Valuing Health-Related Quality of Life: An EQ-5D-5L Value Set for England

N Devlin, K Shah, Y Feng, B Mulhern, B van Hout

ABSTRACT

Objectives
Measures of patient-reported health are increasingly used in clinical and health system decisions, and the EQ-5D is one of the most widely used questionnaires. It is recommended by NICE and is widely used in clinical trials, as well as in population health surveys and the NHS PROMs programme. A new version, the EQ-5D-5L, is now available. The objective of this study is to establish how important different sorts of health problems are to overall quality of life, and to produce the set of scores (‘value set’) required to use EQ-5D-5L data in decision-making and priority setting in the English NHS.
Design
The study design followed an international research protocol. Each participant valued 10 health states using a time trade-off approach and completed seven discrete choice tasks. The data are used to model values for all 3,125 states described by the EQ-5D-5L.
Setting
England general population.
Participants
Data were collected in face-to-face interviews with 996 adult members of the general public, selected at random from residential postcodes. The sample is broadly representative of the general population.
Results
The data obtained from participants had good face validity. Problems with pain/discomfort and anxiety/depression were the most important factor in overall quality of life. Values ranged from -0.281 (for extreme problems on all dimensions) to 0.951.
Conclusions
The value set reported here will have important implications for public decisions made using EQ-5D-5L data. There are considerably fewer states judged to be ‘worse than dead’ compared to the current EQ-5D value set (4.93%, compared with over one-third) and the minimum value is higher (-0.281 compared to -0.594). The results imply that QALY gains for interventions seeking to improve very poor health will be smaller using the EQ-5D-5L tariff, and may previously have been overestimated.