Assessment of the psychometric properties and refinement of the Health and Self-Management in Diabetes Questionnaire (HASMID)



The Health And Self-Management In Diabetes (HASMIDv1) questionnaire consists of 8 attributes, 4 about quality of life, and 4 about self-management. The overall aim of this study was to rigorously examine the psychometric properties of the HASMIDv1 questionnaire.


The study comprised two phases. Phase 1 identified items of the HASMIDv1 questionnaire that potentially required rewording through consultation with a patient involvement panel and two focus groups with people with diabetes. Phase 2 involved a cross-sectional longitudinal survey where HASMID, EQ-5D-5L, health, treatment and sociodemographic questions were administered using both paper and online versions to people with diabetes. Participants were asked to complete the survey again approximately 3 months later. Psychometric analyses were undertaken to examine floor and ceiling effects, item distributions, known group differences, change between time points, and responsiveness defining change using self-reported general health and self-management. Rasch analysis was undertaken to assess differential item functioning and disordered thresholds.


Phase 1 derived five alternative items: Irritable, Affects Mealtimes, Daily Routine, Social Activities and Problem. Phase 2 achieved 2835 responses in time point 1 (n=1944 online, n=891 paper version) and 1243 in time point 2 (n=533 online, n=710 paper version). Overall the HASMID items performed well, though two alternative items (Irritable and Social Activities) provided additional information not fully captured by the original HASMID items.