视,找到我们都能理解的方式来讲这些事情。我们会努力透过中英两国的视角看到更多。

3. Highgate cemetery - Karl Marx 卡尔·马克思--海格特墓地

When Professor Zhang Yibin visited London, he was moved to visit the grave of a man whose work he had studied and who is an important link between the thinking of our two countries – Karl Marx.
张异宾教授访问伦敦期间,他专程去拜谒了他所研究的一个人的墓地,这个人亦是我们两个国家思想的重要连接纽带,这个人就是卡尔·马克思。

Some of you may not know this, but Marx is buried in London in Highgate Cemetery.
也许你们有些人不知道,马克思安葬于伦敦的海格特墓地。

This is his memorial, inscribed with his famous call for unity amongst workers across the world.
这就是他的纪念碑,上面镌刻着他号召全世界无产者联合起来的名言。

4. An idea which would change the world (Marx and the reading room at the British Museum) 一个改变世界的思想(马克思和大英图书馆里的阅览室)

Marx work would go on to inspire thinking around the world, but he wrote his thoughts here, in the reading room of the British Library in London.
马克思的著作将继续在世界范围内启迪思考,而他的著书立说之处就是这里,在伦敦的大英图书馆的这间阅览室里。

But who was Marx, and what problems was he trying to solve in his own times?
那么,谁是马克思?他试图解决他自己所处的那个时代的什么问题呢?

Marx was a Jew who burned with righteous indignation. In London and across Europe he saw injustice and he believed it had to be challenged by the workers themselves.
马克思是一位犹太人,内心对不公正充满了义愤。他看到了存在于伦敦乃至整个欧洲的不公正,他相信工人们应该自己向这种不公正发起挑战。

He thought history would witness a new world order, and that the people would arise.
他认为历史将会见证一种新的世界秩序的诞生,人民会站起来。

His writings would go on to shape the political economies of great nations, including this one.
他的学说仍继续影响许多包括中国在内的许多伟大国家的政治经济。

5. The alienation and commodification of workers 工人的异化和商品化

Marx believed, as I'm sure you know, that workers around the world were experiencing what he called alienation.
我想你们一定知道,马克思认为全世界的工人当时正在经历他称之为的“异化”。

He was concerned that the people were not experiencing the fruits of their labours, that the means of production was removed from them and were being diverted into capital which would further oppress the workers.
他深感忧虑,因为人民没有享受到自己的劳动果实,而是被剥夺了生产资料,生产资料变为资本,资本继续压迫人民。

Karl Marx believed that this was the devaluing of what made us human. A worker had become a commodity. He said there was a better way.
卡尔·马克思认为这贬低了人之所以成为人的价值,工人已经变成了商品,他说应该有一个更好的途径。

Marx did not live to see what he had imagined, but today the writing of this man whose life was very troubled in his own time has gone on to inspire the lives of countries he did not visit in ways he could not have foreseen.
马克思生前没有看到他曾经想象到的世界。尽管在他生活的时代,他的人生备受磨难,但是他的著作以他所不可能预想到的方式,一直鼓舞着他从未到过的国家中的人民的生活。

He was in many ways the father of socialism.
就许多方面而言,他是社会主义之父。

How he would wonder if he could see modern China!
如果他能够亲眼目睹现代中国,他将会多么感叹啊!

6. The new consumerism and alienation 新消费主义和异化

Today though our world is very different, and we still have many problems to solve.
尽管我们今天的世界已经有了很大的不同,我们依然有许多需要解决的问题。

Human beings are still feeling alienation but it is different from the kind that Marx might have imagined.
人类依然会感觉到异化,但这已与马克思想象的那种异化有了区别。

Today alienation is also linked to consumerism and materialism. We seek a harmonious society and justice for all, and yet many young people know more about iPhones than Confucius. They may measure their happiness in brands and show their success with selfies.
今天的异化也依然与消费主义和物质主义相关联。我们寻求一个和谐社会,为所有人寻求公正,但是许多年轻人了解苹果手机多于了解孔子。他们可能以拥有名牌来衡量幸福,用自拍照片来表现成功。

The philosophers of all nations are being challenged by the rampant growth of materialism. As one game show contestant famously put it, "I would rather cry in a BMW than smile on a bicycle."
所有国家的哲学家都受到日益猖獗的物质主义的挑战,正如在一个娱乐节目中的参与者所说的一句名言:“宁在宝马车里哭,也不在自行车上笑”。

But I should stop here.
但是我应该就此打住。

Do I think that Chinese young people should not have phones and fashion? Do I believe that after the West has consumed so much that China should stop consuming?
难道我认为中国的青年不应该拥有手机和时装吗?难道我相信在西方已经如此大量消费后,中国应该停止消费吗?

Not at all.
绝对不是。

But I do hope all young people will think about what will really give them a future. And I hope that you will learn from some of our mistakes.
但是我确实希望所有的青年人都会思考一下什么会真正给他们一个未来。我也希望你们能从我们的错误中学习。

7. Rethinking the global economy 重新审视全球经济

What are young people thinking in the West?
西方的青年人在想什么?

For many decades now, the West has pursued free market economics with a hunger for all the consumer goods which it promised, and this spirit of consumerism is now found all across the world.
几个世纪以来,西方一直在走自由市场经济的道路,对所有自由市场经济承诺的消费品都有着饥渴的需求。今天,这种消费主义的精神已遍布全球。

Yet the excesses of the free market have also led to enormous inequalities and instability in the economies of the world.
但是过度的自由市场经济已经导致了世界经济的巨大不平等和不稳定。

It couldn’t last. Deep cracks began to emerge.
这是不可持续的,深层的裂缝已经开始出现。

Capitalism alone cannot create a harmonious society, and it will not lead to wealth for all its people. In 2007, inherent weaknesses in the US economy began to spread across the world. This became known as the Global Economic Crash, the worst economic crisis since the Great Depression of the 1930s.
仅仅依靠资本主义自身不可能创造一个和谐的社会,也不可能给所有人带来财富。2007年,美国经济与生俱来的弱点开始向全世界蔓延。这后来被称为“全球经济崩溃”,是自二十世纪三十年代大萧条以来最为严重的经济危机。

It was termed a 'Minsky Moment' after the great American economist Hyman Minsky who had foretold the inevitable crisis of unrestrained free-market economics。
美国伟大的经济学家海曼·明斯基曾经预言:无节制的自由市场经济会不可避免地导致经济危机。所以这场危机也被称作“明斯基时期”。

Governments had to intervene to support banks so that whole systems did not go under. Many of the poorest in society are still paying the price.
政府不得不采取干预措施支持银行,以防整个系统瓦解。社会上许多最贫穷的人们依然还在为此付出代价。

Capitalism continued, but with serious questions to answer from its own people. How could this have happened, and how could we ensure it would not happen again?
资本主义还在继续,但是来自于它制度内部的人民,开始问一些严肃的问题:这场危机是如何发生的?我们如何保证它不会再次发生?

8. Occupy Wall Street - questioning capitalism 占领华尔街-质疑资本主义

New questions have emerged in the West about our economic assumptions.
西方开始对我们的经济设想提出新的问题。

The Occupy Movement went into Wall Street to challenge the way we thought about society and wealth.
占领运动进入华尔街来挑战我们对社会和财富的认识方式。

Who benefitted from growth?
谁从经济增长中受益?

Economists began to talk about the need for new thinking. Capitalism as it had been experienced was now seen not to be bearing fruit, and many young people felt particularly concerned that it was incapable of providing them with a good life or dealing with the big questions for the planet.
经济学家开始讨论新思想的必要性。资本主义就像大家所经历的那样,被认为并不能结出果实,许多青年人尤其担忧资本主义不能给他们提供优质的生活、不能解决这个星球面临的重大问题。

9. The rise of socialism and nationalism in the West 西方社会主义和民族主义的崛起

In Britain, many young men and women have become interested in political movements which had their basis in the thinking of Karl Marx. Socialism is experiencing a revival in London and across many of the areas of the United Kingdom where the workers had once manufactured coal and steel.
英国有许多青年男女已经开始对以马克思的思想为基础的政治运动感兴趣。在伦敦以及英国许多曾经生产煤炭和钢铁的地区,社会主义正在复兴。

Men like Jeremy Corbyn who is a Marxist and now leads the United Kingdom's main opposition party appeal directly to those who have real doubts about our current system. This is not a movement of the old. It is a movement of the young who are questioning the system they have inherited.
杰雷米·科尔宾就是一位马克思主义者,目前正领导着英国主要的反对党——工党。像他一样的人们受到了那些对我们目前的制度持有真正怀疑态度的人们的拥戴。这不是老年人的运动,这是对自己所继承的制度产生疑问的青年人的运动。

More worrying political movements have also stirred across the world. Nationalist politicians blame the difficulties of workers on foreign production. From America to Europe, we see leaders who give the message that the way to save the workers is to close borders. To build a Wall.
世界各地还出现了更令人担忧的政治运动。民族主义的政客们将工人的困难归咎于外国产品的竞争。从美国到欧洲,我们都看到了一些政客们给出这样的信息:解救工人的方式就是关闭边界,筑起一堵墙。

Perhaps the most well known example of this is Donald Trump,who appeals to older and disenfranchised workers.
也许最著名的例子就是唐纳德·川普,他的言论吸引了不能完全享受到权利的、年老力衰的工人们。

He licenses his name to developers around the world, but his slogan which appeals to workers who feel let down by the promises of free trade is 'America First'.
他向世界各地的开发商授权使用自己的名字,但是,他用来吸引那些对自由贸易的承诺失望的工人们的口号却是“美国优先”。

10. Seeing ourselves from a new perspective - the earth from space 从一个新的角度审视我们自己—从太空看地球

There are problems though which need far more than national solutions.
但是,有许多问题需要的不仅仅是单个国家的解决方案。

Think of climate change - a challenge which above all demands international solutions for the future of all peoples.
想想气候变化—--应对这一挑战最需要的是全世界群策群力,共同为人类的未来筹谋。

We live together on one fragile planet. We see our earth as Marx never did, nor those who created the traditions of democracy.
我们共同生活的地球非常脆弱。我们看到的地球,是马克思从未看到过的,也是那些创造民主传统的人们从未看到过的。

In 2016 we can take an even wider perspective. We have seen the earth from space. We know that we are one planet circling just one star in a vast universe. And we also see that our world is rare in its resources and fragile in its environment. We have a duty to care. And to preserve this asset, we must work together.
在2016年的今天,我们可以用更加广阔的视角来看问题,我们已经从太空上看到过地球。我们知道地球只是浩瀚宇宙中一直围绕着一颗恒星运行的行星。我们也知道地球上的资源是有限的,环境是脆弱的。我们有责任关心它。为了保护这个星球,我们必须共同努力。

11. Quote Jeremy Grantham - capitalism is totally ill-equipped... 杰瑞米·格兰瑟姆—资本主义完全束手无策……

China has a vital role to play in leading our world in facing climate change, and it is stepping up to the challenge.
中国在领导全球应对气候变化事业上举足轻重,并且正在加快应对挑战。

Addressing pollution or global environmental sustainability on a planet which will soon be home to 10 billion people will require central planning, not only the profit incentive.
地球上的人口很快将达到100亿,要解决污染问题或维持全球环境的可持续性,需要集中规划,而不是仅仅需要利润刺激。

This is the view of a Sheffield graduate, Jeremy Grantham. Jeremy is an economist, a fund manager and an environmental activist. He says:
“Capitalism is totally ill-equipped to deal with a small handful of issues. Unfortunately, today, they are the issues that are absolutely central to our long-term wellbeing and even survival.”
这是谢大校友杰瑞米·格兰瑟姆的观点。杰瑞米是经济学家、基金经理和环保活动家。他说:“资本主义对一小撮问题完全束手无策。不幸的是,在今天,这一小撮问题对我们的长期福祉乃至生存绝对是核心问题。”

12. President Xi warns of the dangers... 习主席对……危险的警示

President Xi Jinping agrees.
习近平主席对上述观点表示同意。

China has watched a time of challenge and difficulty in the world’s economy at the same time as its own people have experienced tremendous development. He is deeply worried that the desire for wealth could lead some in China to repeat the mistakes of the West.
中国目睹了全球经济遭遇挑战、陷入困境的时代;与此同时,中国人民经历了经济上的重大发展。习主席深深地担心对财富的渴望可能会使部分中国人重复西方的错误。

This great nation is the world’s biggest developing country. A quarter of the world’s population live in this astonishing land.
这个伟大的国家是世界上最大的发展中国家。这片神奇的土地上生活着全世界四分之一的人口。

You have enormous resources in your people and your nation, as well great challenges. Most important, people need to eat and to be safe. But in just one generation you have seen great changes in affluence. China is transformed from the land of the bicycle to the land of the iPhone.
你们的人民和国家拥有巨大的资源。与此同时,你们也面临许多重大挑战。 最重要的一点就是人民对温饱和安全的需要。但是,仅用短短一代人的时间,中国就实现了社会财富天翻地覆的变化——中国由 “自行车王国”转型为“苹果手机王国”。

The private sector now makes up 60% of the Chinese economy. But President Xi has warned entrepreneurs and universities that they must be very careful not to trumpet the western capitalist values which could harm Chinese society.
现在私营企业在中国经济中占60%。但是习主席提醒企业家和大学必须保持警惕,不要鼓吹西方资本主义价值观,这种价值观可能会危害中国社会。

He is concerned that this will never address structural inequalities.
他担心资本主义价值观将永远无法解决社会结构的不平等。

13. Quote Jim O'Neill - 'It's great to have these...吉姆·奥尼尔:拥有光鲜繁华、生活丰富多彩的市中心当然是件好事... ...

You may be surprised to know that President Xi's concerns that wealth is not being properly shared are also a driving force for some economists in the West.
你可能会感到吃惊:习主席担心的财富分配不合理的状况也正是西方一些经济学家的驱动力。

Lord O’Neill is the Commercial Secretary to the UK Treasury. He is also a Sheffield University graduate.
吉姆·奥尼尔勋爵是英国财政部商业大臣,同时也是谢菲尔德大学的校友。

As an economist for Goldmann Sachs he invented the term the BRICs – a description based on his observation on the talent and potential to be found in Brazil, Russia, India and of course China.
早在他作为一名经济学家为美国高盛工作的时候,他就提出了“金砖四国”的概念,用以描述他在巴西、俄罗斯、印度、中国等四个国家所观察到的巨大潜力和才能。

But Jim also cares deeply about working communities. He grew up in the great industrial city of Manchester in the North of England, and he knows that finance and economics have not served the needs of all the people.
但吉姆也对工人社区深表关心。他成长于英格兰北部的伟大工业城市——曼彻斯特,他知道金融和经济并没有为所有人的需求服务。

He says:
"Don’t let the big shiny city centres of Manchester and Leeds give you the wrong impression – there’s still plenty of poverty. It’s great to have these fancy shining city centres with a lot of things going on, but you must engage with those people in those communities a mile or so outside the centre."
他说:“不要让曼彻斯特和利兹大而华丽的市中心误导了,实际上这些地方还有很多贫困现象。拥有光鲜繁华、生活丰富多彩的市中心当然是件好事,但你必须也要让那些住在市中心外面一英里左右的人们能够参与其中。”

Pure free market economics sees little role for government. Jim does not agree. He believes there is a time to invest, to stimulate and to support what is needed to make change.
纯粹自由市场经济学家认为政府作用无足轻重,但吉姆却不赞同这种观点。他认为政府应在需要的时间进行投资、刺激、并提供变革所需要的支持。

Jim is a reformer who thinks big. And he is an internationalist. The thoughts he has about economic growth and social good are as applicable here in China as the UK.
吉姆是一位胸怀大志的改革家,同时,他也是一位国际主义者。他对于英国经济增长和社会福祉的观点在中国也同样适宜。

14. Judging economics by how well it serves the people以‘为人民服务’的程度来判断经济好坏

How do we decide what we must do?
我们如何决定什么是必须做的事情?

The answer was famously stayed by Lei Feng. We must:
"Serve the people wholeheartedly..."
答案是雷锋同志的那句名言。我们必须:
“全心全意为人民服务……”

Who are these people we must serve with our actions?
谁是我们必须用行动来服务的人民呢?

Sometimes the decisions we take have the greatest impact on our family,
有时侯,我们的决定对自己家人的影响是最大的,

At other times the people are those of our nation.
另外一些时候,人民是指我们的国民同胞。

When it comes to the greatest questions of all, the people are all human beings on our shared planet.
而面对最重大的问题时,人民指的是共同生活在地球上的所有人。

We cannot leave the greater good only to the short term interests of shareholders, some of whom may hold the means of production only for matters of seconds as they trade globally to create astonishing wealth.
我们不能指望仅靠股东们的短期兴趣来实现大义。有些股东通过在世界范围内交易股权来创造巨额财富,他们对生产资料的掌握可能仅仅只有几秒钟。

15. President Xi - 'Development is for the people... 习主席“发展为了人民…

President Xi underlined this message at the G20 meeting in China this month, when he told business executives:
习主席在本月召开的G20领导人峰会上对企业高管强调:

"Development is for the people, it should be pursued by the people and its outcomes should be shared by the people.”
“发展为了人民,发展依靠人民,发展成果由人民共享。”

Across the world, economists are asking profound questions about the choices we make.
在世界各地,经济学家们都对我们的选择提出了深刻的问题:

How can we harness the energy of business without being ruined by its excesses?
我们怎样才能利用商业的力量,而又不被过度商业化所破坏?

16. Quote Andy Haldane - 'It's not just institutions... 安迪·哈丹:机构不仅…

One person who has been thinking deeply about these questions is one of our Sheffield graduates, Andy Haldane, who is now Chief Economist at the Bank of England.
有一个人对这些问题进行了深刻的思考,他是我们谢菲尔德大学的校友,目前是英格兰银行的首席经济学家安迪·哈丹。

Andy works in the great City of London, a centre of finance of the world and he works to create economic recovery and stability. But he also cares deeply about bigger issues and has met not only the leaders of industry but with people who work with the very poorest in society.
安迪在世界金融中心之一—伦敦金融城工作。他致力于促进经济复苏和稳定。但是他也关心更大的事情,除了与工业领导人会面,他也接触那些与社会上最贫困的人共事的人。

He knows that electronic trading floors do not tell the whole story. He says we need a broader range of measures of well-being, social as well as economic, subjective as well as objective.
他了解电子交易大厅并不能告诉我们全部的情况。他说我们需要更多重的标准来衡量幸福,有经济标准还要有社会标准,有客观指标还要有主观感受。

But who is in the position to take a long view, when markets are driven by profit?
然而当市场受利润所驱动,能够高瞻远瞩的人是谁呢?

Andy points to institutions, like Universities or like his own central bank. And he thinks they can make sure that our economic system does not forget the wider needs of the people.
安迪认为要靠机构的力量,譬如大学或他所在的中央银行。他认为这些机构可以确保我们的经济体系不会忘记人民更广泛的需求。
He says:
"The role of the Bank of England is to serve the good of the UK people, as it has been since its inception in 1694."
他说:
“自1694年创立以来,英格兰银行的职能一直就是为英国人民服务。 ”

Andy speaks not only about stocks and shares but about employment, health and housing in different communities across the land. Like many of the great social reformers, he is acutely aware of vast differences in opportunities and affluence. He thinks institutions can act with the kind of purpose which is desperately needed.
安迪所讲的不只是股票和股份,还有英国不同社区的就业、健康和住房情况。如同许多伟大的社会改革者一样,他非常清楚不同社区在机会和财富上的差异是巨大的。他认为机构能够为实现我们迫切需要的目的而采取行动。

“It is not just that institutions matter, but that the forces shaping today’s great global systems mean they matter more today than ever previously... They also created the security of environment necessary to generate that progress – for example, through the rule of law and property and civil rights.”
“机构组织不是一般地重要,塑造当今伟大全球体系的各种力量说明,在当今这个时代,机构是前所未有地重要。”

17. Sheffield University 'will be for the people' 谢菲尔德大学将“为人民服务”

The kinds of institutions which can take a long view are rare, but they include universities.

So let me tell you more about my university.
能够高瞻远瞩的机构是罕见的,但大学是其中之一。
所以请让我向大家进一步介绍一下我的大学。

Sheffield University was founded not only by governments and the rich, but by a city built by factory workers, craftsmen and women. This poster shows the ideas of the people who founded our University over 100 years ago and what they wanted to achieve.
谢菲尔德大学的建立不仅依靠了政府和富人,它的建立还依靠了这座由工人、工匠和妇女建造的城市。这张海报展示了100年前我们大学创办者的思想和他们想要实现的目标。

It was displayed around our city in places of industry. Workers in factories gave penny donations because they believed a University could help make a better situation. They wanted better health and an education for ‘the child of the working man’.
这张海报曾经张贴在我们城市的工业区。工厂的工人们相信大学能够使他们的处境更好,所以他们每个人也都捐出了一便士。他们希望能够更加健康,也希望“工人的孩子”能够得到更好的教育。

But look carefully at the most important description of what our university would be.
"Sheffield University will be for the people."

This was a city built by workers who gained a worldwide reputation for their craftsmanship in metals and steel. And in our university, we are not at all ashamed that the knowledge we are privileged to share is at the service of the people.
不过,请仔细看看当时对于我们即将建立的这所大学最重要的描述是什么。
“谢菲尔德大学将为人民服务。”
这是一个由工人建造的城市,这里的工人在冶金和炼钢领域的技能享誉世界。在谢菲尔德大学,我们有幸分享的知识是为人民服务的,对此我们毫不羞愧。

18. Building bridges as well as walls 建筑城墙,也要修建桥梁

China is famous for its Great Wall.
I have walked on the Wall here in Nanjing and looked out over the beautiful lake and over the city. I have seen the cannon which once protected the city and its people.
But there are times when a people are protected not by walls, but because we build bridges.
We cannot properly serve the needs of our people if we fail to learn from one another. Separation is not safe because we need each other’s insights and knowledge. We need to be part of a wider world.
中国的长城闻名于世。
我走过南京的城墙,从城墙上眺望过美丽的玄武湖和南京城。我也见过保护这座城市和人民的大炮。但有的时候,保护人民的不是城墙,而是我们建造的桥梁。如果我们不互相学习,就不能很好地为人民的需求服务。彼此隔离是不安全的,因为我们需要彼此的洞察力和知识。我们需要是更广阔的世界中的一员。

19. China's ambitions to be a global leader in advanced manufacturing 中国希望引领世界先进制造

And we are already working together.
我们已经携手共进了。

Let me give you just one example of how we in Nanjing and Sheffield are doing this work.
让我来给你们举一个例子,来看看我们在南京和谢菲尔德是怎样引领先进制造的。

China is building not only high speed trains but planes. President Xi wants to build greater capacity in areas of manufacturing such as steel, and in aerospace. He knows that this will be vitally important for the Chinese people.
中国不仅在建设高铁,还在修建飞机。习主席希望在钢铁、航空航天等制造领域建立更强大的实力。他知道这对中国人民至关重要。

Our engineers in Sheffield are world leaders in advanced manufacturing, working with companies such as Boeing and Rolls-Royce who are developing planes with China.
我们谢菲尔德的工程师是世界先进制造业的领军人物,他们与波音、劳斯莱斯等公司合作,这些公司正与中国一起开发制造飞机。

These engineers are working with your own engineers here in Nanjing. And on this visit I am delighted to say that we have agreed to work even more closely, creating opportunities for engineering students from both our universities to work together on global challenge projects which will create new products, wealth and employment.
这些工程师正与你们南京自己的工程师通力合作。这次访问中,我非常高兴地告诉大家:我们已经决定进一步亲密合作,为两校的工程系的学生创造机会,让他们共同参与应对全球挑战的项目,这些项目将会创造出新的产品和财富,并提供就业机会。

20. Manufacturing and nuclear energy - China and Sheffield 制造和核能源-中国和谢菲尔德

Another crucial area where China and the U.K. are working together is on nuclear energy. You may know that just last week the British government confirmed that it will proceed with a joint venture with France and China to build a new nuclear power station at Hinkley Point.
中英合作的另一个重要领域是核能源。大家可能已经知道,就在上周,英国政府正式宣布将会与中法合作在欣克利角兴建新的核电站。

What you may not know is that the national centre for nuclear manufacturing research in the UK is part of The University of Sheffield, and that we have for a number of years been working with nuclear manufacturers in China on new generation technologies for the low-carbon nuclear energy which will be needed across the world.
你们可能不知道的是,英国国家核能制造研究中心就在谢菲尔德大学。我们几年来一直与中国核能生产商合作开发全世界都需要的新一代的低碳核能技术。

We also bring greater understanding to business partnerships by making sure that our Confucius Institute does not only work with schools teaching Chinese but that it builds understanding between engineers, scientists and industry across the great challenges we all face.
我们的孔子学院除了与教授汉语的学校合作以外,也致力于在我们共同面临的一系列巨大挑战上,建立两国工程师、科学家和企业界的相互了解,进而加深了两国商业合作伙伴之间的理解。

21. Factory 2050 2050 工厂

We are doing this using the very best research in the world, and engineers from many nations work on these problems.
我们2050工厂采用的是世界上最先进的研究技术。来自许多个国家的工程师们共同解决问题。

In our University we have built the world’s first reconfigurable factory where our engineers and scientists work with over 100 companies to make better products, but also to create jobs and wealth in an area of our country where there has been great inequality. This is a place where the new ideas of big data and high tech materials can be shared with companies and workers to solve problems. It is an exciting place!
我们大学创立了世界上第一个可完全重构的工厂。在这里,我们的工程师、科学家与100多家公司合作,共同生产更好的产品,同时也为我们国内这个一直存在重大不平等的地区创造了更多就业机会和财富。在2050工厂,关于大数据和高科技材料的新想法都可以与企业和工人共享,共同解决问题。这是一个令人兴奋的地方。
It is also a place which is making change which benefits wider society. Our Factory is part of a globally-leading manufacturing innovation district which is leading renewed growth for the people of our city and region, who were once damaged by the forces of global competition and a lack of ongoing investment by central government.
2050工厂还带来了变化,让更广泛的社会群体受益。我们的工厂位于全球领的先进制造创新区,这个创新区正领头为我们城市和地区的人民带来经济的重新增长,这些民众曾因为全球竞争的压力和中央政府持续投资的缺失而遭受损失。

Companies are working with universities and with the support of government to build up an infrastructure which creates greater prosperity and opportunity.
企业正在政府的支持下与大学通力合作,开展能创造更大繁荣和更多机会的基础设施建设。

We are serving the people!
我们正在为人民服务!

22. Skills of the future 未来的技术

And we have not forgotten the needs of the workers.
我们并未忘记工人的需求。

We began by speaking of Marx and his concern that workers were becoming alienated. In our university, we are lifting the role of the worker to the very highest level. Advanced manufacturing is the subject of PhDs and world-leading research.
我们开始的时候讨论了马克思和他对工人群体被异化的担心。在我们的大学里,工人的角色被提升到最高的位置。先进制造不仅是我们博士生的课题,也是我们全球领先的科研的课题。

We are also developing new forms of technical education which work with companies and young people to give the skills of the future so needed by the economy and society.
我们还在开发新型的技术教育,这种技术教育与企业和年轻人一起发展出经济和社会迫切需要的未来技能。
These young people will help to create the industries of the future and the technologies which will allow us to produce goods in ways which do not pollute our cities.
这些年轻人将帮助我们创造未来的工业和技术,使我们能够以不污染环境的方式生产产品。

23. "He who wants to be a leader must be a bridge" “欲成领袖,先成桥梁”

In the country where I was born – Wales – there is a story told about giant who lays his body down to form a bridge across a river so his men can walk across him. This story was the inspiration for the motto of my school –

He who would be a leader, let him be a bridge.
在我出生的国家————威尔士,有这样一个传说:有个巨人把身体架于河面之上,形成一座桥梁,以便自己的人民能够过河。这个故事也是我的母校校训的灵感来源。我母校的校训是——-“欲成领袖,先成桥梁。”

China is a giant nation. A quarter of the world’s population is Chinese. And today China has seen that its future lies in making bridges around the world.
中国是一个巨大的国家,拥有世界上四分之一的人口。如今中国也已意识到,它的未来取决于与世界各地搭建桥梁。

But bridges are nothing if people do not travel and trade across them, bringing with them ideas and understanding, seeing one another’s riches and exchanging gifts.
但是如果人们不在上面来来往往、进行贸易、传递不同的观点并加强理解、了解彼此的长处并互相馈赠,桥梁就毫无意义。

Today China is thinking about building bridges, literal and figurative.
如今中国正在考虑修建桥梁,不仅是字面意义的桥梁,还有隐喻意义上的桥梁。

Bridges are places of possibility and exchange. China is not isolated, it wants to trade with the world.
桥梁是充满可能性和交流的地方。中国不是孤立的,它希望与世界进行贸易。

The Belt and Road initiative proposed by President Xi Jinping focuses on connectivity and cooperation between the People’s Republic of China and the rest of the Eurasia through the land-based Silk Road Economic Belt and an ocean going maritime Silk Road.
习主席提出的“一带一路”就是通过陆地上的丝绸之路经济带(一带)和海上的丝绸之路(一路)来加强中国与欧亚其他地区的联系与合作。

24. Learning together 共同学习

It is said that he who has all the answers has not understood the question. We have many questions. To answer them, we need to work together.
据说,拥有所有答案的人,往往并没有真正理解问题。
我们有很多问题,而要回答这些问题,我们必须合作。

What will allow us to succeed?
什么才能使我们成功呢?

I am convinced that we will do well if we remember two great principles.
我确信如果我们能牢记下面两个伟大的原则,我们就会做好。

First, growth and understanding needs to be at the service of the people. It is this which must shape our purpose.
首先,经济增长和理解必须旨在服务人民。我们的目的必须围绕这一点。

And second, we will not find the answers to our greatest challenges alone. For us to see the answers and to build a better world for all our peoples, we will need Chinese and British eyes.
其次,我们无法独自找到解决最重大挑战的答案。如果我们要看到答案,要为我们所有人创建更美好的世界,我们必须兼用中英双方的视角。

25. Khan Heng who sought understanding by borrowing his neighbour's light 匡衡凿壁借光

In his book on The Governance of China, President Xi refers to a beautiful and important story about education.

He describes Kuang Heng who lived during the Western Han period. He was eager to learn but his family was very poor, so he had to borrow books from other people. And not only books! Kuang Heng studied at night, so he needed a light source. Once he noticed a glimpse of light from his neighbour's house coming through a small hole in the wall. Kuang Heng then dug a bigger hole. To learn he needed the benefit of his neighbour’s lamp.
在《论治国理政》一书中,关于教育,习主席引用了一个动人而且重要的故事。
他描述了西汉时期匡衡的故事。匡衡非常好学,但是家庭贫困,所以不得不向别人借书来读。他借的不仅是书!因为匡衡晚上也学习,所以他还需要一个光源。有一次,他注意到他邻居家的一小束光透过墙上的一个小洞照射过来。于是,匡衡把这个小洞挖得更大。要想学习,他就需要邻居家灯的帮助。

Walls need to be permeable so that we can learn from one another’s light.

As we listen to and learn from one another, we are borrowing the light which will benefit all our people, and the world. There is no greater task or privilege.
墙需要能透光,这样我们才能彼此借光。当我们相互倾听、互相学习时,我们就在彼此借光了,这会使全人类、全世界都受益。这是无可比拟的任务,也是无可比拟的特权。

Thank-you.
谢谢。