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Referencing is the literacy which enables learners to acknowledge the work of others, building on their own analysis of existing knowledge. It also enables learners to attribute sources by creating citations and generating accurate bibliographies. These skills sit within a broad understanding of the legal and ethical context of information and help learners to manage their information and avoid plagiarism.

Correct referencing is an essential component of academic writing. Learn how to reference correctly in the style required by your department, as well as how to avoid plagiarism, using the guides below.

Departmental referencing styles

Select your department from the list to see the referencing style used by your department.  You should always check with your lecturer if you have any queries.

TUOS Referencing standards

The TUOS referencing standards adhere to the appropriate published standard, with interpretations of rules where required (such as an item type where no published guidance exists) made in a standard TUOS style.

Harvard

The TUOS Harvard Standard adheres to the Harvard British Standard, with interpretations of rules where required made in a standard TUOS style.

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APA BETA

This new style referencing guide is in BETA. It adheres to the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, with interpretations of rules where required made in a standard TUOS style.

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IEEE BETA

This new style referencing guide is in BETA. It adheres to the Publication Manual of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, with interpretations of rules where required made in a standard TUOS style.

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MHRA Footnotes BETA

This new style referencing guide is in BETA. It adheres to the Modern Humanities Research Association Style Guide: Third edition, with interpretations of rules where required made in a standard TUOS style.

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OSCOLA Referencing

The Oxford University System for the Citation of Legal Authorities or OSCOLA referencing style is designed by Oxford University to accurately reference authorities, legislation, and a variety of legal materials. It is widely used by Law Schools and legal researchers in the UK.

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Vancouver BETA

This new style referencing guide is in BETA. It adheres to the National Library of Medicine's Citing Medicine Style Guide, with interpretations of rules where required made in a standard TUOS style.

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Tutorials on referencing and related literacies

How to attribute images

Learn how to attribute images used in your work to give fair credit to those whose work you use, and how this differs in digital and print forms.

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Understanding plagiarism

Understand plagiarism, the difference between collaboration and collusion, and identify ways to avoid plagiarism through appropriate note taking, reference management, and time management.

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Plagiarism and referencing quiz

A self help quiz to test your knowledge and understanding of plagiarism and the importance of referencing.

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