Medicine admissions 2021
This page relates to applications for 2021 entry for both the MBChB Medicine (A100) degree and the MBChB Graduate Entry Medicine (A101) degree.
This page relates to applications for 2021 entry. Applicants for entry in 2020 can find the webpages that pertained to their application via this download.
The current COVID-19 pandemic has the potential to impact on our admissions processes. For the advice on this for prospective students, see here.
On this page:
- How to apply
- Entry requirements
- What happens to your application (including timeline)?
- Fees and bursaries
- Other costs
- Mature and international students
- Other relevant information
- Frequently asked questions
Applications for Medicine are made through the University and Colleges Admissions Service. UCASApplying for a place to study Medicine is extremely competitive.
- For our five-year Medicine MBChB programme (UCAS code A100) we currently have 273 places for Home students from the UK and 18 places available for International students.
- For our four-year Graduate Entry Medicine MBChB programme (UCAS code A101) we have 15 places for Home students from widening participation backgrounds. Please note that we do not have international places for our A101 programme.
Application should be made for either the standard five-year A100 MBChB course or the Graduate Entry four-year A101 MBChB Medicine course. Applicants who wish to be considered for both A100 and A101 will need to apply to both courses.
For entry in 2020 we received over 2,600 applications for a total of 306 places. Unfortunately, due to the volume of applications we receive we are unable to consider any late applications. The UCAS application deadline is 15 October 2020.
- Completing your UCAS form
You have four choices available for Medical School applications and we encourage you to choose carefully on the basis of the grades that you have obtained or are expected to obtain and the entry requirements of each university. Applications that do not meet our minimum academic and University Clinical Aptitude Test (UCAT) entry requirements (in the absence of Disrupted Studies) will not be successful. Details of the entry requirements of the Medical Schools in the United Kingdom can be found here. Medical courses at different universities are taught differently, and you should choose those institutions whose teaching style matches your learning preference. Your fifth choice may be left blank or used to apply for another degree course of your choice, without disadvantaging your application to the University of Sheffield Medical School. You may apply for deferred entry if you wish and your application will not be disadvantaged.
You should ensure that you accurately complete in full the details of all of your qualifications. You must include details of all of your qualifications including the title, examining board, subjects studied, results obtained and whether or not the qualification has been certificated. If you have not yet obtained your results it is important that your referee completes your predicted grades. If you are resitting any qualifications you must include details of the first sitting results. Please be as clear as possible and avoid any ambiguity.
- How we select applicants for offers
We select applicants using a step-wise process that considers:
- Academic attainment against a set threshold and UCAT attainment against a set threshold. A101 applicants and those A100 applicants applying through the Sheffield Hallam University or Bradford University routes are also required to meet Widening Participation criteria
- Ranking of applicants on the basis of their UCAT score
- Performance at Interview
- Academic entry requirements and UCAT
The academic entry requirements can be found on the relevant course page:
University of Bradford Widening Participation entry route
Sheffield Hallam University Widening Participation entry route
- Relevant work experience
We do not read or score applicants' UCAS Personal Statements as part of the selection process but your work and other experience is likely to be discussed as part of the Interviews.
Applicants are normally expected to have undergone a period of work experience. Medical Schools expect applicants to have a range of work experience for two reasons. Firstly, this demonstrates that you have a realistic insight to the profession - you are after all committing to a lifetime career when you apply to study Medicine. It is important that you have an understanding of the complex nature of a doctor's role, as well as being aware of the highs and lows of the profession.
Work experience is also important in enabling you to develop (and to demonstrate that you have) the relevant skills and qualities that are essential to becoming a good doctor. A few examples are listed below:
- Ability to overcome setbacks
- Ability to work independently
- A sense of responsibility
- A sense of service to the community
- Communication skills
- Experience of working with diverse groups
We recognise that it is not always possible for students to obtain work placements with a doctor or in a medical environment given the limited availability of volunteer placements in hospitals and similar clinical settings. However, in addition to shadowing a GP or other medical practitioner, there are many other areas related to medicine in which you can gain experience. Some examples of these are listed below:
- Paid or voluntary work experience in a residential care home, hospice or similar
- Working in a youth centre or working with young children
- Participating in community volunteering schemes
- Working with a diverse range of people (whether on a paid or voluntary basis)
Participatory work experience (not simply observing, but a 'hands on' role) is extremely valuable. Many applicants arrange to undertake paid or voluntary work as a Healthcare Assistant. Whatever work experience you have, it is important that you are able to reflect effectively on it if you are invited to attend an interview. We recommend that you keep a journal when undertaking work experience, recording what you found interesting, what insights you gained and what you were inspired to go and find out more about. We will not ask to see such a journal, but it may help you prepare for the application process.
Applicants invited to attend an interview should be able to communicate not only what meaningful activities they have undertaken, but also what they have learned from these experiences, particularly in regards to their future as medical practitioners.
A rota of the duties of your job or project involved is not required.
While we normally expect all applicants to have had some form of work experience, we set no requirement regarding the duration of this.
Work experience gained in a country other than that in which you normally reside is not required, and is not considered more favourably than work experience at home.
Medical Schools' Council have produced useful guidance regarding work experience, which can be accessed here. This sets out several ways in which valuable work experience can be obtained during the COVID-19 pandemic whilst lock-down and/or social distancing restrictions remain in place, and you are encouraged to read it.
There is useful information regarding work experience here (but please note that this is an external website and we cannot vouch for its contents).
- Health requirements
In accordance with national guidelines from the Department of Health for the protection of both patients and healthcare workers including students, all medical students are required to show that they are not infectious carriers of hepatitis B and that they have successfully completed a course of hepatitis B immunisation.
The immunisation process will be undertaken via the Sheffield Occupational Health Service once you have registered on the course. If you are then found to be positive for hepatitis B surface antigen, you will not be permitted to undertake exposure prone procedures (procedures where there is a risk that an injury to the worker may result in the exposure of the patient´s open tissue to the blood of the worker) on the course (this limitation will also apply up to the point that your hepatitis B status is known) and there will be restrictions on your clinical practice as a qualified doctor.
The Medical School will accept as documentary proof an authenticated laboratory report showing either the presence of hepatitis B surface antibody, or if antibodies are not developed after a full course of immunisation, that you are negative for hepatitis infectivity. Health screening forms will be sent to applicants who have firmly accepted an offer of a place. It is not necessary for applicants to confirm their hepatitis B status prior to starting on the programme as this will be dealt with by the Sheffield Occupational Health Service.
The Medical School reserves the right to re-test any of its medical students for markers of hepatitis B virus infection. Screening tests will only be recognised from a United Kingdom accredited laboratory. A negative result from overseas laboratories will be checked when you arrive in Sheffield, and if you are then positive for hepatitis B surface antigen, the restrictions described in the second paragraph will apply.
You will also have to ask your GP to fill in a form documenting your immunisation history. The Medical School continually reviews the immunisation requirements and procedures for medical students, taking into account national guidance, and you will be required to comply with any such amendments if you are offered a provisional place.
Students who have serious health problems, or who know that they are infected with Hepatitis C or HIV, must disclose this on their UCAS form, as their course may need to be modified to accommodate Department of Health guidance on activities which they may or may not perform. All potential students with significant health problems will be individually assessed for suitability for the course.
It is imperative that all procedures outlined above are followed precisely to avoid prejudicing your entry to the course.
- Students with a disability
There are two factors to bear in mind if you have a disability, and are considering studying medicine:
- Your personal experience with disability can give you greater insight into the lives of many of your patients, and make you better equipped to assist them as a doctor. As a consequence, we welcome applications from disabled people.
- Medical training covers every aspect of health care, and includes an arduous period as a Foundation Year Doctor. If your disability is such as to make it impossible for you to practise, we would be unable to accept you onto the course.
As a consequence and to ensure that effective support can be provided, applicants with a disability, applicants with serious health problems or applicants who know they are infected with Hepatitis B, Hepatitis C or HIV are advised to contact the Director of Undergraduate Medical Admissions before applying. If you have not had time to do this you must disclose your health details on your UCAS form.
Further information for disabled applicants can be found here.
If you are an undergraduate applicant and you have experienced issues of a personal, social or domestic nature that have affected either your post-16 studies, or any GCSE Qualifications that are cited in our course entry requirements, you can let us know by completing our Disrupted Studies form. You can find further information at the following link: Disrupted Studies.
Each application will be considered individually.
The Director of Undergraduate Medical Admissions will suggest supporting health documentation that might demonstrate your suitability, and assist your application. Where a prognosis is not clear a committee will be convened to assess the situation more fully, and to ensure that the University is able to support you and enable you to complete your studies successfully.
Director of Undergraduate Medical Admissions
Medical Admissions Office - The University of Sheffield
The Medical School
Beech Hill Road
Sheffield S10 2RX
Phone: 0114 222 5531/5533/34
Fax: 0114 222 5521
Please note that during the current COVID-19 pandemic admissions staff are working remotely. You are therefore encouraged to use email to make contact with the admissions team.
- Disclosure and Barring Service
All entrants to Medicine are required to undergo a Disclosure and Barring Service (DBS) check. Admission to the course offered by the University of Sheffield Medical School is subject to the Rehabilitation of Offenders Act (1974) Section 4(2) (Exemption) Order 1975 and the Department of Health Circular HC (88)9 guidelines regarding child protection and police checks. Before being admitted on to this course, you will need to apply for 'an enhanced disclosure document' from the DBS.
Amendments to the Rehabilitation of Offenders Act 1974 (Exceptions) Order 1975 (Amendment) (England and Wales) Order 2013 mean that the University no longer requires applicants to declare all convictions or cautions because some are now classed as 'protected'. To clarify further:
A caution will be 'protected' and should not be disclosed if:
It was received when the applicant was under 18 and the caution is more than 2 years old.
It was received when the applicant was over 18 and the caution is more than 6 years old
It is for a listed offence such as violent/sexual offences
A conviction will be 'protected' and should not be disclosed if:
It was received when the applicant was under 18 and the conviction is more than 5 years and 6 months old
It was received when the applicant was over 18 and the conviction is more than 11 years old
- It is for a listed offence such as violent/sexual offences
- A custodial sentence was imposed
- The applicant has other convictions (in which case all convictions must be disclosed)
Please see the DBS Website which provides a full list of offences that will never be filtered from a criminal record (i.e. not protected regardless of time). Listed offences must always be declared as they include serious violent and sexual offences and other specified offences of relevance for posts concerned with safeguarding children and vulnerable adults. Cautions and convictions received outside of the UK that meet the same criteria as above also do not need to be declared. Guidance is also available from the University website.
On the UCAS form, you must tell us about non-protected criminal convictions, including spent sentences, cautions (including verbal cautions), reprimands and bind over-orders.
If you are made an offer of a place and you choose to firmly accept this offer, we will write to you a few weeks prior to the start of your course with details of how to arrange your DBS check.
If you are living overseas and have never been a resident of the UK, any offer of a place will be subject to the equivalent of a DBS check, normally a satisfactory check from your local police station (sometimes referred to as a Certificate of Good Conduct).
If you have lived overseas for a period of three months or more since the age of 16 and are now resident in the UK you will be required to provide both a DBS check and an overseas equivalent.
If you have any queries regarding the DBS check, please contact the Medical Admissions Office on 0114 222 5534/5533/5531.
Please note that the timeline presented here is correct to the best of our knowledge and belief. This page has been updated on 11/09/2020 to reflect changes we have had to make to our interviews in response to COVID-19. Further changes may need to be made to it as the COVID-19 pandemic evolves. In the event that changes are made, we will update this page accordingly.
01.07.2020 University Clinical Aptitude Test (UCAT) Registration and Bursary Scheme opens. (Testing begins 03.08.2020 and you are advised to book early and test early!) 17.09.2020 UCAT Registration and Online Booking Deadline 01.10.2020 UCAT Last Testing Date 15.10.2020 UCAS Application Deadline 16.10.2020-05.11.2020
Stage 1a: All applications are checked to make sure applicants meet the minimum academic requirements (the academic threshold). A101 applications are also checked to make sure applicants meet the minimum widening participation requirements.
Deadline for submitting Widening Participation forms to the Medical School (A101 applicants only).
05.11.2020 Medical School receives test scores from UCAT. 05.11.2020-16.11.2020
Stage 1b: All applications are checked to make sure applicants meet the minimum UCAT requirement (the UCAT threshold). End of Stage 1.
Stage 2: For the A100 programme, candidates meeting both the academic and the UCAT thresholds are ranked on their UCAT score (not including the Situational Judgement Test (SJT)). Applicants who meet our minimum entry requirements and have the highest UCAT scores are invited to attend an interview.
For the A101 programme, applicants who meet our Academic entry requirements (and; who also meet our Widening Participation requirements) whose UCAT score meets or exceeds these UCAT cut points will be invited to attend an interview. We send our interview invitations by email.
Unsuccessful applications may be considered by the University for a Change of Course to Biomedical Science and/or Orthoptics. This process may take 2-3 weeks. Unsuccessful applicants are then notified via UCAS.
Successful applicants can expect by 16.11.2020 to receive an email from the Medical School admissions team (not UCAS) inviting them to attend an interview. Unsuccessful applicants can expect to be notified via UCAS by approximately 21.12.2020. End of Stage 2.
Update 16.11.2020: We have completed UCAT ranking on time. The ranking cutpoints were as follows: A100 Home 2740/3600; A100 Overseas 2760/3600; A101 2700/3600. Applicants in these categories who meet our academic requirements and have these UCAT scores or higher will be invited to interview today. Note: Discover Medicine and Realising Opportunities applicants are exempted from UCAT ranking.
Nov 2020 - Mar 2021 Stage 3: Interviews
Interviews will be conducted on weekdays from 23 November, through December 2020, January 2021, February 2021 and, possibly, into March 2021. (A precise end-date has not yet been determined). All interviews will be in structured Panel-Based interview format, and will be conducted online.
We will not be able to conduct interviews in person in SE Asia during this admissions cycle as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic.
Interview score sheets and UCAS references reviewed.
Mar 2021 End of Stage 3: Mar 2021
Offers/Unsuccessful decisions notified to students via UCAS. Automated emails are also sent to applicants from the University's Admissions Service. Unsuccessful applications may be considered by the University for a Change of Course to Biomedical Science and/or Orthoptics. This process may take 2-3 weeks. Unsuccessful applicants are then notified via UCAS. We are not yet able to give a definitive date for the completion of the selection process. We will update this page when this information is available.
July 2021 Panel-based Interviews for applicants applying via the Sheffield Hallam University or University of Bradford Widening Participation routes will be held in July 2021 (date to be confirmed). XX.08.2021 A Level results day.
- STAGE 1: Academic Attainment, Widening participation status (A101 applicants) and University Aptitude Test (UCAT) Attainment (thresholds)
Stage 1a: Applications will initially be checked to determine whether they meet our minimum academic requirements (the academic threshold). We will look at the results of all your previous qualifications and the predictions of any qualifications that you are currently studying for. On the basis of this, we will determine whether or not you meet our minimum academic requirements. Additionally, applications for the Graduate Entry Medicine - MBChB (A101) programme will be reviewed to determine whether they meet the minimum widening participation requirements. Applications that meet the minimum academic requirements (and, if applicable, the minimum widening participation requirements) progress to Stage 1b. Applications that do not meet the minimum academic requirements are deemed unsuccessful.
In Stage 1a, applicants compete against the minimum academic requirements. While many applicants exceed the minimum academic requirements, we do not rank applicants according to academic attainment, and there is no advantage in our selection process to those who exceed the minimum requirements.
Stage 1b: Those applications that meet the minimum academic thresholds are reviewed to determine whether they also meet the minimum UCAT requirement of 2420/3600 (the UCAT threshold). This threshold has been determined by considering the 40th centile score attained by those who took the test in 2019.
There is no compensation between academic attainment and UCAT attainment - exceeding the academic threshold will not compensate for a lower UCAT score. A100 applicants must meet both the academic and UCAT thresholds. A101 applicants must meet the academic and UCAT thresholds and must also meet the minimum widening participation requirements.
- STAGE 2: University Clinical Aptitude Test (UCAT) Ranking
- Discover Medicine (formerly known as SOAMS) applicants and Realising Opportunities applicants to the A100 course who meet both the academic and UCAT minimum requirements bypass this stage and are invited to attend for an interview. Applications from people in Discover Medicine (SOAMS) or Realising Opportunities applicants who do not meet the minimum requirements will be deemed unsuccessful.
- All other A100 applicants meeting both the academic and UCAT thresholds are ranked according to their UCAT scores. Home applicants are ranked separately to International applicants. The applicants who have the highest UCAT scores will be invited to attend an interview. The remaining applicants will be deemed unsuccessful.
- A101 applicants meeting the academic, UCAT and widening participation thresholds may be ranked by UCAT score, but this will only be undertaken if there are more applicants meeting all three threshold than we have places at interview. If A101 applicants are ranked by UCAT score, they will be ranked separately from A100 applicants.
The 2020-21 admissions cycle is the fifth time we have ranked applicants by UCAT score. It is not possible to know with any certainty where the UCAT cut point (at and above which applicants will be invited to interview) will land prior to the application deadline. This is because in Stage 2, applicants are in competition with one another. Where the cut-points lie will depend on the UCAT scores of all of the applicants meeting the academic and UCAT thresholds. We will only calculate the cut points once all applications have been received. The following information is provided for guidance. The UCAT cut point in the 2020-21 cycle may differ from the values given below.
Admissions Cycle Minimum UCAT Threshold A100 Home UCAT ranking cutpoint* A100 Overseas UCAT ranking cutpoint* A101 UCAT ranking cutpoint* 2016-17 1850/2700 2000/2700 1990/2700 - 2017-18 2460/3600 2690/3600 2690/3600 - 2018-19 2470/3600 2630/3600 2630/3600 Not ranked 2019-20 2420/3600 2660/3600 2700/3600 2550/3600 2020-21 2420/3600 2740/3600 2760/3600 2700/3600
*Applicants whose UCAT was at or higher than the ranking cutpoint were invited to interview (Table updated with 2020-21 scores on 16.11.2020)
We are not able to determine how the scores above will equate to the 2020 UCAT. However, we note that the UCAT cut points in 2016-17, 2017-18 and 2018-19 fell around the 70th-73rd centile. In 2019-20 the UCAT cutpoints fell around the 75th-80th centiles. The UCAT cut point may fall on different centiles in this selection cycle.
- STAGE 3: The Multiple Mini-Interview (MMI)
The Medical School will interview approximately 1200-1300 candidates for Medicine for 2020 entry. We aim to invite approximately 1050-1150 A100 Home applicants, approximately 100 A100 International applicants and approximately 60 A101 applicants to interview. The Medical School usually uses Multiple Mini-Interviews (MMIs). This will not be possible in 2020-21 as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic, and instead we shall conduct our online panel-based interviews between November 2020 and February/March 2021.
The Panel-Based Interviews comprise a series of eight sections. In the event that you are invited to attend an interview we will send you the questions with your invitation. The questioning in these stations is typically based around the following areas:
- communication skills
- depth and breadth of interests (achievements in specific fields)
- evidence of commitment for caring
- knowledge of and interest in study in Sheffield
- medical work experience/Extended Project Qualification
- motivation for medicine
- understanding the nature of medicine
- values and attitudes
- outside interests
Each section in the interview is scored as follows:
Interview Score Description 5 Excellent 4 Good 3 Satisfactory 2 Borderline 1 Unsatisfactory
In addition to the eight sections in the interview, applicants' scores in the UCAT Situational Judgement Test (SJT) will be considered as a ninth virtual section. The UCAT SJT will contribute to the interview score as follows:
Interview Score SJT Quartile Description 5 1st Excellent 4 2nd Good 3 3rd Satisfactory 2 4th Borderline 1 Not applicable
Interviewed candidates can therefore attain a total score of 10-45/45. This score is used to rank applicants when deciding which applicants will receive an offer. Successful applicants are expected to perform satisfactorily or better at every section of the interview. When ranking applicants we look first at those applicants whose performance was satisfactory or better at every section.
Interviewers are drawn from medical educationalists, medically qualified senior members of staff, biomedical scientists, junior hospital doctors, senior nurses, senior medical students, patients (who are members of our Patients as Educators programme) and lay people. Interviewers will not have read your Personal Statement, but some of the questions asked commonly relate to the sorts of things people typically write about in their UCAS Personal Statement. You are encouraged to prepare by reading the NHS Constitution, the General Medical Council's publication 'Good Medical Practice', and by keeping up to date with recent medical breakthroughs, topical controversies, ethical issues and NHS politics.
We do not set a dress code for the interviews but of course your appearance at interview is important. You should dress appropriately and in a professional manner. The conduct of applicants is assessed from the moment that they log in for their interviews.
Generic advice on preparing for interviews can be found on the Medical Schools' Council website here. The interviews in Sheffield may differ from the format demonstrated by Medical Schools' Council.
- Values-based Recruitment
In addition to the values and characteristics mentioned above, the University of Sheffield Medical School is committed to selecting applicants able to demonstrate at Multiple Mini-Interview the core values set out in the NHS Constitution. These core values are summarised as:
- Working together for patients, putting the needs of patients and communities first and speaking up when things go wrong.
- Respect and dignity, valuing every person - whether patient, their families or carers, or staff - as an individual and taking what others have to say seriously.
- Commitment to quality of care, earning the trust placed in the profession by insisting on quality and striving to get the basics of quality of care - safety, effectiveness and patient experience - right every time.
- Compassion, ensuring that compassion is central to the care provided and respond with humanity and kindness to each person's pain, distress, anxiety or need. We search for the things we can do, however small, to give comfort and relieve suffering. We find time for patients, their families and carers, as well as those we work alongside.
- Improving lives, striving to improve health and wellbeing and people's experiences of the NHS. We cherish excellence and professionalism wherever we find it - in the everyday things that make people's lives better as much as in clinical practice, service improvements and innovation.
- Everyone counts, maximising resources for the benefit of the whole community, and making sure nobody is excluded, discriminated against or left behind.
Applicants are encouraged to read the full text of the NHS Constitution before attending for interview.
- What Happens after the interview
During your interview you will be graded on your performance in each section. Based upon this grading the Director of Undergraduate Medical Admissions will then make the final decision as to whether you are offered a place on the course, or are unsuccessful. Some unsuccessful applicants may be placed on a reserve list. Applicants placed on a reserve list will be notified of this by email. How we use our reserve lists is set out in our Reserve List Policy.
Offers are dependent on the applicant having a satisfactory UCAS reference.
Offer decisions are made only once all of the interviews have been completed.
If you are made an offer of a place you will receive notification of your offer directly through UCAS. All the offers that we make are also subject to the receipt of a satisfactory health questionnaire and a satisfactory enhanced DBS (Disclosure and Barring Service) check (or equivalent). Please read the sections of this website on Health Requirements and Criminal Record Checks for further details. We will send you details about how to arrange your DBS check and about the health requirements questionnaire if you firmly accept our offer. You will also be required to sign a student entry agreement prior to starting the course.
- Deferred Entry Applications
At Sheffield Medical School we welcome deferred entry applications; you simply need to state that you wish to defer your entry to 2022 on your UCAS form. Students applying for deferred entry may be asked to summarise (briefly) their plans for the year ahead during the interview. Not only does this show that you have given considerable thought and effort into planning your gap year, but will also give you an opportunity to demonstrate relevant work experience that will enable you to become a good doctor in the future. If you are currently planning your gap year we would suggest you refer to the previous section on Relevant Work Experience.
There are many advantages to taking a gap year, including:
- An opportunity to travel the world and meet people from different cultures. This will develop your awareness of cultural diversity, which is important in the medical profession
- Additional time to gain further work experience in a relevant area, such as participating in a volunteer project at home or overseas, thus reinforcing your evidence of commitment to caring and insight into the profession
- Lastly, the opportunity to earn some money over the coming year to help fund your studies at Sheffield. This reflects very well on you as an individual, as you are demonstrating social responsibility
A number of students find that taking a gap year leads to increased confidence, maturity, and self-insight, all of which are relevant to a career in medicine.
If you decide you wish to defer your entry mid-way through the application cycle, we may still be able to accommodate your gap-year plans. You will need to put your request in writing (either via email or post) to the Medical Admissions Team, explaining your reasons for requesting deferment. In the majority of cases we can amend your year of entry accordingly.
Applicants must be 18 years old by the first day of the second term. Applicants who will not have reached their 18th birthday by the first day of the second term of their first year are welcome to apply but will be required to defer their entry. For 2021 entry, the first day of the second term is Monday 17th January 2022. There is no upper age limit.
- Tuition Fees
Details of bursaries available from the University of Sheffield can be found here.
For students on the A100 programme: At present, from Year 5 onwards course tuition fees are paid by the Department of Health for students. They may also award bursaries to British students who qualify. For students on the A101 programme: At present, students on 4-year graduate entry programmes eligible for an NHS bursary have some of their tuition costs met in years 2-4 on their programme and may be awarded NHS Bursaries from the second year of their studies onwards.
More information is available here.
Further enquiries regarding this should be addressed to:
NHS Student Bursaries
- Fees and Funding A100 2021 Entry
The information below was confirmed for September 2018 and is subject to change in future years.
Years 1-4 are funded by Student Finance. Eligible students can apply for a loan to cover the full cost of their tuition fees and a contribution towards their maintenance costs.
Further information about the support available can be found on the University's funding webpages.
Students will also be assessed for the University of Sheffield Bursary Scheme.
Year 5 onwards is funded by the Department of Health. They will pay the full cost of the tuition fees and give students a contribution towards their maintenance costs.
The Department of Health gives all eligible students a non-means tested £1,000 grant and a means-tested NHS Bursary of up to £4,491 as a contribution towards maintenance costs. Students can also apply for a reduced Maintenance Loan of up to £2,389 (reduced in the final year) from Student Finance.
Further information about the support available from the Department of Health is available online.
Students are not eligible to be assessed for the University of Sheffield Bursary Scheme during this year.
- Fees and Funding A101 2020 Entry
The information below was confirmed for September 2018 and is subject to change in future years.
Tuition fees for 2018 entry are £9,250 per year. Students are expected to pay the first £3,465 themselves; eligible students will be able to apply for a Tuition Fee Loan from Student Finance for the remaining amount.
Students will also be able to apply for a means-tested Maintenance Loan from Student Finance to contribute to their living costs.
Further information about the support available can be found on the University's funding webpages.
Eligible students will also be assessed for the University of Sheffield Bursary Scheme.
Tuition fees are yet to be confirmed for academic year 2019-20. Based on fees being £9,250, the Department of Health pays £3,715 and eligible students can apply for a Tuition Fee Loan from Student Finance for the remaining tuition fee balance.
The Department of Health gives all eligible students a non-means tested £1,000 grant and a means-tested NHS Bursary of up to £4,491 as a contribution towards living costs. Students can also apply for a reduced Maintenance Loan of £2,324 (reduced to £1,811 in the final year) from Student Finance.
Further information about the support available from the Department of Health is available online.
- Compulsory books/texts
Whilst the Medical School recommend a number of texts for each Phase of the MBChB programme, none of these are considered compulsory. Copies of textbooks are available in the Health Sciences Library.
- Course packs
Course and module handbooks are provided (generally in electronic format) without additional charge. The anatomy dissection workbook and the histology workbook are provided in hard copy without additional charge.
- Compulsory (non-residential) field trips
There are no compulsory non-residential field trips in the MBChB programme.
- Compulsory (residential) field trips (including accommodation)
The MBChB programme includes a 6-week Student Selected Component in Phase 3a and a 7-week Elective placement in Phase 3b. Students may choose to undertake their periods of study in Sheffield, elsewhere in the UK, or elsewhere in the world (provided that the UK Foreign and Commonwealth Office does not deem that place unsafe to travel to). The costs of visas, travel, accommodation, tuition fees, subsistence, criminal records checks (if required), personal insurance, private malpractice insurance and any vaccinations required are met by the student. These will vary depending on destination. There is no reduction in University of Sheffield tuition fees for Phases 3a and 3b.
The Medical School receives a variable sum of money every year towards assisting students with their Phase 3b elective placement. Since 2009, these bursaries have been competitively awarded on the basis of a written application. Awards of up to £250 are made, and approximately 60% of students applying for a bursary will receive some assistance with their financial arrangements.
- Professional accreditation exams (if core requirement of the degree)
At the end of the MBChB programme, students who wish to practice medicine in the United Kingdom must provisionally register with the General Medical Council. The cost of provisional registration is currently £52, and is outside the control of the University. More information on General Medical Council fees can be found here.
The GMC has decided to introduce a Medical Licensing Assessment - the MLA - to demonstrate that those who obtain registration with a licence to practise medicine in the UK meet a common threshold for safe practice. It is expected that the GMC will pilot this in 2022 and that all students graduating in 2024 will be required to take the MLA. Applicants should be aware that to obtain registration with a licence to practise, medical students will need to pass both parts of the MLA, pass university finals and demonstrate their fitness to practise.
The MLA will be in two parts: there will be a knowledge test, which will be set and run by the GMC, and an assessment, delivered by medical schools, that will evaluate students' clinical and professional skills.
- Compulsory study aids
In Phase 1, students will be given a lab coat and dissection kit to support their study of anatomy. Students will need to purchase a stethoscope. There are no other compulsory study aids for the MBChB programme.
- Compulsory research project costs (approved by supervisor)
There are no compulsory research project costs associated with the MBChB degree programme.
- Travel Costs for compulsory placements
We timetable teaching across the whole of our campus, the details of which can be found on our campus map. Teaching may take place in the Medical School, but may also be timetabled to take place within other departments or central teaching space. There are clinical placements in all years of the MBChB programme. Approximately 50% of a student's clinical placements within the MBChB programme take place within the local region, including but not limited to Barnsley, Chesterfield, Doncaster, Grimsby, Worksop and Rotherham. The remaining placements take place in Sheffield (except for a 6-week Student Selected Component in Phase 3a and a 7-week Elective placement in Phase 3b - see point 4 above). The cost of such travel varies depending on the distance travelled and the mode of transportation used.
During your MBChB degree programme, you will be expected to travel throughout the region for both hospital and General Practice placements. A contribution is made towards the cost of travel. A lump sum payment is made to all students at the beginning of each phase of the course, the amount reflects the number of weeks a student spends on placement during that phase. In addition, a contribution is made for travel to all GP practice placements.
- Other compulsory costs associated with course requirements e.g. large scale printing, posters
There is no requirement for students to undertake large scale printing or to have posters printed professionally.
- Later registration charge
Late registration incurs a charge. Details can be found here.
- Other costs
There are no additional costs for first sitting examinations. Resit examinations do incur a charge.
The MBChB programme does not include a dissertation or thesis, therefore submission fees, continuation fees and resubmission fees are not applicable.
- Mature students
The Medical School encourages applications from mature students. Although we have no upper age limit, it seems sensible only to accept those who can provide a reasonable period of service to the Health Service after graduation. As will be seen from the comments below, we accept mature students from varied backgrounds and of differing ages.
We do not have a quota for the number of mature students that are admitted to the Medicine - MBChB (A100) programme.
Graduate applicants should be aware that they may not be eligible to receive a loan for tuition fees, therefore graduate applicants may want to contact Student Finance England for information and advice.
I remember coming to Sheffield Medical School and after talking to just a handful of people, thinking to myself 'wow everyone is so friendly!' I spoke to a couple of medical students and they all thought the Medical School was brilliant. I was a bit sceptical because I thought maybe they'd been forced into giving the Medical School a wonderful review, but after being here for nearly two years I am honoured to be part of an amazing Medical School. There is so much academic help available including many revision sessions put on by the Medical Society.
A major bonus about the Medical School is the 2 weeks of ICE in your first year. For me it was great because as a postgraduate I had been sitting in lectures for three years and had never been on the wards. It gives you a bit of a teaser as to what clinical years will be like. There are so many sub-societies to get involved in and you'll definitely find something for you. The buddying scheme put on by the Medical Society pairs first year students with second year students. The advantage of this scheme is that you have someone who can give you advice on revision, what textbooks to buy and even the best places in town to eat! I definitely do not regret my decision to come to Sheffield Medical School; it has been a wonderful experience so far and I'm looking forward to my next three years here.
- International students
The University of Sheffield Medical School's world-wide reputation for quality attracts students from over one hundred countries around the globe. Thanks to help from part of our Global Engagement Team - the South East Asia office in Kuala Lumpur, we are normally able to hold interviews in Malaysia and Singapore. However, as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic we will not be able to hold interviews in SE Asia in 2021, and all interviews will be conducted online.
Applicants hoping to sit the University Clinical Aptitude Test (UCAT) in Kuala Lumpur should note that there is only one centre for this in Kuala Lumpur, at the University of Sheffield South East Asia Office. Such candidates are advised to book early to sit this assessment. There are other UCAT test centres in Malaysia and elsewhere around the world, and details can be found on the UCAT website.
Applicants are encouraged to make contact with current international medical students to find out more about studying at the Medical School.
When considering which of the applicants who meet the Academic and UCAT minimum thresholds to invite to interview, International Students are ranked separately to UK Home Students.
We have 18 places available for undergraduate medicine for international students but competition is intense. Although five years studying in another country may seem daunting, the University, and Sheffield as a student-friendly city provide a unique experience. The Students Union has repeatedly been voted the best in the country and holds events that allows students to experience the cultural diversity that Sheffield has to offer. The Students' Union has thriving societies for international students.
As an international student, I can say that choosing to study medicine at the University of Sheffield is one of the most fulfilling decisions I have ever made. Sheffield has some of the friendliest people in the world and this allowed me the opportunity to easily integrate into the community and meet a range of people from diverse cultural backgrounds.
The Medical School has a great support system with very supportive staff that helped me adjust into the system. I found the curriculum well balanced which helped me focus on my academic work and maintain a healthy social life by partaking in extracurricular activities at the same time. The Sheffield Students' Union is ranked number 1 in the country and this is evident in the fact that there is a huge variety of societies to join, as well as very exciting events occurring all through the year.
- MBChB Student Entry Agreement
As a medical student and future doctor and member of the medical profession, you are expected to meet the General Medical Council standards laid out in Achieving Good Medical Practice: guidance for medical students (May 2016).
You are expected to become familiar with the contents of this document and the related document: Professional behaviour and fitness to practise: guidance for medical students and their students (May 2016) from the very start of the course.
These documents can be accessed via the GMC website:
Achieving Good Medical Practice explains the standards expected of you (both inside and outside of the medical school) in 4 domains:
- Domain 1: Knowledge, skills and performance
- Domain 2: Safety and quality
- Domain 3: Communication, partnership and teamwork
- Domain 4: Maintaining trust
As it is so important that you understand and accept the standards and requirements explained in Achieving Good Medical Practice, we require you confirm the following:
- I have obtained copies of Achieving Good Medical Practice: guidance for medical students (May 2016) and Professional behaviour and fitness to practise: guidance for medical students and their students (May 2016), and if relation to the different sections in Achieving Good Medical Practice you are asked to confirm the following:
- I will develop and maintain my professional performance (pages 8-11)
- I will apply my knowledge and experience to practice (pages 11, 12)
- I will be professional on my clinical placements (pages 12, 13)
- I will follow the requirements concerning consent (pages 14, 15)
- I will record my work clearly, accurately and legibly (pages 16, 17)
- I will contribute to and comply with systems to protect patients (page 18)
- I will respond to risks to safety (page 19)
- I will follow guidance about raising concerns about patient safety or the behaviour, health or wellbeing of my colleagues or members of staff (pages 20-22)
- I will protect patients and colleagues from any risk posed by my health (pages 24-26)
- I will inform the medical school and accept advice if I have or develop a health condition (pages 27, 28)
- I will communicate effectively (pages 29, 30)
- I will work collaboratively with colleagues to maintain or improve patient care (pages 30, 31)
- I will contribute to the teaching, training, support and assessment of other students when opportunities arise (page 31)
- I will contribute to the continuity and co-ordination of patient care, when circumstances call for this (page 32)
- I will establish and maintain partnerships with patients (pages 32, 33)
- I will maintain patient confidentiality (pages 33, 35)
- I will follow the recommendations relating to the use of social media (pages 36, 37)
- I understand when it may be appropriate for me to make a conscientious objection to my involvement in some aspects of treatment (pages 37, 38)
- I will show respect for patients (page 39)
- I will treat patients and colleagues fairly and without discrimination (pages 40, 41)
- I will act with dignity and integrity (pages 42, 43)
- I will be open and cooperate with any legal or disciplinary proceedings that involve me personally (pages 44, 46)
- I understand and aim to avoid the areas of unprofessional behaviour that would be a cause for concern for the medical school and the General Medical Council (pages 47-53)
In order to continue on the course students must confirm and accept the following statements:
I accept the standards and requirements expected of me as a medical student as listed in statements 1-24 above.
I will inform the medical school if, at any stage of the course, I am no longer able to meet the standards and requirements listed in statements 1-24 above.
I understand that if the Medial School discovers that I have been untruthful in my application, it reserves the right to terminate the course of study.
- Postgraduate Foundation Training and Beyond
At the end of the undergraduate programme you will receive your MBChB degree, which is a primary medical qualification (PMQ). Holding a PMQ entitles you to provisional registration with the General Medical Council, subject only to its acceptance that there are no Fitness to Practise concerns that need consideration and payment of the required fee. Provisional registration is time limited to a maximum of three years and 30 days (1125 days in total). After this time period your provisional registration will normally expire.
Provisionally registered doctors can only practise in approved Foundation Year 1 posts: the law does not allow provisionally registered doctors to undertake any other type of work. To obtain a Foundation Year 1 post you will need to apply during the final year of your undergraduate programme through the UK Foundation Programme Office selection scheme, which allocates these posts to graduates on a competitive basis. All suitably qualified UK graduates have found a place on the Foundation Year 1 programme, but this cannot be guaranteed, for instance if there were to be an increased number of competitive applications.
Successful completion of the Foundation Year 1 programme is normally achieved within 12 months and is marked by the award of a Certificate of Experience. You will then be eligible to apply for full registration with the General Medical Council. You need full registration with a licence to practise for unsupervised medical practice in the NHS or private practice in the UK.
Although this information is currently correct, students need to be aware that regulations in this area may change from time to time.
There is some discussion about whether to remove provisional registration for newly qualified doctors. If this happens the UK graduates will receive full registration as soon as they have successfully completed an MBChB (or equivalent) degree. It should be noted that it is very likely that UK graduates will still need to apply for a training programme similar to the current Foundation Programme and that places on this programme may not be guaranteed for every UK graduate.
- I applied to Sheffield Medical School but have not received an acknowledgement to say that you have received my application.
Providing that you have been issued with a UCAS number after submitting your application to UCAS rest assured that we will have received your application in the office. The University sends out central acknowledgments of receipt, if you have not received this, please contact the Admissions Service.
- I submitted my application to UCAS before the closing date but have still not heard the outcome of my application. When might I expect to hear?
We start processing applications once the application deadline has passed in mid-October. Applicants that are to be invited to interview will be notified directly by email between 12th and 16th November 2020. Applicants who are not going to be invited to interview will be notified via UCAS that their application has been unsuccessful in December 2020. Our selection process will run to the timetable shown earlier on the page.
- Can I send you any additional information to go with my application form?
The Medical School will not normally consider additional information not included in the UCAS form when deciding which candidates to invite to attend Multiple Mini-Interviews. However, if you have any extenuating circumstances or health problems that we need to be aware of when assessing your application you may send additional information about this directly to us. We will then ensure that it is matched with your application. If you have extenuating circumstances or health problems that we need to be aware of, you are encouraged to submit a Disrupted Studies form. How we deal with Disrupted Studies is set out in our Disrupted Studies Policy.
- Do you score the UCAS Personal Statement?
We do not read or score UCAS Personal Statements as part of the selection process. However, the activities, interests and values that candidates express in their Personal Statements are commonly explored during the Multiple Mini-Interviews.
- I want to take a gap year. What should I do during that year?
We do not specify exactly what you should do during your gap year except that you should do something constructive. This may not necessarily mean that you have to do something that is medically related but, for example, you may plan to work for a year to help finance you during your medical studies.
- What sort of work experience should I do?
We do not specify the exact sort of work experience you should do or how much work experience you should have because it depends on what is available where you live. It should however be something within a caring environment. Some applicants may have experience of shadowing hospital staff or GPs but if this is not available to you try doing some voluntary work in a local hospice or working with children or adults with disabilities. We want to see what you have gained from your work experience - that you are able to communicate with people, have a caring nature and are able to work as part of a team. Your work experience does not have to have been undertaken with a doctor.
- I just missed getting the necessary grades can I still apply?
Applicants who do not meet our minimum academic requirements are normally unsuccessful in our selection process. Application to Medicine is extremely competitive and most of the people who apply meet or exceed the minimum academic requirements. If you do not meet the A Level requirements, you may wish to resit the relevant qualification. Alternatively, you may consider studying an alternative degree with a view to applying to Medicine after you graduate (please note that we require graduate applicants to have achieved at least BBB at A Level, including Chemistry or Biology).
- I took my Level 3 Extended Project Qualification whilst studying for my GCSEs. Will my EPQ count towards meeting the academic entry requirement?
No. In determining whether an applicant has met our academic entry requirements we only consider Level 3 Extended Projects that are taken alongside A Levels. We do not consider other qualifications.
- Can I compensate for a low University Clinical Aptitude Test (UCAT) score with a higher level of academic attainment?
No. Applicants must meet both the minimum academic and the minimum UCAT entry requirements. You cannot compensate for a UCAT score that is below the minimum accepted level with higher academic attainment, or vice versa. Applicants who meet the thresholds for academic performance and UCAT performance are ranked on their UCAT performance to determine who is invited to attend a Multiple Mini-Interview. The cut point at and above which an applicant's UCAT score will be sufficient to merit an invitation to attend a Multiple Mini-Interview cannot be known until after the application deadline, as applicants are in competition with each other at this stage.
- I have been exempted from the University Clinical Aptitude Test (UCAT) on geographic grounds. Can I apply?
Applicants who have been exempted from the UCAT on geographical grounds will not normally be considered.
- I have been exempted from the University Clinical Aptitude Test (UCAT) on medical/health grounds. Can I apply?
Applicants who have been exempted from the UCAT on medical/health grounds or who have not been able to obtain sufficient reasonable adjustment for a disability from UCAT should submit their UCAS application with a Disrupted Studies application. Where it is agreed that the applicant has experienced a significant disruption or that appropriate reasonable adjustments had not been made they will be invited to attend a Multiple Mini-Interview, provided that they meet the academic requirements. In the event that the Disrupted Studies are not accepted, the application will be deemed unsuccessful.
- Are University Clinical Aptitude Test (UCAT) scores adjusted if I have mitigating circumstances?
We normally make no adjustment to the UCAT (or UCATSEN, UCATSA, UCATSENSA, UCATSEN50) scores for applicants who have mitigating circumstances.
- How was the University Clinical Aptitude Test (UCAT) minimum threshold determined?
We determine the UCAT minimum threshold by considering the performance of test takers in previous years. Typically we set the minimum threshold at around the 40th centile. We have set the UCAT minimum threshold at the 40th centile from 2019. In the event that the 40th centile in the 2020 UCAT is higher or lower than this we will not amend the minimum threshold.
- What evidence will I have to supply if I take the UCATSEN, UCATSENSA OR UCATSEN50?
The UCATSEN,UCATSENSA and UCATSEN50 are extended versions of the University Clinical Aptitude Test (UCAT) for applicants who have special educational needs. If you wish to sit the UCATSEN, UCATSENSA or UCATSEN50 you will need to apply directly to the UCAT office for approval. They may ask you to provide information to confirm your eligibility for the test.
If you are currently in education, you may be asked to provide an official letter from your school, college or university stating that on the basis of a diagnosis from a qualified medical practitioner, educational psychologist or specialist teacher that you are currently entitled to additional time in public examinations (or that you have had additional time in public examinations in the last two years).
If you are no longer in education you may be asked to provide a post-16 year's diagnosis or report from a qualified medical practitioner or educational psychologist that explicitly recommends additional time in public examinations.
Reports should not be authored by family members.
- What happens if UCAT annotates my results?
UCAT will annotate a candidate's results if they have experienced a significant issue that may have affected their test performance but which does not warrant a resit (e.g. where small amounts of time have been lost from a particular subset). The annotation will be factual and will refer to specifics such as the amount of time lost and the subset affected. In the event that your UCAT result is annotated, the Medical School Admissions Team will consider this annotation in the same way that it considers applications for Disrupted Studies.
- I would like to come to Sheffield and have a look at the Medical School Can I arrange this?
Whilst we are unable to arrange individual visits there are a number of general University Open Days that allow you to have a look around the campus and there is a talk at the Medical School.
- Do you accept transfers from other Medical Schools?
No. The University of Sheffield Medical School does not usually accept students wishing to transfer from a degree course at another institution. Applications will also not be considered from applicants who have failed to complete a medical degree at any university. For full details of our transfer policy, please click on the following link:
- Do you accept transfers from other degree programmes at the University of Sheffield?
No. The University of Sheffield Medical School does not usually accept students wishing to transfer from another degree course at the University of Sheffield.
- I am in the first two years of a non-medical degree programme. Can I apply to study Medicine at the University of Sheffield?
No. With the exception of students from widening participation backgrounds the B990 BSc Clinical Sciences degree at the University of Bradford, or the B960 BSc Biomedical Science at Sheffield Hallam University, we do not usually consider applications from people who are currently reading a degree but who have not yet reached their final year. We will be delighted to receive an application from you once you are in the final year of study for your current degree.
- I have had an A Level certificated after one year of study. If I take it again the following year, does this count as a resit?
Yes. The Medical School considers an A Level taken after 2 years study to be a resit examination if the applicant has already completed that A Level and received a certificate after one year of study.
- I took an Extended Project Qualification (EPQ)with my first attempt at A Levels but am now resitting one or more A Levels. Will the EPQ alter my A Level entry criteria?
Our requirement for applicants offering an EPQ with their first sitting A Levels is AAB at A Level, including an A grade in Biology or Chemistry A Level, another science and any third subject other than General Studies, Critical Thinking or Further Mathematics, plus an A Grade in an EPQ.
The EPQ must be taken alongside the A Levels. Therefore, where an applicant is resitting one or more A Levels, the standard entry requirements of AAA will apply, and the attained EPQ will not modify this to AAB. Applicants with an EPQ who are resitting A Levels must therefore resit sufficient A Levels to attain AAA grades.
- Do you accept applicants through UCAS Extra/Clearing?
The only applications that we process through UCAS Extra are those for the University of Bradford and Sheffield Hallam University Widening participation entry routes. The Medical School does not process applications through UCAS Clearing.
- I have been invited to attend an interview but am unable to attend on any of the interview dates. What should I do?
Applicants are required to be available throughout the interview period. All applicants invited to interview will be notified on the same day, and the interview slots are available on a first-come, first-served basis. The Medical School is not able to offer interviews outside of the interview period, and any applicant who is unable to attend during that period will have their application deemed unsuccessful.
- I have been invited to attend an interview and have received confirmation of my selected interview date and time. Can I now change my interview date/time?
No. Once you have booked your interview date and time and received confirmation of these you will not be able to change them. You should therefore be sure that you will be able to attend at your chosen time before you make your booking.
- I think I have booked my interview date and time, but I have not received a confirmation. What should I do?
When you book your interview slot you will be sent a confirmation email that confirms the date and time of your interview. If you have not received such an email within an hour of your booking attempt (check that it has not gone into your Spam folder) then you have not completed your booking, and should try booking again!
- What happens if I am late for my interview?
You are advised to log in at least 30 minutes prior to the start time of your interview. (For example, if your interview starts at 0930hrs you must log in no later than 0900hrs.) Applicants who arrive after the start time for their interview will not be permitted to join their interview, and we cannot guarantee that we will be able to reschedule the interview.
- Am I allowed to bring notes into the interview?
You will not be permitted to use notes/crib sheets etc. during the interview. The interviewers are interested to know what you have to say, rather than what you can read to them. Whilst you are encouraged to be prepared for your interview, you are strongly discouraged from reciting answers to the interviewer.
- My application to the University of Sheffield Medical School has been successful. Can I obtain feedback on my interview performance?
Congratulations on receiving an offer of a place to read Medicine with us! Receiving an offer of a place indicates that your interview performance was strong across all eight stations. We do not provide additional feedback to offer holders. We do not release scores attained for the interview or its component sections.
- My application to the University of Sheffield Medical School has been rejected. How can I obtain feedback?
If your application is rejected you may request feedback by contacting the Medical Admissions Office. This feedback will generally be limited to indicating those sections of the interview in which your performance was less than satisfactory. We do not release scores attained for the interview or its component sections. Please email your request to: firstname.lastname@example.org. We aim to answer such requests within three weeks.
- My application to the University of Sheffield Medical School has been rejected and I have been placed on a Reserve List. What does this mean?
The number of places available to study medicine is regulated by the Government and controlled through intake targets. We make a number of offers each year with the aim of meeting our target quota. We would not receive central funding and indeed could be fined for any student that is registered over the quota figure. This results us being slightly conservative with the number of offers that we make. We recognise that there is a group of applicants to whom we would have made offers if we had unlimited places. For this reason, we operate reserve lists for our Medicine and Graduate Entry Medicine programmes. Our Reserve List Policy explains when and how we place applicants on the Reserve list, when we remove applicants from the list and what actions applicants on the reserve list should take. You can read the policy here.
- My application to the University of Sheffield Medical School has been rejected. May I apply again next year?
Applicants who are unsuccessful are welcome to apply again next year if they wish. You should take steps to address any issues that resulted in your application being rejected.