# SPSS resources

A list of links and training resources to help students and staff use SPSS.

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If you want to know more details of the techniques listed in these How-To guides, why not check out our main resources pages?

## First Steps in SPSS

Transferring data from EXCEL to SPSS

Describes how to transfer data from EXCEL to SPSS.

Grouping and recoding variables

A short guide to grouping and recoding variables in SPSS.

Analysing a subset of cases

A short guide to selecting and analysing a subset of cases in SPSS.

Summarising categorical variables

A guide to summarising categorical variables using tables and charts.

Simple bar charts

A short guide to producing and editing simple bar charts in SPSS.

Panelled bar charts

A short guide to producing and editing panelled bar charts in SPSS.

Clustered bar charts

A short guide to producing and editing clustered bar charts in SPSS.

Stacked bar charts

A short guide to producing and editing stacked bar charts in SPSS.

Summarising continuous data

A guide to summarising continuous variables, including how to calculate summary measures and produce charts.

## Next Steps in SPSS

Chi-squared test for association

How to conduct a chi-square test for association between two categorical variables in SPSS.

Chi-squared test for two-way tables

How to conduct a chi-square test for association between two categorical variables by hand and in SPSS.

McNemar's test

Introduction to McNemar's test for testing for differences in a categorical variable between two related groups.

Checking for normality

Guide to checking normality of continuous data and where to find non-parametric tests in SPSS.

Paired t-test (a)

Paired t-test (b)

How to conduct a paired t-test in SPSS.

Sign test

Short guide to the Sign test, including details of how to undertake one in SPSS.

Wilcoxon signed rank sum test

How to undertake the Wilcoxon signed rank sum test in SPSS.

Independent samples t-test

How to undertake an independent samples t-test in SPSS (also known as the unpaired t-test).

Mann-Whitney U test

How to undertake the Man-Whitney U test in SPSS.

One-way (between groups) analysis of variance

How to undertake a one-way (between groups) analysis of variance in SPSS.

Kruskall-Wallis test

How to undertake a Kruskall-Wallis test in SPSS.

Two-way (between groups) analysis of variance

How to undertake a two-way (between groups) analysis of variance in SPSS.

Interactions

Dealing with interactions between variables in SPSS, when there is a single continuous outcome variable and two categorical independent variables.

Analysis of covariance

A guide to undertaking an analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) in SPSS.

Repeated measures (within-subject) analysis of variance

A guide to undertaking a repeated measures (within-subjects) analysis of variance in SPSS.

Friedman test

The Friedman test in SPSS.

Scatterplots and correlation

A guide to producing scatterplots and correlation coefficients in SPSS.

Simple linear regression

A guide to undertaking a simple linear regression in SPSS.

Reliability of predictions

This guide explains how to check the reliability of predictions from a simple linear regression.

## Further Topics in SPSS

The topics in this section are ordered alphabetically

Cluster analysis

A short introduction to cluster analysis and how to undertake one in SPSS.

Decision Tree analysis

A guide to decision tree analysis in SPSS.

Factor analysis

A short introduction to factor analysis and how to undertake one in SPSS.

Logistic regression

A guide to undertaking a logistic regression in SPSS.

Measuring agreement using the kappa statistic

A guide to using the kappa statistic to measure agreement in SPSS.

Moderation and mediation

A guide to moderation and mediation in analysis.

Multilevel modelling

A short guide to multilevel modelling, including how to fit it in SPSS.

Multinomial logistic regression

A guide to undertaking a multinomial logistic regression in SPSS.

Multiple linear regression: general introduction

This guide outlines how to undertake a multiple regression in SPSS including checking the goodness of fit and model diagnostics.

Multiple linear regression: Outliers, Durbin-Watson statistic and interactions in regression

A guide to detecting outliers, the Durbin-Watson statistic and interactions in regression in SPSS.

Ordinal logistic regression

A guide to undertaking an ordinal logistic regression in SPSS.

Principal components analysis

A short introduction to principal components analysis and how to undertake one in SPSS.

ROC curve analysis

A guide to receiver operating characteristic curve analysis in SPSS.

Reliability analysis

Measuring reliability for continuous outcomes: Bland- Altman analysis and intraclass correlation coefficient analysis in SPSS.

SPSS AMOS: measures of goodness of fit

A table for the goodness of fit measures used in SPSS AMOS.

Survival analysis

A guide to undertaking a survival analysis in SPSS.

## Useful websites for SPSS support

### IBM SPSS website

There are some useful tutorials and case studies on the main IBM SPSS website.

### UCLA Institute for Digital Research and Education

These pages contain examples of programs and output with footnotes explaining the meaning of the output. These are ptovided to help users more effectively read the output obtained and be able to give accurate interpretations.

## SPSS training for postgraduate students and staff

Log in to the Learning Management System (LMS) with your University username and password. Click on the Search button and search for either SPSS or Statistics. The currently available range of courses will appear.

If the session is full, place your name on the Interest list.

Note that the courses available differ by session, but here's a sample list of previously available courses:

### Getting data into SPSS

An introduction to the SPSS interface, help system and data model. The course will then take you through inputting data manually or from another package.

### Simple graphs and statistics with SPSS

An introduction to carrying out simple univariate and bivariate statistics. This includes

• bar charts
• scatterplots
• calculating frequencies
• descriptive statistics
• crosstabulation (including using chi-squared test, t-test and correlation)

### Going further with SPSS

The course will cover some multivariate statistical techniques, including muliple-linear regression, logistic regression and ANOVA. It will also cover working to get results into other packages and working with syntax.

### Statistics for life scientists

This is a two-day course for early career researchers.

The progression across the two days will build to give a strong background in both the rationale behind the various statistics and the practicalities of running and interpreting a range of statistics.

The course will provide a firm grounding in how to use SPSS, from the basics of defining variables and entering data through to simple and slightly more complex analyses.

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