Referencing

A selection of resources to help you develop your referencing skills.

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About

Referencing is the literacy which enables learners to acknowledge the work of others, building on their own analysis of existing knowledge. It also enables learners to attribute sources by creating citations and generating accurate bibliographies.

These skills sit within a broad understanding of the legal and ethical context of information and help learners to manage their information and avoid plagiarism.

Correct referencing is an essential component of academic writing. Learn how to reference correctly in the style required by your department, as well as how to avoid plagiarism, using the guides below.

Departmental referencing styles

Find your department on the page below to identify the main referencing style it uses. Depending on your course or assignment, you may be asked to use different styles to those listed here. If in doubt, check with your tutors. 

Departmental referencing styles

Why reference?

Watch the video below to find about more about why referencing is important and how to get started. 

Why reference?

Tutorials and workshops

Understanding plagiarism [online tutorial]

Understand plagiarism, the difference between collaboration and collusion, and identify ways to avoid plagiarism through appropriate note taking, reference management, and time management.

Start online tutorial

View tutorial as a PDF (302KB)

Referencing: the essentials [online tutorial]

Referencing is an essential component of academic writing and research. It enables you to acknowledge the work of others when developing your own perspective.

This tutorial will give you an understanding of referencing and how you should use it in your academic work.

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Plagiarism and referencing quiz [online tutorial]

A self help quiz to test your knowledge and understanding of plagiarism and the importance of referencing.

Start quiz online

View quiz as a PDF (216KB)

Referencing and preventing plagiarism [workshop]

This workshop introduces the purpose of referencing, the concept of plagiarism and how it can be avoided, and gives you an opportunity to practice referencing in your departmental style.

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How to attribute images [online tutorial]

Learn how to attribute images used in your work to give fair credit to those whose work you use, and how this differs in digital and print forms.

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View tutorial as a PDF (539KB)

Using reference management software: an introduction [workshop]

In this workshop you will learn how to prevent plagiarism and reference correctly, using reference management software to manage and edit your references.

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Turnitin: interpreting your originality report [video]

This video from the Digital Learning Team will show you how to access and interpret your originality report for an assignment submitted to Turnitin.

Turnitin: interpreting your originality report (students)

Referencing style guides

The University referencing style guides adhere to the appropriate published standard, with interpretations of rules where required (such as an item type where no published guidance exists) made in a standard University style.

Harvard

This guide is based on the advice given in the Cite Them Right (2016) 10th rev. and expanded edition, with interpretations of rules where required made in a standard University style.

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View guide as a PDF (596KB)

AIP

This guide is based on guidance from the American Institute of Physics, with interpretations of rules where required made in a standard University style.

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View guide as a PDF (306KB)

APA 7th edition

This is the updated 7th edition of APA referencing. It adheres to the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association 7th edition, with interpretations of rules where required made in a standard University style.

View guide online

View guide as a PDF (643KB)

Cell

This guide adheres to the Cell Publications Information for Authors, with interpretations of rules where required made in a standard University style.

View guide online

View guide as a PDF (310KB)

IEEE

This guide adheres to the Publication Manual of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, with interpretations of rules where required made in a standard University style.

View guide online

View guide as a PDF (443KB)

MHRA Author-Date

This guide adheres to the Modern Humanities Research Association Style Guide: Third edition, with interpretations of rules where required made in a standard University style.

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View guide as a PDF (618KB)

MHRA Footnotes

This guide adheres to the Modern Humanities Research Association Style Guide: Third edition, with interpretations of rules where required made in a standard University style.

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View guide as a PDF (623KB)

OSCOLA Referencing

The Oxford University System for the Citation of Legal Authorities or OSCOLA referencing style is designed by Oxford University to accurately reference authorities, legislation, and a variety of legal materials.

It is widely used by Law Schools and legal researchers in the UK. This resource is from Cardiff University.

View guide online

Vancouver

This guide adheres to the National Library of Medicine's Citing Medicine Style Guide, with interpretations of rules where required made in a standard University style.

View guide online

View guide as a PDF (428KB)

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