Mathematics MMath
School of Mathematics and Statistics
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You are viewing this course for 202223 entry.
Key details
 A Levels AAA
Other entry requirements  UCAS code G103
 4 years / Fulltime
 September start
 Find out the course fee
Course description
This course is great preparation for a career in research, whether you want to work on solutions to abstract mathematics problems or apply your problem solving skills to challenges in industry. There is a wide variety of options to choose from across pure mathematics, applied mathematics, and probability and statistics. In your final year, you’ll complete a major research project.
We have a small but focused number of modules in the first year, that cover all the essentials you’ll need for the rest of your degree. You can develop programming skills using Python and R, which can be applied to lots of jobs that involve data, and learn to use the typesetting software LaTeX, which mathematicians and statisticians use to present their work.
In your second year, you’ll continue to build a powerful toolbox of mathematical techniques, which you can apply to increasingly complex problems. There is less compulsory maths and more options, so as well as calculus and algebra, you can study topics including differential equations, the mechanics of motion in fluids and solids, statistical modelling and computer simulations.
Some module options include more project work. This gives you the chance to put your mathematics skills into practice in different contexts and scenarios that you might encounter when you start work after graduation. A module on careers development gives you the chance to find out about different career paths, learn about potential employers, write an impressive CV and sell yourself at job interviews.
By your third year, you’ll have the skills, knowledge and experience to explore many different areas of mathematics. We’ll give you lots of optional modules to choose from, so you can study the topics that are most useful to the career path you want to take or that you enjoy the most.
You’ll have a similar range of options to choose from in your final year. You’ll also spend a third of your time working on your own research project. You’ll choose a topic in an area of mathematics that interests you, and work closely with one of our staff who is an expert in the field. You’ll write up your findings and give a presentation about what you’ve learned.
Modules
A selection of modules are available each year  some examples are below. There may be changes before you start your course. From May of the year of entry, formal programme regulations will be available in our Programme Regulations Finder.
Choose a year to see modules for a level of study:
UCAS code: G103
Years: 2021
Core modules:
 Introduction to Probability and Statistics

The module provides an introduction to the fields of probability and statistics, which form the basis of much of applicable mathematics and operations research. The theory behind probability and statistics will be introduced, along with examples occurring in diverse areas. Some of the computational statistical work may make use of the statistics package R.
20 credits  Mathematics Core 1

The module explores topics in mathematics which will be used throughout many degree programmes. The module will consider techniques for solving equations, special functions, calculus (differentiation and integration), differential equations, Taylor series, complex numbers and finite and infinite series.
20 credits  Mathematics Core II

The module continues the study of core mathematical topics begun in MS4F1015, which will be used throughout many degree programmes. The module will discuss 2dimensional coordinate geometry, discussing the theory of matrices geometrically and algebraically, and will define and evaluate derivatives and integrals for functions which depend on more than one variable, with an emphasis on functions of two variables.
20 credits  Numbers and Groups

The module provides an introduction to more specialised Pure Mathematics. The first half of the module will consider techniques of proof, and these will be demonstrated within the study of properties of integers and real numbers. The second semester will study symmetries of objects, and develop a theory of symmetries which leads to the more abstract study of groups.
20 credits  Vectors and Mechanics

The module begins with the algebra of vectors, essential for the study of many branches of applied mathematics. The theory is illustrated by many examples, with emphasis on geometry including lines and planes. Vectors are then used to define the velocity and acceleration of a moving particle, thus leading to an introduction to Newtonian particle mechanics. Newton's laws are applied to particle models in areas such as sport, rides at theme parks and oscillation theory.
20 credits
Optional modules:
 Mathematical Investigation Skills

This module introduces topics which will be useful throughout students time as undergraduates and beyond. These skills fall into two categories: computer literacy and presentation skills. Various computer packages are introduced in other modules; these share some programming capabilities, and one aim of this module is to develop programming techniques to perform mathematical investigations within the context of these mathematical packages. In addition, spreadsheets have substantial scientific capabilities, and Excel is the program of choice within industry. Finally, students will meet the typesetting package LaTeX, preparing reports and presentations into mathematical topics.
20 credits
Core modules:
 Advanced Calculus and Linear Algebra

Advanced Calculus and Linear Algebra are basic to most further work in pure and applied mathematics and to much of statistics. This course provides the basic tools and techniques and includes sufficient theory to enable the methods to be used in situations not covered in the course.
20 credits
The material in this course is essential for further study in mathematics and statistics.
Optional modules:
 Algebra

This unit continues the study of abstract algebra begun in MAS114, going further with the study of groups, and introducing the concepts of a ring, which generalises the properties of the integers, and a vector space, which generalises the techniques introduced in linear algebra to many more examples.
20 credits
As well as demonstrating the interest and power of abstraction, this course is vital to further studies in most of pure mathematics, including algebraic geometry and topology, functional analysis and Galois theory.  Analysis

This course is a foundation for the rigorous study of continuity, differentiation and integration of functions of one real variable. As well as providing the theoretical underpinnings of calculus, we develop applications of the theory and examples that show why the rigour is needed, even if we are focused on applications.
20 credits
The material in this course is vital to further studies in metric spaces, measure theory, parts of probability theory, and functional analysis.  Differential Equations

The module aims at developing a core set of advanced mathematical techniques essential to the study of applied mathematics. Topics include the qualitative analysis of ordinary differential equations, solutions of second order linear ordinary differential equations with variable coefficients, first order and second order partial differential equations, the method of characteristics and the method of separation of variables.
20 credits  Statistical Inference and Modelling

This unit develops methods for analysing data, and provides a foundation for further study of probability and statistics at Level 3. It introduces some standard distributions beyond those met in MAS113, and proceeds with study of continuous multivariate distributions, with particular emphasis on the multivariate normal distribution. Transformations of univariate and multivariate continuous distributions are studied, with the derivation of sampling distributions of important summary statistics as applications. The concepts of likelihood and maximum likelihood estimation are developed. Data analysis is studied within the framework of linear models. There will be substantial use of the software package R.
20 credits  Career Development Skills

This unit will equip students with the necessary skills to support them in gaining employment upon graduation. Students will learn how to construct covering letters, CV writing and complete applications to enhance their success when applying for jobs. Skills such as how to communicate mathematics to nonmathematicians and the need for attention to detail will also be introduced.
10 credits  Mathematics and Statistics in Action

This module will demonstrate, in a series of case studies, the use of applied mathematics, probability and statistics in solving a variety of realworld problems. The module will illustrate the process of mathematical and statistical modelling, whereby realworld questions are translated to mathematical and/or statistical questions. Students will see how techniques learned earlier in their degree, as well as simple computer programming, can be used to explore these problems. There will be a mix of individual and group projects, and some projects will involve the use of R or Python, but MAS115 is not a prerequisite.
10 credits  Mechanics and Fluids

This module extends the Newtonian mechanics studied in MAS112. The main topics treated are (i) extensions of the workenergy principle and conservation of energy, (ii) a full treatment of planetary and satellite motion, (iii) the elements of rigid body motion, and (iv) inviscid (frictionless) fluid motions. The course is a prerequisite for students wishing to pursue higher level modules in fluid mechanics.
10 credits  Probability Modelling

The course introduces a number of general models for processes where the state of a system is fluctuating randomly over time. Examples might be the length of a queue, the size of a reproducing population, or the quantity of water in a reservoir. The aim is to familiarize students with an important area of probability modelling.
10 credits  Scientific Computing and Simulation

The module further develops the students' skills in computer programming and independent investigations. The students will learn how to solve algebraic and differential equations using the solvers in Python as well as Python codes developed by themselves. The students will learn basic computing methods and methods to visualize and analyze numerical results, and then apply the knowledge to explore the physical behaviors of model equations.
10 credits
Optional modules:
 Practical and Applied Statistics

The overall aim of the course is to give students practice in the various stages of dealing with a real problem: objective definition, preliminary examination of data, modelling, analysis, computation, interpretation and communication of results. It could be said that while other courses teach how to do statistics, this teaches how to be a statistician. There will be a series of projects and other exercises directed towards this aim. Projects will be assessed, but other exercises will not.
20 credits  Undergraduate Ambassadors Scheme in Mathematics

This module provides an opportunity for Level Three students to gain first hand experience of mathematics education through a mentoring scheme with mathematics teachers in local schools. Typically, each student will work with one class for half a day every week for 11 weeks. The classes will vary from key stage 2 to sixth form. Students will be given a range of responsibilities from classroom assistant to the organisation and teaching of selforiginated special projects. Only a limited number of places are available and students will be selected on the basis of their commitment and suitability for working in schools.
20 credits  Applied Probability

The unit will link probability modelling to Statistics. It will explore a range of models that can be constructed for random phenomena that vary in time or space  the evolution of an animal population, for example, or the number of cancer cases in different regions of the country. It will illustrate how models are built and how they might be applied: how likelihood functions for a model may be derived and used to fit the model to data, and how the result may be used to assess model adequacy. Models examined will build on those studied in MAS275
10 credits  Bayesian Statistics

This module develops the Bayesian approach to statistical inference. The Bayesian method is fundamentally different in philosophy from conventional frequentist/classical inference and is becoming the approach of choice in many fields of applied statistics. This course will cover both the foundations of Bayesian statistics, including subjective probability, inference, and modern computational tools for practical inference problems, specifically Markov Chain Monte Carlo methods and Gibbs sampling. Applied Bayesian methods will be demonstrated in a series of case studies using the software package R.
10 credits  Codes and Cryptography

The word `code' is used in two different ways. The ISBN code of a book is designed in such a way that simple errors in recording it will not produce the ISBN of a different book. This is an example of an `errorcorrecting code' (more accurately, an errordetecting code). On the other hand, we speak of codes which encrypt information  a topic of vital importance to the transmission of sensitive financial information across the internet. These two ideas, here labelled `Codes' and `Cryptography', each depend on elegant pure mathematical ideas: codes on linear algebra and cryptography on number theory. This course explores these topics, including the reallife applications and the mathematics behind them.
10 credits  Combinatorics

Combinatorics is the mathematics of selections and combinations. For example, given a collection of sets, when is it possible to choose a different element from each of them? That simple question leads to Hall's Theorem, a farreaching result with applications to counting and pairing problems throughout mathematics.
10 credits  Complex Analysis

It is natural to use complex numbers in algebra, since these are the numbers we need to provide the roots of all polynomials. In fact, it is equally natural to use complex numbers in analysis, and this course introduces the study of complexvalued functions of a complex variable. Complex analysis is a central area of mathematics. It is both widely applicable and very beautiful, with a strong geometrical flavour. This course will consider some of the key theorems in the subject, weaving together complex derivatives and complex line integrals. There will be a strong emphasis on applications. Anyone taking the course will be expected to know the statements of the theorems and be able to use them correctly to solve problems.
10 credits  Continuum Mechanics

Continuum mechanics is concerned with the mechanical behaviour of solids and fluids which change their shape when forces are applied. For example, rubber extends when pulled but behaves elastically returning to its original shape when the forces are removed. Water starts to move when the external pressure is applied. This module aims to introduce the basic kinematic and mechanical ideas needed to model deformable materials and fluids mathematically. They are needed to develop theories which describe elastic solids and fluids like water. In this course, a theory for solids which behave elastically under small deformations is developed. This theory is also used in seismology to discuss wave propagation in the Earth. An introduction in theory of ideal and viscous, incompressible and compressible fluids is given. The theory is used to solve simple problems. In particular, the propagation of sound waves in the air is studied.
10 credits  Differential Geometry

What is differential geometry? In short, it is the study of geometric objects using calculus. In this introductory course, the geometric objects of our concern are curves and surfaces. Besides calculating such familiar quantities as lengths, angles and areas, much of our focus is on how to measure the 'curvature' of a geometric object. The story is relatively simple for curves, but naturally becomes more involved for surfaces  and more interesting too.
10 credits  Fields

A field is a set where the familiar operations of arithmetic are possible. It often happens, particularly in the theory of equations, that one needs to extend a field by forming a bigger one. The aim of this course is to study the idea of field extension and various problems where it arises. In particular, it is used to answer some classical problems of Greek geometry, asking whether certain geometrical constructions, such as angle trisection or squaring the circle, are possible.
10 credits  Financial Mathematics

The discovery of the Capital Asset Pricing Model by William Sharpe in the 1960's and the BlackScholes option pricing formula a decade later mark the beginning of a very fruitful interaction between mathematics and finance. The latter obtained new powerful analytical tools while the former saw its knowledge applied in new and surprising ways. (A key result used in the derivation of the BlackScholes formula, Ito's Lemma, was first applied to guide missiles to their targets; hence the title 'rocket science' applied to financial mathematics). This course describes the mathematical ideas behind these developments together with their application in modern finance.
10 credits  Fluid Mechanics I

The way in which fluids move is of immense practical importance; the most obvious examples of this are air and water, but there are many others such as lubricants in engines. Moreover, the scientific principles and mathematical techniques needed to explain fluid motion are of intrinsic interest. This module builds on Level 2 work (MAS222 Differential Equations; MAS280 Mechanics and Fluids). The first step is to derive the equation (NavierStokes) governing the motions of most common fluids. This serves as a basis for the remainder of MAS320, with the main addition to MAS280 being that it covers viscous (frictional) fluids.
10 credits  Game Theory

The module will give students the opportunity to apply previously acquired mathematical skills to the study of Game Theory and to some of the applications in Economics.
10 credits  Generalised Linear models

This module introduces the theory and application of generalised linear models. These models can be used to investigate the relationship between some quantity of interest, the “dependent variable”, and one more “explanatory” variables; how the dependent variable changes as the explanatory variables change. The term “generalised” refers to the fact that these models can be used for a wide range of different types of dependent variable: continuous, discrete, categorical, ordinal etc. The application of these models is demonstrated using the programming language R.
10 credits  Graph Theory

.A graph is a simple mathematical structure consisting of a collection of points, some pairs of which are joined by lines. Their basic nature means that they can be used to illustrate a wide range of situations. The aim of this course is to investigate the mathematics of these structures and to use them in a wide range of applications.
10 credits  Group Project

This unit will provide students with opportunities to improve their transferable skills by working in groups of (normally) four students to investigate a mathematical project topic. Students will be expected to register for SOM369 in preformed groups of four. With the aid of the Library and the internet each group will produce a (single) written account of the group¿s investigations into the topic, and contribute to an oral presentation of their work. Topics will be proposed by members of staff, but groups may propose their own. The module Coordinator will provide guidance about working in groups, and on appropriate techniques for the written and oral presentation of mathematical topics.
10 credits  History of Mathematics

The course aims to introduce the student to the history of mathematics. The topics discussed are Egyptian and Babylonian mathematics, early Greek mathematics, Renaissance mathematics, and the early history of the calculus.
10 credits  Introduction to Relativity

Einstein's theory of relativity is one of the corner stones of our understanding of the universe. This course will introduce some of the ideas of relativity, and the physical consequences of the theory, many of which are highly counterintuitive. For example, a rapidly moving body will appear to be contracted as seen by an observer at rest. The course will also introduce one of the most famous equations in the whole of mathematics: E=mc2.
10 credits  Knots and Surfaces

The course studies knots, links and surfaces in an elementary way. The key mathematical idea is that of an algebraic invariant: the Jones polynomial for knots, and the Euler characteristic for surfaces. These invariants will be used to classify surfaces, and to give a practical way to place a surface in the classification. Various connections with other sciences will be described.
10 credits  Machine Learning

Machine learning lies at the interface between computer science and statistics. The aims of machine learning are to develop a set of tools for modelling and understanding complex data sets. It is an area developed recently in parallel between statistics and computer science. With the explosion of ¿Big Data¿, statistical machine learning has become important in many fields, such as marketing, finance and business, as well as in science. The module focuses on the problem of training models to learn from training data to classify new examples of data.
10 credits  Mathematical Biology

This module provides an introduction to the mathematical modelling of the dynamics of biological populations. The emphasis will be on deterministic models based on systems of differential equations that encode population birth and death rates. Examples will be drawn from a range of different dynamic biological populations, from the species level down to the dynamics of molecular populations within cells. Central to the module will be the dynamic consequences of feedback interactions within the populations. In cases where explicit solutions are not readily obtainable, techniques that give a qualitative picture of the model dynamics (including numerical simulation) will be used.
10 credits  Mathematical Methods

This course introduces methods which are useful in many areas of mathematics. The emphasis will mainly be on obtaining approximate solutions to problems which involve a small parameter and cannot easily be solved exactly. These problems will include the evaluation of integrals. Examples of possible applications are: oscillating motions with small nonlinear damping, the effect of other planets on the Earth's orbit around the Sun, boundary layers in fluid flows, electrical capacitance of long thin bodies, central limit theorem correction terms for finite sample size.
10 credits  Mathematical modelling of natural systems

Mathematical modelling enables insight in to a wide range of scientific problems. This module will provide a practical introduction to techniques for modelling natural systems. Students will learn how to construct, analyse and interpret mathematical models, using a combination of differential equations, scientific computing and mathematical reasoning. Students will learn the art of mathematical modelling: translating a scientific problem into a mathematical model, identifying and using appropriate mathematical tools to analyse the model, and finally relating the significance of the mathematical results back to the original problem. Study systems will be drawn from throughout the environmental and life sciences.
10 credits  Measure and Probability

The module will give students an additional opportunity to develop skills in modern analysis as well as providing a rigorous foundation for probability theory. In particular it would form a useful precursor or companion course to the Level 4 courses MAS436 (Functional Analysis) and MAS452 (Stochastic Processes and Finance), the latter of which is fundamentally dependent on measure theoretic ideas
10 credits  Medical Statistics

This course comprises sections on Clinical Trials and Survival Data Analysis. The special ethical and regulatory constraints involved in experimentation on human subjects mean that Clinical Trials have developed their own distinct methodology. Students will, however, recognise many fundamentals from mainstream statistical theory. The course aims to discuss the ethical issues involved and to introduce the specialist methods required. Prediction of survival times or comparisons of survival patterns between different treatments are examples of paramount importance in medical statistics. The aim of this course is to provide a flavour of the statistical methodology developed specifically for such problems, especially with regard to the handling of censored data (eg patients still alive at the close of the study). Most of the statistical analyses can be implemented in standard statistical packages.
10 credits  Metric Spaces

This unit explores ideas of convergence of iterative processes in the more general framework of metric spaces. A metric space is a set with a distance function which is governed by just three simple rules, from which the entire analysis follows. The course follows on from MAS207 `Continuity and Integration', and adapts some of the ideas from that course to the more general setting. The course ends with the Contraction Mapping Theorem, which guarantees the convergence of quite general processes; there are applications to many other areas of mathematics, such as to the solubility of differential equations.
10 credits  Operations Research

Mathematical Programming is the title given to a collection of optimisation algorithms that deal with constrained optimisation problems. Here the problems considered will all involve constraints which are linear, and for which the objective function to be maximised or minimised is also linear. These problems are not continuously differentiable; special algorithms have to be developed. The module considers not only the solution of such problems but also the important area of postoptimality analysis; i.e. given the solution can one answer questions about the effect of small changes in the parameters of the problem (such as values of the cost coefficients)?
10 credits  Quantum Theory

The development of quantum theory revolutionized both physics and mathematics during the 20th century. The theory has applications in many technological advances, including: lasers, superconductors, modern medical imaging techniques, transistors and quantum computers. This course introduces the basics of the theory and brings together many aspects of mathematics: for example, probability, matrices and complex numbers. Only first year mechanics is assumed, and other mathematical concepts will be introduced as they are needed.
10 credits  Sampling Theory and Design of Experiments

The results of sample surveys through opinion polls are commonplace in newspapers and on television. The objective of the Sampling Theory section of the module is to introduce several different methods for obtaining samples from finite populations. Experiments which aim to discover improved conditions are commonplace in industry, agriculture, etc. The purpose of experimental design is to maximise the information on what is of interest with the minimum use of resources. The aim of the Design section is to introduce some of the more important design concepts.
10 credits  Time Series

Time series are observations made in time, for which the time aspect is potentially important for understanding and use. The course aims to give an introduction to modern methods of time series analysis and forecasting as applied in economics, engineering and the natural, medical and social sciences. The emphasis will be on practical techniques for data analysis, though appropriate stochastic models for time series will be introduced as necessary to give a firm basis for practical modelling. Appropriate computer packages will be used to implement the methods.
10 credits  Topics in Number Theory

In this module we study intergers, primes and equations. Topics covered include linear and quadratic congruences, Fermat Little Theorem and Euler's Theorem, the RSA cryptosystem, Quadratic Reciprocity, perfect numbers, continued fractions and others.
10 credits  Waves

Studying wave phenomena has had a great impact on Applied Mathematics. This module looks at some important wave motions with a view to understanding them by developing from first principles the key mathematical tools. We begin with waves on strings (e.g. a piano or violin), developing the concept of standing and progressive waves, and normal modes. Fourier series are used to solve problems relating to waves on strings and membranes. Sound waves and water waves are considered. The concepts of dispersion and group velocity are introduced. The course concludes with consideration of 'traffic waves' as the simplest example of nonlinear waves.
10 credits
Core modules:
 Mathematics and Statistics Project II

This unit forms the final part of the SoMaS project provision at Level 4 and involves the completion, under the guidance of a research active supervisor, of a substantial project on an advanced topic in Mathematics and Statistics.
30 credits  Project Presentation in Mathematics and Statistics

The unit provides training and experience in the use of appropriate computer packages for the presentation of mathematics and statistics and guidance on the coherent and accurate presentation of technical information.
10 credits
Optional modules:
 Bayesian Statistics and Computational Methods

This module introduces the Bayesian approach to statistical inference. The Bayesian method is fundamentally different in philosophy from conventional frequentist/classical inference, and has been the subject of some controversy in the past, but is now widely used. The module also presents various computational methods for implementing both Bayesian and frequentist inference, in situations where obtaining results ‘analytically’ would be impossible. The methods will be implemented using the programming languages R and Stan, and some programming is taught alongside the theory lectures.
30 credits  Algebraic Topology

This unit will cover algebraic topology, following on from MAS331: Metric Spaces.
20 credits
Topology studies the shape of space, with examples such as spheres, the Mobius Band, the Klein bottle, the torus and other surfaces. The first task is to formalise this notion of space, and to work out when a given space can be smoothly deformed into another, where stretching and bending is allowed, but cutting and glueing is not. Algebraic topology builds a powerful bridge between space and algebra, enabling the use familiar algebraic techniques from group theory to study spaces and their deformations.  Analytical Dynamics and Classical Field Theory

Newton formulated his famous laws of mechanics in the late 17th century. Later, mathematicians like Lagrange, Hamilton and Jacobi discovered that underlying Newton's work are wonderful mathematical structures. In the first semester we discuss this work, its influence on the subsequent formulation of field theory, and Noethers theorem relating symmetries and conservation laws.
20 credits
In the second semester, Einsteins theory of gravity, General Relativity, will be introduced, preceded by mathematical tools such as covariant derivatives and curvature tensors. Einstein¿s field equations, and two famous solutions, will be derived. Two classic experimental tests of General Relativity will be discussed.  Commutative Algebra and Algebraic Geometry

This module develops the theory of algebraic geometry, especially over complex numbers, from both a geometrical and algebraic point of view. The main ingredient is the theory of commutative algebra, which is developed in the first part of the module.
20 credits  Functional Analysis

Functional analysis is the study of infinitedimensional vector spaces equipped with extra structure. Such spaces arise naturally as spaces of functions. As well as being a beautiful subject in its own right, functional analysis has numerous applications in other areas of both pure and applied mathematics, including Fourier analysis, study of the solutions of certain differential equations, stochastic processes, and in quantum physics. In this unit we focus mainly on the study of Hilbert spaces complete vector spaces equipped with an inner product and linear maps between Hilbert spaces. Applications of the theory considered include Fourier series, differential equations, index theory, and the basics of wavelet analysis.
20 credits  Stochastic Processes and Finance

A stochastic process is a mathematical model for phenomena unfolding dynamically and unpredictably over time. This module studies two classes of stochastic process particularly relevant to financial phenomena: martingales and diffusions. The module develops the properties of these processes and then explores their use in Finance. A key problem considered is that of the pricing of a financial derivative such as an option giving the right to buy or sell a stock at a particular price at a future time. What is such an option worth now? Martingales and stochastic integration are shown to give powerful solutions to such questions.
20 credits  Topics in Advanced Fluid Mechanics

This module aims to describe advanced mathematical handling of fluid equations in an easily accessible fashion. A number of topics are treated in connection with the mathematical modelling of formation of the (near)singular structures with concentrated vorticity in inviscid flows. After discussing prototype problems in one and two dimensions, the threedimensional flows in terms of vortex dynamics are described. Key mathematical tools, for example, singular integrals and calculus inequalities, are explained during the unit in a selfcontained manner. Candidates are directed to read key original papers on some topics to deepen their understanding.
20 credits  Generalised Linear Models

This module introduces the theory and application of generalised linear models. These models can be used to investigate the relationship between some quantity of interest, the “dependent variable”, and one or more “explanatory” variables; how the dependent variable changes as the explanatory variables change. The term “generalised” refers to the fact that these models can be used for a wide range of different types of dependent variable ,continuous, discrete, categorical, ordinal etc. The application of these models is demonstrated using the programming language R.
15 credits  Machine Learning

Machine learning lies at the interface between computer science and statistics. The aims of machine learning are to develop a set of tools for modelling and understanding complex data sets. It is an area developed recently in parallel between statistics and computer science. With the explosion of “Big Data”, statistical machine learning has become important in many fields, such as marketing, finance and business, as well as in science. The module focuses on the problem of training models to learn from training data to classify new examples of data.
15 credits  Medical Statistics

This module introduces an important application of statistics: medical research, specifically, the design and analysis of clinical trials. For any new drug to be approved by a regulator (such as the Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency in the UK) for use on patients, the effectiveness of the drug has to be demonstrated in a clinical trial. This module explains how clinical trials are designed and how statistical methods are used to analyse the results, with a particular focus on ‘survival’ or ‘timetoevent’ analysis.
15 credits  Sampling Theory and Design of Experiments

Whereas most statistics modules are concerned with the analysis of data, this module is focussed on the collection of data. In particular, this module considers how to collect data efficiently: how to ensure the quantities of interest can be estimated sufficiently accurately, using the smallest possible sample size. Three settings are considered: sample surveys (for example when conducting an opinion poll), physical experiments, as may be used in industry, and experiments involving predictions from computer models, where there is uncertainty in the computer model prediction.
15 credits  Advanced Operations Research

Mathematical Programming is concerned with the algorithms that deal with constrained optimisation problems. We consider only constraints which are linear, and for which the objective function to be maximised or minimised is also linear. These problems are not continuously differentiable and so they do not fall into the category of problems considered in organisation; special algorithms have to be developed. The module considers not only the solution of such problems but also the important area of postoptimality analysis; i.e. given the solution can one answer questions about the effect of small changes in the parameters of the problem (such as values of the cost coefficients)? Additional topics will include the transportation and assignment problems.
10 credits  Advanced Particle Physics

The main aim of the unit is to give a formal overview of modern particle physics. The mathematical foundations of Quantum Field Theory and of the Standard Model will be introduced. The theoretical formulation will be complemented by examples of experimental results from the Large Hadron Collider and Neutrino experiments. The unit aims to introduce students to the following topics:
10 credits
• A brief introduction to particle physics and a review of special relativity and quantum mechanics
• The Dirac Equation
• Quantum electrodynamics and quantum chromodynamics
• The Standard Model
• The Higgs boson
• Neutrino oscillations
• Beyond the Standard Model physics  Advanced Quantum Mechanics

This module presents modern quantum mechanics with applications in quantum information and particle physics. After introducing the basic postulates, the theory of mixed states is developed, and we discuss composite systems and entanglement. Quantum teleportation is used as an example to illustrate these concepts. Next, we develop the theory of angular momentum, examples of which include spin and isospin, and the method for calculating ClebschGordan coefficients is presented. Next, we discuss the relativistic extension of quantum mechanics. The KleinGordon and Dirac equations are derived and solved, and we give the equation of motion of a relativistic electron in a classical electromagnetic field. Finally, we explore some topics in quantum field theory, such as the Lagrangian formalism, scattering and Feynman diagrams, and modern gauge field theory.
10 credits  Analytic Number Theory

The module will discuss the distribution of prime numbers (Bertrand's Postulate, prime counting function, the statement of the Prime Number Theorem and some of its consequences), basic properties of the Riemann zeta function, and Euler products of Lseries. A big chunk of the module will be dedicated to Dirichlet's Theorem on primes in arithmetic progressions and it's proof.
10 credits  Fields

A field is set where the familiar operations of arithmetic are possible. It is common, particularly in the study of equations, that a field may need to be extended. This module will study the idea of field extension and the various problems that may arise as a result. Particular use is made of this to answer some of the classical problems of Greek geometry, to ask whether certain geometrical constructions such as angle trisection or squaring the circle are possible.
10 credits  Financial Mathematics

The discovery of the Capital Asset Pricing Model by William Sharpe in the 1960's and the BlackScholes option pricing formula a decade later mark the beginning of a very fruitful interaction between mathematics and finance. The latter obtained new powerful analytical tools while the former saw its knowledge applied in new and surprising ways. (A key result used in the derivation of the BlackScholes formula, Ito's Lemma, was first applied to guide missiles to their targets; hence the title 'rocket science' applied to financial mathematics). This course describes the mathematical ideas behind these developments together with their application in modern finance, and includes a computational project where students further explore some of the ideas of option pricing.
10 credits  Galois Theory

Given a field K (as studied in MAS333/MAS438) one can consider the group G of isomorphisms from K to itself. In the cases of interest, this is a finite group, and there is a tight link (called the Galois correspondence) between the structure of G and the subfields of K. If K is generated over the rationals by the roots of a polynomial f(x), then G can be identified as a group of permutations of the set of roots. One can then use the Galois correspondence to help find formulae for the roots, generalising the standard formula for the roots of a quadratic. It turns out that this works whenever the degree of f(x) is less than five. However, the fifth symmetric group lacks certain grouptheoretic properties that lie behind these formulae, so there is no analogous method for solving arbitrary quintic equations. The aim of this course is to explain this theory, which is strikingly rich and elegant.
10 credits  Magnetohydrodynamics

Magnetohydrodynamics has been successfully applied to a number of astrophysical problems (eg to problems in Solar Magnetospheric Physics), as well as to problems related to laboratory physics, especially to fusion devices. This module gives an introduction to classical magnetohydrodynamics. Students will get familar with the system of magnetohydrodynamic equations and main theorems that follow from this system (e.g. conservation laws, antidynamo theorem). They will study the simplest magnetic equilibrium configurations, propagation of linear waves, and magnetohydrodynamic stability. The final part of the module provides an introduction to the theory of magnetic dynamo
10 credits  Mathematical modelling of natural systems (Advanced)

Mathematical modelling enables insight in to a wide range of scientific problems. This module will provide a practical introduction to techniques for modelling natural systems. Students will learn how to construct, analyse and interpret mathematical models, using a combination of differential equations, scientific computing and mathematical reasoning. Students will learn the art of mathematical modelling: translating a scientific problem into a mathematical model, identifying and using appropriate mathematical tools to analyse the model, and finally relating the significance of the mathematical results back to the original problem. Study systems will be drawn from throughout the environmental and life sciences.
10 credits  Measure and Probability

The module will give students an additional opportunity to develop skills in modern analysis as well as providing a rigorous foundation for probability theory. In particular it would form a companion course to MAS436 (Functional Analysis) and MAS452 (Stochastic Processes and Finance), the latter of which is fundamentally dependent on measure theoretic ideas.
10 credits  Signal Processing

The transmission reception and extraction of information from signals is an activity of fundamental importance. This course describes the basic concepts and tools underlying the discipline, and relates them to a variety of applications. An essential concept is that a signal can be decomposed into a set of frequencies by means of the Fourier transform. From this grows a very powerful description of how systems respond to input signals. Perhaps the most remarkable result in the course is the celebrated ShannonWhittaker sampling theorem, which tells us that, under certain conditions, a signal can be perfectly reconstructed from samples at discrete points. This is the basis of all modern digital technology.
10 credits
The content of our courses is reviewed annually to make sure it's uptodate and relevant. Individual modules are occasionally updated or withdrawn. This is in response to discoveries through our worldleading research; funding changes; professional accreditation requirements; student or employer feedback; outcomes of reviews; and variations in staff or student numbers. In the event of any change we'll consult and inform students in good time and take reasonable steps to minimise disruption. We are no longer offering unrestricted module choice. If your course included unrestricted modules, your department will provide a list of modules from their own and other subject areas that you can choose from.
Learning and assessment
Learning
You'll learn through lectures, problems classes in small groups and research projects. Some modules also include programming classes.
Assessment
You will be assessed in a variety of ways, depending on the modules you take. This can include quizzes, examinations, presentations, participation in tutorials, projects, coursework and other written work.
Programme specification
This tells you the aims and learning outcomes of this course and how these will be achieved and assessed.
Entry requirements
With Access Sheffield, you could qualify for additional consideration or an alternative offer  find out if you're eligible
A Levels + additional qualifications  AAB, including A in Maths + A in a relevant EPQ; AAB, including A in Maths + B in Further Maths AAB, including A in Maths + A in a relevant EPQ; AAB, including A in Maths + B in Further Maths
International Baccalaureate  36, with 6 in Higher Level Maths (Analysis and Approaches) 34, with 6 in Higher Level Maths (Analysis and Approaches)
BTEC  D*DD in a relevant subject with Distinctions in Maths units DDD in a relevant subject with Distinctions in Maths units
Scottish Highers + 1 Advanced Higher  AAAAB + A in Maths AAABB + A in Maths
Welsh Baccalaureate + 2 A Levels  A + AA, including Maths B + AA, including Maths
Access to HE Diploma  60 credits overall in a relevant subject, with 45 credits at Level 3, including 39 credits at Distinction (to include Maths units) and 6 credits at Merit 60 credits overall in a relevant subject, with 45 credits at Level 3, including 36 credits at Distinction (to include Maths units) and 9 credits at Merit
Mature students  explore other routes for mature students
You must demonstrate that your English is good enough for you to successfully complete your course. For this course we require: GCSE English Language at grade 4/C; IELTS grade of 6.5 with a minimum of 6.0 in each component; or an alternative acceptable English language qualification

We will give your application additional consideration if you have passed the Sixth Term Examination Paper (STEP) at grade 3 or above or the Test of Mathematics for University Admissions (TMUA) at grade 5 or above
We also accept a range of other UK qualifications and other EU/international qualifications.
If you have any questions about entry requirements, please contact the department.
School of Mathematics and Statistics
Staff in the School of Mathematics and Statistics work on a wide range of topics, from the most abstract research on topics like algebraic geometry and number theory, to the calculations behind animal movements and black holes. They’ll guide you through the key concepts and techniques that every mathematician needs to understand and give you a huge range of optional modules to choose from.
The department is based in the Hicks Building, which has classrooms, lecture theatres, computer rooms and social spaces for our students. It’s right next door to the Students' Union, and just down the road from the 24/7 library facilities at the Information Commons and the Diamond.
School of Mathematics and StatisticsWhy choose Sheffield?
The University of Sheffield
A top 100 university 2022
QS World University Rankings
Top 10% of all UK universities
Research Excellence Framework 2014
No 1 Students' Union in the UK
Whatuni Student Choice Awards 2020, 2019, 2018, 2017
Graduate careers
School of Mathematics and Statistics
There will always be a place for maths graduates in banking, insurance, pensions, and financial districts from the City of London to Wall Street. Big engineering companies still need people who can crunch the numbers to keep planes in the sky and trains running on time too. But the 21st century has also created new career paths for our students.
Smartphones, tablets, social networks and streaming services all use software and algorithms that need mathematical brains behind them. In the age of ‘big data’, everyone from rideshare apps to high street shops is gathering information that maths graduates can organise, analyse and interpret. The same technological advances have created new challenges and opportunities in cybersecurity and cryptography.
If the maths itself is what interests you, a PhD can lead to a career in research. Mathematicians working in universities and research institutes are trying to find rigorous proofs for conjectures that have challenged pure mathematicians for decades, or are doing the calculations behind major experiments, like the ones running on the Large Hadron Collider at CERN.
What if I want to work outside mathematics?
A good class of degree from a top university can take you far, whatever you want to do. We have graduates using their mathematical training in everything from teaching and management to advertising and publishing.
Fees and funding
Fees
Additional costs
The annual fee for your course includes a number of items in addition to your tuition. If an item or activity is classed as a compulsory element for your course, it will normally be included in your tuition fee. There are also other costs which you may need to consider.
Funding your study
Depending on your circumstances, you may qualify for a bursary, scholarship or loan to help fund your study and enhance your learning experience.
Use our Student Funding Calculator to work out what you’re eligible for.
Visit us
University open days
There are four open days every year, usually in June, July, September and October. You can talk to staff and students, tour the campus and see inside the accommodation.
Taster days
At various times in the year we run online taster sessions to help Year 12 students experience what it is like to study at the University of Sheffield.
Applicant days
If you've received an offer to study with us, we'll invite you to one of our applicant open days, which take place between November and April. These open days have a strong department focus and give you the chance to really explore student life here, even if you've visited us before.
Campus tours
Campus tours run regularly throughout the year, at 1pm every Monday, Wednesday and Friday.
Apply for this course
Make sure you've done everything you need to do before you apply.
How to apply When you're ready to apply, see the UCAS website:
www.ucas.com
Contact us
Telephone: +44 114 222 3999
Email: maths.admiss@sheffield.ac.uk
The awarding body for this course is the University of Sheffield.
Recognition of professional qualifications: from 1 January 2021, in order to have any UK professional qualifications recognised for work in an EU country across a number of regulated and other professions you need to apply to the host country for recognition. Read information from the UK government and the EU Regulated Professions Database.