Dr Charlotte Codina [PhD, PG Cert FHEA,   BMedSci(hons)]

Charlotte Codina

Senior University Teacher in Orthoptics

Academic Unit of Ophthalmology & Orthoptics
The Medical School
Beech Hill Road
S10 2RX

Office: E100a

Tel: +44 (0) 114 215 9042
Fax: +44 (0) 114 271 3314

Email: c.codina@sheffield.ac.uk


I qualified as an Orthoptist in 2003 and have practised at hospitals in the UK including Moorfields Eye Hospital, Sheffield Teaching Hospitals Foundation Trust, Sheffield Childrens Hospital Trust in the UK and in the Kwazulu Natal region of South Africa. In 2008 I completed my PhD which explored the effects of profound congenital deafness on the visual system. Since 2008 I have been a lecturer in Orthoptics and enjoy teaching a broad range of topics for the BMedSci Orthoptics degree and have completed the University of Sheffield certificate in learning and teaching, making me a fellow of the Higher Education Academy. In 2013 I took the position of Programme Leader for the MMedSci (Vision and Strabismus) course by distance learning and enjoy teaching and supporting students from all over the UK and around the world in this role. 


Research Interests

My research interests include adaptations of and plasticity within the whole of the visual system from the cortex to the retina. My PhD explored the effects of profound congenital deafness and experience with British Sign Language on the visual system of children and adults. So far I have investigated visual plasticity in response to profound deafness, autism, ADHD and visual vertigo. I am particularly interested in the development of peripheral vision and the development and management of amblyopia.

Teaching Interests

As programme lead for the MMedSci in Vision and Strabismus I am passionate about making this distance learning course as useful as possible to Orthoptists and all ophthalmic specialists working in the UK, in the EU and internationally. As such, I have introduced a new module, accredited by the British and Irish Orthoptic Society on the topic of Stroke. I have also recently re-written a bespoke module on research methods for the MMedSci and am currently working on a new module called ‘Exemptions’. The Exemptions module will be ready in September 2018 and will enable UK Orthoptists to supply and administer certain exempted medications for ophthalmic practice.

My teaching interests lie in the development of the visual system, particularly in regard to binocular correspondence, including abnormal correspondence and the aetiology and treatment of amblyopia.

Professional Activities

I hold an honorary contract with Sheffield Teaching Hospitals Foundation trust and practise as an Orthoptist at this trust regularly. I have presented at BIPOSA, The Cognitive Neuroscience Society conference and gave the opening lecture at the British and Irish Orthoptic Society Scientific Conference in 2018. In 2011 I was a Keynote Speaker for Mukibaum “Come to your Senses” biannual conference in Toronto.

I am co-lead of the British and Irish Orthoptic Society Low Vision Clinical Advisory group and as such, participate in national endeavours such as 'Starting Point' https://www.visionuk.org.uk/startingpoint/ and in providing guidelines for patients and practitioners used when patients are newly diagnosed with a visual impairment.

Current Projects

  • Extraocular muscle excursion investigation in patients with Graves Orbitopathy
  • Wii fit rehabilitation in patients with balance disorders in collaboration with colleagues at Sheffield Teaching Hospitals Trust from Physiotherapy, Medical physics and Ear Nose and Throat departments
  • Exploring the neural correlates of deafness in collaboration with colleagues from The University of York
  • Peripheral vision in children with ADHD in collaboration with colleagues from the department of Psychology and clinical psychologists here in Sheffield
  • MPhil student Catherine Jukes investigating new methods of extraocular muscle excursion recording

Key Publications

Codina, C.J., Pascalis, O., Baseler, H.A., Levine, A.T. and Buckley, D. (2017) Peripheral visual reaction time is faster in deaf adults and British Sign Language interpreters than in hearing adults. Frontiers in psychology, 8. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2017.00050

Levine, A., Codina, C., Buckley, D., De Sousa, G. and Baseler, H. (2015) Differences in primary visual cortex predict performance in local motion detection in deaf and hearing adults. Journal of vision, 15(12), pp.486-486.

Codina, C, J., Pascalis, O., Mody, C., Toomey, P., Rose, J., Gummer, L., Buckley, D. (2011) Visual Advantage in Deaf Adults Linked to Retinal Changes. PLoS ONE, 6(6). e20417.

Codina, C, J., Buckley, D., Port, M., Pascalis, O. (2010) Deaf and hearing children, a comparison of peripheral vision development. Developmental Science. 14(4), 725-737.

Bjerre, A., Codina, C., Griffiths, H. (2014) Peripheral Visual Fields in Children and Young Adults Using Semi-automated Kinetic Perimetry: Feasibility of Testing, Normative Data, and Repeatability. Neuro-Ophthalmology 38(4), 189-198. DOI:10.3109/01658107.2014.902971

Buckley D, Codina C, Bhardwaj P, Pascalis O (2010) Action video game players and deaf observers have larger Goldmann visual fields. Vision Research, 50, 548-556.

Milne, E., Scope, A., Griffiths, H., Codina, C, J., Buckley, D. (2013) Brief Report: Preliminary Evidence of Reduced Sensitivity in the Peripheral Visual Field of Adolescents with Autistic Spectrum Disorder. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 43(8), 1976-82. DOI: 10.1007/s10803-012-1730-6

Ludden, S., Codina, C. (2013) Is there an Ideal Speed for Assessing the Prism Fusion Range? British and Irish Orthoptic Journal, 10, 51-55.


For a full list of publications, please visit myPublications