Jon Nicholl Publications

Original research articles in refereed journals

  1. NICHOLL JP. Journey time by car and bus in Central London - 1977 resurvey. Traffic Engineering and Control, 1979; 18 (12): 581-583.
  2. NICHOLL JP. An application of the partial matrix technique to a simple example, Part II, Errors in the estimated matrix. Traffic Engineering and Control, December 1980.
  3. WILLIAMS BT, DIXON RA, MEECHAN DF, NICHOLL JP. Sharing primary care: lessons from MEDICOVER. BMJ, 1982; 285: 457-458.
  4. NICHOLL JP, WILLIAMS BT. Popular marathons: forecasting casualties. BMJ, 1982; 285: 1464-1465.
  5. NICHOLL JP, WILLIAMS BT. Medical problems before and after a popular marathon. BMJ, 1982; 285: 1465-1466.
  6. NICHOLL JP , WILLIAMS BT. Injuries sustained by runners during a popular marathon. B.J. of Sports Med, 1983; 17: 10-15.
  7. HUTCHINSON TP, NICHOLL JP. Recommendations about collecting bus headway data and estimating expected waiting times. Traffic Engineering and Control, 1983; 24: 529-531.
  8. CLARKE A, POTTER CW, JENNINGS R, NICHOLL JP, et al. A comparison of live and inactivated influenza A(H1N1) virus vaccines. J. of Hygiene, 1983; 90: Part 1 Short-term immunity, 315-359.
  9. CLARKE A, POTTER CW, JENNINGS R, NICHOLL JP, et al. A comparison of live and inactivated influenza A(H1N1) virus vaccines. J. of Hygiene, 1983; 90: Part 2 Long-term immunity, 361-370.
  10. WILLIAMS BT, MEECHAN DF, NICHOLL JP. Why does domiciliary oxygen consumption vary from area to area? J. of the RCGP, 1983; 33: 481-483.
  11. WILLIAMS BT, NICHOLL JP, THOMAS KJ, KNOWELDEN J. Analysis of the work of independent acute hospitals in England & Wales, 1981. BMJ, 1984; 289: 446-448.
  12. NICHOLL JP, THOMAS KJ, WILLIAMS BT, KNOWELDEN J. Contribution of the private sector to elective surgery in England and Wales. Lancet, 1984; ii: 89-92.
  13. WILLIAMS BT & NICHOLL JP. Medical arrangements in 108 open-entry British Marathons, 1983. Health Trends, 1984; 16(3): 68-70.
  14. WILLIAMS BT, NICHOLL JP, THOMAS K J, KNOWELDEN J. Differences in lengths of stay for surgery in the NHS and private sector in England & Wales. BMJ. 1985; 290: 978-980.
  15. WILLIAMS BT & NICHOLL JP. Prevalence of hypoxaemic chronic obstructive lung disease with reference to long-term oxygen therapy. Lancet, 1985; ii: 369-372.
  16. MARTIN JF, HAMDY N, NICHOLL JP, et al. Double-blind controlled trial of prostacyclin in cerebral infarction. Stroke, 1985; 16(3): 386-390.
  17. WILLIAMS B T, DIXON R A & NICHOLL J P. Provision of first contact care out of hours in four urban areas in England. BMJ, 1985; 291: 1689-1692.
  18. EVANS TW, WATERHOUSE JC, CARTER A, NICHOLL JP, HOWARD P. Short burst oxygen therapy in chronic obstructive airways disease. Thorax, 1986; 41: 611-615.
  19. HAMDY NAT, KENNEDY HJ, NICHOLL JP, TRIGER DR. Sedation for gastroscopy: a comparative study of midazolam and diazemuls in patients with and without cirrhosis. B.J. Clinical Pharmacology, 1986; 22: 643-647.
  20. EVANS TW, TWENEY J, WATERHOUSE JC, NICHOLL JP, HOWARD P, SUGGETT AS. The interaction of long-term domiciliary oxygen therapy and almitrine bismesylate in hypoxic cor pulmonale. European J. Respiratory Diseases, 1986; 69 (146): 665-669.
  21. DIXON RA, NICHOLL JP, WILLIAMS BT. Survey of first-contract care out-of-hours: securing and maintaining cooperation of general practitioners. Community Medicine, 1987; 9(2): 103-109.
  22. NICHOLL JP, FREEMAN MR, WILLIAMS BT. Effects of subsidising bus travel on the occurrence of road traffic casualties. J. Epid. and Community Health, 1987; 41: 50-54.
  23. THOMAS KJ, NICHOLL JP, WILLIAMS BT. A study of the movement of nurses and nursing skills between the NHS and the private sector in England and Wales. Int. J. of Nursing Studies, 1988; 25(1): 1-10.
  24. NICHOLL JP, WILLIAMS BT. Employment outside the NHS of doctors registered in the United Kingdom. BMJ, 1988; 297: 112-
  25. MILNER PC, NICHOLL JP, WILLIAMS BT. Variability in reviewing attenders at accident and emergency departments in England. BMJ, 1988; 296: 1645-
  26. MILNER PC, NICHOLL JP, WILLIAMS BT. Variation in demand for Accident and Emergency departments in England from 1974 to 1985. J. Epid. and Community Health, 1988; 42(3): 274-278.
  27. NICHOLL JP, BEEBY NR, WILLIAMS BT. Comparison of the activity of short stay independent hospitals in England and Wales, 1981 and 1986. BMJ, 1989; 298: 239-242.
  28. NICHOLL JP, BEEBY NR, WILLIAMS BT. Role of the private sector in elective surgery in England and Wales, 1986. BMJ, 1989; 298: 243-247.
  29. MILNER PC, NICHOLL JP, WESTLAKE L, WILLIAMS BT, BIRCH S, ROSS B, JOHNSON AG. The evaluation of lithotripsy as a treatment for gallstones: a randomised controlled trial approach in England. J. Lithotripsy and Stone Disease, 1989; 1: 122-132.
  30. NICHOLL JP, O'CATHAIN A. The epidemiology of babies dying at different ages from the sudden infant death syndrome. J. Epid. and Community Health, 1989; 43(2): 133-139.
  31. THOMAS KJ, BIRCH S, MILNER P, NICHOLL JP, et al. Estimates of general practitioner workload: a review. J. of RCGP, 1989; 39: 509-513.
  32. EVANS T W, TWENEY J, WATERHOUSE JC, NICHOLL JP, SUGGETT AJ & HOWARD P. Almitrine bismesylate and oxygen therapy in hypoxic cor pulmonale. Thorax, 1990; 45: 16-21.
  33. WILLIAMS AJ, NICHOLL JP, NAHAS AMEl, MOORHEAD PJ, et al. Continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis and haemodialysis in the Elderly. Quarterly J. of Medicine, 1990; New Series 74, No. 274: 215-223.
  34. MILNER PC, BEEBY NR & NICHOLL JP. Who should review the walking wounded? Reattendance at A and E departments. Health Trends, 1991; 23(1): 36-41.
  35. NICHOLL JP, COLEMAN PC & WILLIAMS BT. Methods and results from a pilot study of the epidemiology of sports injuries and other exercise-related morbidity. BJ Sports Med, 1991; 25(1): 61-66.
  36. WILLIAMS B, NICHOLL J. Recent trends in the use of domiciliary oxygen in England and Wales. Health Trends, 1991/92; 23(4), 166-167.
  37. RUSSELL PC, EMERY CJ, NICHOLL J, et al. Interaction between hypoxic and almitrine-induced vasoconstriction in the rat lung. Clinical Sciences, 1992; 82: 265-272.
  38. NICHOLL JP, BRAZIER JE, MILNER PC, et al. A randomised controlled trial of the cost-effectiveness of lithotripsy and open cholecystectomy as treatments for gallbladder stones. Lancet, 1992; 340(ii): 801-807.
  39. THOMAS KJ, NICHOLL JP, FALL M, WILLIAMS BT. The case against targeting long term non-attenders in general practice for a health check. BJGP, 1993; 43: 285-290.
  40. NICHOLL JP, COLEMAN P, BRAZIER JE. An assessment of the health and health-care costs and benefits of exercise. PharmcoEconomics, 1994; 5(2): 109-122.
  41. NICHOLL JP, BEEBY NR, BRAZIER JE. A comparison of the costs and performance of an emergency helicopter and land ambulances in a rural area. Injury, 1994; 25(3): 145-153.
  42. WILLIAMS BT, NICHOLL JP. Clientele and caseload of short-stay independent hospitals in England and Wales. BMJ, 1994; 308: 1699-1701.
  43. LOWY A, KOHLER B, NICHOLL JP. Attendance at Accident and Emergency Departments: Unnecessary or Inappropriate? J. Pub Health Med, 1994; 16(2): 134-140.
  44. NICHOLL JP, ROSS B, MILNER PC, et al. The cost-effectiveness of adjuvant bile salt therapy in extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy for the treatment of gallbladder stones. Gut, 1994; 35: 1294-1300.
  45. WATERHOUSE JC, NICHOLL JP, HOWARD P. Survey on domicilliary oxygen by concentrator in England and Wales. European J. Respiratory Disease, 1994; 7: 2021-2025.
  46. THOMAS KJ, NICHOLL JP, COLEMAN P. Assessing the outcome of making it easier for patients to change their GP; an analysis of the practice characteristics which patients move to and from. BJGP, 1995; 45: 581-586.
  47. NICHOLL JP, COLEMAN P, WILLIAMS BT. The epidemiology of sports and exercise-related injury in the UK. B.J. Sports Medicine, 1995; 29(4): 232-238.
  48. NICHOLL JP, BRAZIER JE, SNOOKS H. Effects of London helicopter emergency medical service on survival after trauma. BMJ, 1995; 311: 217-222.
  49. MUNRO J, COLEMAN P, NICHOLL J, et al. Can we prevent accidental injury to adolescents? A systematic review of the evidence. Injury Prevention, 1995; 1: 249-255.
  50. SNOOKS H, NICHOLL J, BRAZIER JE, LEES-MLANGA S. The costs and benefits of helicopter emergency ambulance services in England and Wales. J. Public H. Med, 1996; 18(1): 67-77.
  51. GILBERT L, NICHOLL J, ALEX S, et al. Ethnic differences in the outcome of serum screening for Down’s syndrome. BMJ, 1996; 312: 94-95.
  52. BRAZIER JE, WALTERS SJ, NICHOLL JP, et al. Using the SF-36 and Euroquol on an elderly population. Quality of Life Research, 1996; 5: 195-204.
  53. MAJEED A, TROY G, NICHOLL J, et al. Randomised prospective, single-blind comparison of laparoscopic versus small-incision cholecystectomy. Lancet, 1996; 347: 989-994.
  54. BRAZIER JE, NICHOLL JP, SNOOKS HA. The costs and benefits of the London helicopter emergency medical service. J. HSR and Policy, 1996; 1(4): 232 - 237.
  55. NICHOLL JP, COLEMAN P. Accidents: trends in morbidity and mortality. The Health of Adult Britain 1841-1994. Eds. Charleton J and Murphy M. Office for National Statistics: London, 1997.
  56. BAXTER AP, MILNER PC, HAWKINS S, LEAF M, NICHOLL J, et al. The impact of heart health promotion on coronary heart disease lifestyle risk factors in schoolchildren: lessons learnt from a community-based project. Public Health, 1997; 111: 231-237.
  57. BAXTER T, MILNER P, NICHOLL JP, FREEMAN J, et al. A cost-effective, community based heart health promotion project in England. BMJ, 1997; 315: 582-585.
  58. NICHOLL JP. The role of helicopters in pre-hospital care. Pre-hosp. Immediate Care, 1997; 1: 82-90.
  59. MUNRO JF, BRAZIER JE, DAVEY R, NICHOLL JP. Physical activity for over 65’s: could it be a cost-effective exercise for the NHS? J. Public Health Medicine, 1997; 19(4): 397-402.
  60. NICHOLL JP, TURNER J. The effectiveness of a regional trauma system in reducing mortality from major trauma. BMJ, 1997; 315: 1349-1354.
  61. COCHRANE T, DAVEY R, MUNRO J, NICHOLL J. Exercise, physical function and health perceptions of older people. Physiotherapy, 1998; 84: 598-602.
  62. SQUIRRELL DM, MAJEED AW, TROY G, PEACOCK JE, NICHOLL JP, JOHNSON AG. A randomised, prospective, blinded comparison of postoperative pain, metabolic response, and perceived health after laparoscopic and small incision cholecystectomy. Surgery, 1998; 123(5): 485-495.
  63. NICHOLL J, COLEMAN P, PARRY G, TURNER J. Emergency priority dispatch systems. Prehosp. and Immediate Care, 1999; 3: 71-75.
  64. O'CATHAIN A, TURNER J, WITHERS A, NICHOLL JP. Views of people who call 999 to request an ambulance. Pre-hosp. Immediate Care, 1999; 3: 131-135.
  65. THOMAS KJ, FITTER M, BRAZIER J, McPHERSON H, CAMPBELL M, NICHOLL JP, ROMAN M. Longer term clinical and economic benefits of offering acupuncture to patients with chronic low back pain assessed as suitable for primary care management. Comp. Therapies in Medicine, 1999; 7: 91-100.
  66. NICHOLL JP. The optimal use of resources for the treatment and prevention of injury. British Medical Bulletin, 1999; 55 (4): 713-725.
  67. SAKR M, ANGUS J, PERRIN J, NIXON C, NICHOLL J, WARDROPE J. A randomised controlled trial of minor injury care provided by emergency nurse practitioners or junior doctors (senior house officers). Lancet, 1999; 354: 1321-1326.
  68. O’CATHAIN A, MUNRO J, NICHOLL J, KNOWLES E. How helpful is NHS Direct? Postal survey of callers. BMJ, 2000; 320: 1035.
  69. MUNRO J, NICHOLL J, O’CATHAIN A, KNOWLES E. Impact of NHS Direct on demand for immediate care: Observational study. BMJ, 2000; 321 150-153.
  70. AHMED R, FREEMAN J, ROSS B, KOHLER B, NICHOLL J, JOHNSON A. Long term response to gallstone treatment – problems and surprises. European J. of Surgery, 2000; 166: 447-454.
  71. THOMAS KJ, NICHOLL JP, FALL M. Access to complementary medicine via general practice. BJGP, 2001; 51: 25-30.
  72. JULIOUS SA, NICHOLL J, GEORGE S. Why do we continue to use standardised mortality ratios for small area comparisons? Journal of Public Health Medicine, 2001; 23(1): 40-46.
  73. COLEMAN P, IRONS R, NICHOLL JP. Will alternative immediate care services reduce demand for non-urgent treatment at A and E? EMJ, 2001; 18(6): 482-487.
  74. PICKIN M, MUNRO J, SAMPSON F, NICHOLL JP. General Practitioners’ reasons for removing patients from their lists: Postal survey in England and Wales. BMJ, 2001; 322: 1158-1159.
  75. THOMAS KJ, NICHOLL JP, COLEMAN P. Use and expenditure on complementary medicine in England: a population based survey. Com. Therapies in Medicine, 2001; 9: 2-11.
  76. MASON S, NICHOLL J, LILFORD R. Research governance in clinical trials. BMJ, 2002; 324: 419-420.
  77. O'CATHAIN A, WALTERS S, NICHOLL J, THOMAS K, KIRKHAM M. Do evidence based leaflets promote informed choice in maternity care? Pragmatic cluster randomised controlled trial. BMJ, 2002; 324: 643-646.
  78. COLEMAN P, NICHOLL J. The influence of evidence based guidance on health policy and clinical practice in England. Quality in Health Care, 2001; 10: 229-237.
  79. O'CATHAIN A, TURNER J, NICHOLL J. The acceptability of an emergency medical dispatch system to people who call 999 to request an ambulance. EMJ, 2002; 19: 160-163.
  80. MORRELL J, MUNRO J, O’CATHAIN A, WARREN K, NICHOLL J. Impact of NHS direct on other services: the characteristics and origins of its nurses. EMJ, 2002; 19: 337-340.
  81. KELLY AM, NICHOLL J, TURNER J. Determining the most effective level of TRISS-derived probability of survival for use as an audit filter. Emergency Medicine, 2002, 14: 146-152.
  82. O’CATHAIN A, THOMAS K, WALTERS SJ, NICHOLL J, KIRKHAM M. Women’s perceptions of informed choice in maternity care. Midwifery, 2002; 18: 136-144.
  83. KNOWLES E, MUNRO J, O-CATHAIN A, NICHOLL J. Integrating community pharmacy and NHS Direct - pharmacists views. The Pharmaceutical Journal, 2002; 268: 621-623.
  84. KNOWLES E, O’CATHAIN A, MORRELL J, MUNRO JF, NICHOLL JP. NHS Direct and nurses - opportunity or monotony? Int. J. Nursing Studies, 2002; 39: 857-866.
  85. DIXON S, COLEMAN P, NICHOLL J, et al. Evaluation of the impact of a technology appraisal process in England: the South and West Development and Evaluation Committee. J. HSR and Policy, 2003; 18(1): 18-24.
  86. GOODACRE S, NICHOLL J, BEAHAN J, et al. National survey of emergency department management of patients with acute undifferentiated chest pain. BJ Cardiology, 2003; 10(1): 50-54.
  87. MCDONNELL A, NICHOLL J, READ SM. Acute pain teams and the management of post-operative pain: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J. Advanced Nursing, 2003; 41(3): 261-273.
  88. SAKR M, KENDALL, ANGUS J, SAUNDERS A, NICHOLL J, WARDROPE J. Emergency nurse practitioners: A three part study in clinical and cost-effectiveness. EMJ, 2003; 20: 158-163.
  89. O’CATHAIN A, WEBBER E, NICHOLL J, et al. NHS Direct: consistency of triage outcomes. EMJ, 2003; 20: 289-292.
  90. MCDONNELL A, NICHOLL J, READ S. Acute pain teams in England: Current provision and their role in post-operative management. J. Clinical Nursing, 2003; 12: 387-393.
  91. MUNRO JF, O’CATHAIN A, KNOWLES E, NICHOLL JP. evaluation of NHS Direct ‘referral’ to community pharmacies. Int. J. Pharmacy Practice, 2003; 11: 1-9.
  92. THOMAS K, COLEMAN P, NICHOLL J. Trends in access to complementary or alternative medicines via primary care in England: 1995-2001. Results from a follow-up national survey. Family Practice, 2003; 20: 575-577.
  93. O’CATHAIN A, SAMPSON F, MUNRO J, THOMAS K, NICHOLL J. How nurses in NHS Direct handle the computerised decision support software. J. Advanced Nursing, 2004; 45(3): 280-286.
  94. SNOOKS H, FOSTER T, NICHOLL J. Results of an evaluation of the effectiveness of triage and direct transportation to minor injuries units by ambulance crews. EMJ, 2004; 21: 105-111.
  95. PICKIN DM, O’CATHAIN A, FALL M, MORGAN A, HOWE A, NICHOLL J. The impact of a general practice co-operative on accident and emergency services, patient satisfaction and general practitioner satisfaction. Family Practice, 2004; 21(2): 180-182.
  96. O’CATHAIN A, NICHOLL J, ET AL. Do different types of nurses give different triage outcomes in NHS Direct? A mixed methods study. J. HSR and Policy, 2004; 9: 226-233.
  97. WEATHERLEY-JONES E, NICHOLL JP, THOMAS KJ, PARRY GJ, MCKENDRICK MW, GREEN ST, STANLEY PJ, LYNCH SP. A randomised, controlled, triple-blind trial of the efficacy of homeopathic treatment for chronic fatigue syndrome. J. Psychosom. Res. 2004; 56(2): 189-197.
  98. GOODACRE S, NICHOLL J, DIXON S, CROSS E, ANGELINI K, ARNOLD J, REVILL S, LOCKER T, CAPEWELL SJ, QUINNEY D, CAMPBELL S, MORRIS F. Randomised controlled trial and economic evaluation of a chest pain observation unit compared with routine care. BMJ, 2004; 328(7434): 254.
  99. GOODACRE S, NICHOLL J. A randomised controlled trial to measure the effect of chest pain unit care on anxiety, depression, and health-related quality of life. Health and Quality of Life Outcomes, 2004; 2: 39.
  100. MUNRO JF, NICHOLL J, et al. Cost-effectiveness of a community based exercise programme in over 65 year olds: cluster randomised trial. J. Epid Community Health, 2004; 58: 1004-10.
  101. GOODACRE SW, QUINNEY D, REVILL S, MORRIS F, CAPEWELL S, NICHOLL J. patient and primary care physician satisfaction with chest pain unit routine care. Acad. Emerg. Med., 2004; 11: 827-833.
  102. SANDERS G, MELLOR N, RICHARDS K, RUSHTON A, CHRISTIE I, NICHOLL J, et al. Prospective randomised controlled trial of acute normovolaemic haemodilution in major gastrointestinal surgery. Br. J. Anaesth., 2004; 93: 775-781.
  103. SAMPSON F, MUNRO J, PICKIN M, NICHOLL J. Why are patients removed from their doctors’ lists? A comparison of patients’ and doctors’ accounts of removal. Family Practice, 2004; 21: 515-518.
  104. MCDONNEL A, NICHOLL J, READ S. Exploring the impact of Acute Pain Teams on patient outcomes using routine data. J. Res. in Nursing, 2005; 10: 383-402.
  105. GOODACRES, CROSS E, ARNOLD J, ANGELINA K, CAPEWELL S, NICHOLL J. The health care burden of acute chest pain. Heart, 2005; 91: 229-230.
  106. MUNRO J, SAMPSON F, NICHOLL J. The impact of NHS Direct on the demand for out-of-hours primary and emergency care. Br. JGP, 2005; 55: 790-792.
  107. FREEMAN J, NICHOLL J. Does size matter? The relationship between volume and outcome in the care of major trauma. J. HSR and Policy, 2006; 11(2): 101-105.
  108. MASON S, COLEMAN P, O’KEEFFE C, RATCLIFFE J, NICHOLL JP. The evolution of the Emergency care Practitioner role in England. Experiences and impact. EMJ, 2006; 23(6): 435-439.
  109. MUNRO JF, MASON S, NICHOLL JP. Effectiveness of measures to reduce emergency department waiting times: a natural experiment. EMJ, 2006; 23: 35-39.
  110. GOODACRE S, TURNER J, NICHOLL J. Prediction of mortality among emergency medical admissions. EMJ, 2006; 23: 372.375.
  111. KNOWLES E, MUNRO J, O’CATHAIN A, NICHOLL J. Equity of access to health care. Evidence from NHS Direct in the UK. J. Telemed. Telecare, 2006; 12: 262-265.
  112. THOMAS KJ, MCPHERSON H, J NICHOLL, ET AL. Randomised controlled trial of a short course of traditional acupuncture compared with usual care for persistent low back pain. BMJ, 2006; 333:623-626.
  113. MCCLOSKEY E, BENETON M, NICHOLL J, ET AL. Clodronate reduces the incidence of fractures in community dwelling elderly women unselected for osteoporosis - results of a double-blind, placebo controlled randomised study. J. Bone Min. Research, 2007; 22(1): 135-141.
  114. MAHESWARAN R, PEARSON T, MUNRO J, JIWA M, CAMPBELL MJ, NICHOLL J. Impact of NHS walk-in centres on primary care access times - an ecological study. BMJ, 2007;334: 838-.
  115. MASON S, O’KEEFE C, COLEMAN P, EDLIN R, NICHOLL J. Effectiveness of emergency care practitioners working within existing emergency service models of care. EMJ, 2007; 24(4): 239-243.
  116. O’CATHAIN A, MURPHY E, NICHOLL J. Integration and publication as indicators of “yield” from mixed methods studies . J. of Mixed Methods Research, 2007; 1(2): 147-163.
  117. NICHOLL JP. Case-mix adjustment in non-randomised observational evaluations - the constant risk fallacy. J. Epi Comm Health. 2007; 61: 1010-1013.
  118. LOCKER TE, BASTON S, MASON SM, NICHOLL J. Defining frequent use of an urban emergency department. EMJ, 2007; 24(6): 398-401.
  119. O’CATHAIN A, KNOWLES E, MUNRO J, NICHOLL J. Exploring the effect of changes to service provision on the use of unscheduled care in England: Population surveys. BMC Health Services Research, 2007; 7: 61.
  120. NICHOLL J, WEST J, GOODACRE S, TURNER J. The relationship between distance to hospital and patient mortality in emergencies: an observational study. EMJ, 2007, 24(9): 665-668.
  121. O’CATHAIN A, MURPHY E, NICHOLL J. Why, and how, mixed methods research is undertaken in health services research in England: a mixed methods study. BMC Health Services Research, 2007; 7(1): 85.
  122. GOODACRE S, CROSS E, LEWIS C, NICHOLL J, CAPEWELL S. Effectiveness and safety of chest pain assessment to prevent emergency admissions: ESCAPE cluster randomised trial. BMJ, 2007; 335: 659-664.
  123. LILFORD R, EDWARDS A, GIRLING A, HOFER T, DI TANNA GL, PETTY J, NICHOLL J. Inter-rater reliability of case-note audit: a systematic review. J. Health Serv Res Policy, 2007; 12(3): 173-180.
  124. BROWN C, NICHOLL J, LILFORD RJ. Use of process measures to monitor the quality of clinical practice. BMJ, 2007; 335: 648-650.
  125. MASON S, KNOWLES E, COLWELL B, WARDROPE J, DIXON S, GORRINGE R, SNOOKS H, PERRIN J, NICHOLL J. Effectiveness of paramedic practitioners in attending 999 calls from elderly people in the community: cluster randomised controlled trial. BMJ, 2007; 335: 919-924.
  126. O’CATHAIN A, COLEMAN P, NICHOLL J. Characteristics of the emergency and urgent care systems important to patients: a qualitative study. J. Health Serv. Res. Policy, 2008; 13 Suppl. 2: 19-25.
  127. O’CATHAIN A, MURPHY E, NICHOLL J. The qualityof mixed methods studies in health services research. J. Health Serv. Res Policy, 2008; 13: 92-98.
  128. GRAY A, GOODACRE S, NEWBY D, SAMPSON F, MASON M, NICHOLL J. Effectiveness of non-invasive ventilation in patients with acute cardiogenic pulmonary oedema. NEJM, 2008; 359: 142-151.
  129. BROWN CA, NICHOLL J, et al. an epistemology of patient safety research: a framework for study design and interpretation. 1. Conceptualising and developing interventions. Quality and Safety in Health Care, 2008; 17: 158-162.
  130. BROWN CA, NICHOLL J, et al. an epistemology of patient safety research: a framework for study design and interpretation. 2. Study design. Quality and Safety in Health Care, 2008; 17: 163-169.
  131. BROWN CA, NICHOLL J, et al. an epistemology of patient safety research: a framework for study design and interpretation. 3. End-points and measurement. Quality and Safety in Health Care, 2008; 17: 170-177.
  132. BROWN CA, NICHOLL J, et al. an epistemology of patient safety research: a framework for study design and interpretation. 4. One size does not fit all. Quality and Safety in Health Care, 2008; 17: 178-181.
  133. MORRELL CJ, SLADE P, WARNER R, PALEY G, DIXON S, WALTERS SJ, BRUGHA T, BARKHAM M, PARRY GJ, NICHOLL J. Clinical effectiveness of health visitor training in psychologically informed approaches for depression in postnatal women: pragmatic cluster randomised trial in primary care. BMJ, 2009; 338: a3045.
  134. PICKIN M, COOPER CL, CHATER T, O’HAGAN A, ABRAMS KR, COOPER NJ, BOGGILD M, PALACE J, EBERS G, CHILCOTT JB, TAPPENDEN P, NICHOLL J. The Multiple Sclerosis Risk Sharing Scheme Monitoring Study – early results and lessons for the future. BMC Neurol, 2009; 9: 1.
  135. O’CATHAIN A, MURPHY E, NICHOLL J. Multidisciplinary, interdisciplinary, or dysfunctional? Team working in mixed-methods research. Qual Health Res., 2008; 2008; 18(11): 1574-1585.
  136. OLUBOYEDE Y, GOODACRE S, WAILOO A, ESCAPE Research Team. Cost effectiveness of chest pain unit care in the NHS. BMC Health Serv Res, 2008; 8: 174.
  137. S DIXON, S MASON, E KNOWLES, B COLWELL, J WARDROPE, H SNOOKS, R GORRINGE, J PERRIN, NICHOLL J. Is it cost effective to introduce paramedic practitioners for older people in the ambulance service? Results of a cluster randomised trial. EMJ, 2009; 26(6): 446-451.
  138. McCULLOCH P, ALTMAN DG, CAMPBELL WB, FLUM DR, GLASZIOU P, MARSHALL JC, NICHOLL J. No surgical innovation without evaluation. The IDEAL recommendations. Lancet, 2009; 374: 1105-1112.
  139. O’CATHAIN A, COSTER J, SALISBURY C, PEARSON T, MAHESWARAN R, NICHOLL J. Do walk-in centres for commuters work? A mixed methods evaluation. Br. J. Gen Prac, 2009; 59: 934-939.
  140. COSTER J, O’CATHAIN A, NICHOLL J, SALISBURY C. User satisfaction with commuter walk-in centres. Br. J. Gen Prac, 2009; 59: 940-942.
  141. O’CATHAIN A, NICHOLL J, MURPHY E. Structural issues affecting mixed methods studies in health research: a qualitative study. BMC Med Research Methods, 2009; 9: 82.
  142. GRAY A, GOODACRE S, NICHOLL J, et al. The development of a simple risk score to predict early outcome in severe acute acidotic cardiogenic pulmonary edema: The 3CPO score. Circulation Heart Failure, 2010; 3(1): 111-117.
  143. RELTON C, TORGERSON D, O’CATHAIN A, NICHOLL J. Rethinking pragmatic randomised controlled trials: introducing the “cohort multiple randomised controlled trial” design. BMJ, 2010; 340: 963-967.
  144. COLEMAN P, NICHOLL J. Consensus methods to identify a set of potential performance indicators for systems of emergency and urgent care. JHSRP; 15 (suppl 2): 12-18.
  145. PICKIN DM, O’CATHAIN A, SAMPSON FC, SALISBURY C, NICHOLL J. The impact of Advanced Access on antibiotic prescribing: a controlled before and after study. Family Practice, In press.
  146. HIND D, SCOTT EJ, COPELAND R, et al. A randomised controlled trial and cost-effectiveness evaluation of !booster” interventions to sustain increases in physical activity in middle-aged adults in deprived urban neighbourhoods. BMC Public Health, 2010; 10(3).
  147. HUTCHINSON A, COSTER J, COOPER K, et al. Assessing quality of care from hospital care notes: comparison of the reliability of two methods. Quality and Safety in Health Care, 2010.
  148. O’Cathain a, Murphy E, Nicholl J. Three techniques for integrating data and findings in mixed methods studies. BMJ. In press.
  149. O’Cathain A, Knowles E, Nicholl J. TGesting survey methodology to measure patients’ experiences as views of the emergency and urgent care system: telephone vs postal survey. BMC Medical Research Methodology, 2010; 10:52.
  150. O’Keefe C, Turner J, Goodacre S, Nicholl J. The role of ambulance response times in the survival of patients with out of hospital cardiac arrest. EMJ, 2010; In press.
  151. Knowles E, O'Cathain A, Nicholl J. Patients' experiences and views of an emergency care system.
    Health Expectations 2012; 15: 78-86
  152. O'Cathain A, Knowles E, Nicholl J. Measuring patients' experiences and views of the emergency and urgent care system; psychometric testing of the urgent care system questionnaire.
    Quality and Safety in Health 2011; 20: 134-40
  153. Goodacre S, Gray A, Newby D, Sixon S, Manon M, Sampson F, Nicholl J on behalf of the 3CPO investigators. Health utility and survival after hospital admission with acute cardiogenic pulmonary oedema.
    EMJ 2011; 28: 477-82
  154. Penson R, Coleman P, Mason S, Nicholl J. Why do patients with minor or moderate conditions that could be managed in other settings attend the emergency department?
    Emerg Med Journal June 2012; 29: 487-491
  155. Goodacre S, Wilson R, Bradburn M, Santarelli M, Nicholl J. Health utility after emergency medical admission: a cross-sectional survey.
    Health and Quality of Life Outcomes 2012; 10: 20
  156. Campbell M, Jacques R, Fotheringham J, Maheswaran R, Nicholl J. Developing a summary hospital mortality index: retrospective analysis in English hospitals over five years.
    BMJ 2012; 344:e1001
  157. Goodacre S, Wilson R, Shephard N, Nicholl J. Derivation and validation of a risk adjustment model for predicting seven day mortality in emergency medical admissions: mixed prospective and retrospective cohort study.
    BMJ 2012; 344:e2904
  158. Blank L, Coster J, O'Cathain A, Knowles E, Tosh J, Turner J, Nicholl J. The appropriateness of, and compliance with, telephone triage decisions: a systematic review and narrative synthesis.
    Journal of Advanced Nursing 2012 Jun 7
  159. Relton C, O'Cathain A, Nicholl J. A pilot 'cohort multiple randomised trial' of treatment by a homepath for women with menopausal hot flushes.
    Contemp Clinical Trials. 2012 Apr 20
  160. Girling AJ, Hofer TP, Wu J, Chilton PJ, Nicholl JP, Mohammed MA, Lilford RJ. Case-mix adjusted hospital mortality is a poor proxy for preventable mortality: a modelling study.
    BMJ Qual Saf. 2012 Oct 15.
  161. Arain M, Nicholl J, Campbell M. Patients' experience and satisfaction with GP led walk-in centres in the UK; a cross sectional study.
    BMC Health Services Research. 2013 Apr 18;13(1):142
  162. Jacques RM, Fotheringham J, Campbell MJ, Nicholl J. Did hospital mortality in England change from 2005 to 2010? A retrospective cohort analysis.
    BMC Health Services Research. 2013 Jun 13;13(1):216
  163. Sully BG, Julious SA, Nicholl J. A reinvestigation of recruitment to randomised, controlled, multicenter trials; a review of trials funded by two UK funding agencies.
    Trials 2013 Jun 9;14:166
  164. O'Cathain A, Knowles E, Maheswaran R, Pearson T, Turner J, Hirst E, Goodacre S, Nicholl J. A system-wide approach to explaining variation in potentially avoidable emergency admissions: national ecological study.
    BMJ Qual Saf. 2013 Jun 31
  165. Nicholl J, Jacques RM, Campbell MJ. Direct risk standardisation: a new method for comparing casemix adjusted event rates using complex models.
    BMC Medical Research Methodology 2013. 13:133
  166. Turner J, O'Cathain A, Knowles E, Nicholl J. Impact of the urgent care telephone service NHS 111 pilot sites: a controlled before and after study.
    BMJ Open. 2013 Nov 14;3(11)
  167. Arain M, Campbell MJ, Nicholl JP. Impact of a GP led walk-in centre on NHS Emergency departments.
    EMJ in press