Dr Kevin Kuykendall
Department of Archaeology
Senior Lecturer in Palaeoanthropology
Course Director- MSc Palaeoanthropology
Postgraduate Research Programmes Admissions Tutor
+44 114 222 2937
Full contact details
Department of Archaeology
Dr Kuykendall obtained his training in archaeology and palaeoanthropology, completing his BA degree at the University of Arizona in 1984.
During this time, he participated in archaeological fieldwork of Hohokam and Anasazi sites in Arizona, lithic scatters and historic logging camps in Northern California, and a Mayan temple complex in Belize (Central America).
His PhD research concerned the use of dental development and aging standards to assess the evolution of life history in early hominids such as Australopithecus africanus.
After completion of his PhD, Kuykendall accepted a lecturing position at the University of the Witwatersrand in Johannesburg, South Africa and for the next decade was involved in fieldwork at the Plio-Pleistocene sites at the Makapansgat Limeworks, Buffalo Cave, and Gondolin.
He also has conducted research in the fields of skeletal biology, CT analysis of fossil hominid crania, and development of innovative teaching methods.
Kuykendall joined the Department of Archaeology at the University of Sheffield in 2004, where he is the course coordinator of the MSc Palaeoanthropology programme, and continues with research in palaeoanthropology.
- 1992- PhD – Washington University, USA
- Thesis- Dental development in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and implications for dental development patterns in fossil hominids
- 1992- PhD – Washington University, USA
- Research interests
- Plio-Pleistocene hominin evolution in Africa
- Evolution of early hominin life history
- Middle Palaeolithic archaeology and Neanderthal occupation of Britain
Current research projects/ collaborations
Where are all the Neanderthals? Limestone cave survey in the UK
This project aims to locate Middle and Upper Palaeolithic Cave sites in the UK. It has also begun to implement ‘non-cave’ localities and a regional landscape approach to explore new areas with potential to produce archaeology relevant to understanding Neanderthal and early modern human occupation in Britain. It involves a collaboration with the Creswell Crags Museum and Visitor Centre to develop a field excavation programme highlighting public engagement with local archaeology and prehistory.
Collaborators: Andrew Reid (Wessex Archaeology); Chris Breedon (Wessex Archaeology); Tim Cockrell (Archaeology, Sheffield); Creswell Crags
Dental development and age estimation in extant apes: applications to understanding early hominin life history.
This project involves the re-analysis of existing data sets of dental radiography in chimpanzees, and the acquisition and analysis of new radiographic data sets from museum collections in the UK and Europe. Dental development assessment provides a comparative schedule for determining the relative timing of developmental events in both extant and extinct primates and hominins, allowing further elucidation of the evolutionary differences in growth and life history schedules among different early hominin species.
Collaborators: J Boughner (University of Saskatchewan, Canada); C Brimacombe (Simon Fraser University, Canada)
Past research projects/ collaborations:
South African Palaeocave Survey Project, South Africa
This project aimed to implement a regional GIS-based landscape survey of historic mining sites in South Africa, and to inventory such localities for the recovery of palaeoanthropological resources such as geological dating, environmental isotopes, palynology, mineral trace elements, fossils and other sampling techniques that will provide information about local environmental evolution.
This contextual information would provide data for the construction of a palaeoanthropological model of regional environmental evolution, and for the successful location of new fossil localities pertinent to furthering research on extinct hominid evolution.
Collaborators: J Brink (Bloemfontein Museum, South Africa); B Villmoare (University of Nevada, Las Vegas, USA); K Lewton (University of Southern California, USA); Andrew Reid (Wessex Archaeology)
Paranasal sinuses in extant and fossil primates
This project involves the 2D and 3D analysis of CT scan and other radiographic data sets to quantify and compare internal morphological structures in extant and fossil primate crania. One focus has been the investigation of the evolutionary presence and absence of the maxillary sinus in extinct species of colobine monkeys, whose descendant species (modern colobines) have lost this structure. Future work objectives are to develop a method to document and compare the eruption pathways and development of the dentition in relation to maxillary sinus pneumatisation in humans and apes using radiographic and CT data sets.
Collaborators: Todd C. Rae (Roehampton University); Lauren Butaric (Des Moines University, USA)
- Research group
Areas of potential research supervision
- hominoid dental development and early hominid life history reconstruction
- GIS and landscape approaches to Plio-Pleistocene hominid fossil site survey
- CT-based analysis of craniofacial development and variation in fossil and extant primates
Current Research Students
- Evelyne Browaeys- Birds of prey in the Bronze Age Near East: their role and identification
- Ian McAfee- "Joint disease in post-Medieval England: Comparative analysis of modern risk factors and historic lifestyles"
- Tegid Watkin- "3D geometric morphometric analysis of metacarpal and phalangeal torsion in humans, primates and fossil hominins, and its application in stone tool use"
- Benjamin Wimmer- "Osteological variability in European Cattle: The impact of sexual dimorphism and selective breeding on size and shape"
- Teaching activities
- Human Origins, Migrations and Identities (co-ordinator)
- Primate and Human Evolution (co-ordinator)
- Archaeology of Britain: From Prehistory to the Industrial Revolution
- Thinking Through Archaeology
- Catastrophes and Climate Change: From Prehistory to Modernity
- Digital Cultural Heritage: From Theory to Practice (co-ordinator)
- Evolutionary Anatomy (co-ordinator)
- Human Evolution: Theory and Practise in Research (co-ordinator)
- Quantitative Methods in Anthropology and Archaeology (co-ordinator)
- Research Design: Planning, Execution and Presentation
- Professional activities
- European Society for the study of Human Evolution
- American Association of Physical Anthropologists
- Palaeoanthropology Society
- Publications & Conferences
- Kuykendall, K.L., and Heyerdahl-King, I.S., 2013. Modern human origins in Africa: A review of the origins and early dispersals of Homo sapiens. In Cummings, V., Jordan, P., and Zvelebil, M. (eds.) Oxford Handbook of the Archaeology and Anthropology of Hunter-Gatherers, Oxford.
- Kuykendall, K.L. 2012. On the evolutionary development of early hominid molar teeth and the Gondolin Paranthropus molar. In Reynolds, S.C., and Gallagher, A. (eds.) African Genesis: Proceedings of the African Genesis Symposium, University of Cambridge Press, pp. 280-297.
- Kuykendall, K.L., and Strkalj, G. 2007. A history of South African palaeoanthropology. Ch. 2 In: Bonner, P., Esterhuysen, A., and Jenkins, T. (eds). A Search for Origins: Science, History, and South Africa’s ‘Cradle of Humankind’, Johannesburg: Wits University Press, pp. 28-49.
- Kuykendall, K.L. 2007. Fossil hominids of the Cradle of Humankind. Ch. 3, In: Bonner, P., Esterhuysen, A., and Jenkins, T. (eds.) A Search for Origins: Science, History, and South Africa’s ‘Cradle of Humankind’, Johannesburg: Wits University Press, pp. 50-77.
- Kuykendall, K.L. 2003. Reconstructing australopithecine growth and development: what do we think we know? In JL Thompson, G Krovitz, and A Nelson (Eds.) Patterns of Growth and Development in the Genus Homo, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 191-218.
- Kuykendall, K.L. 2002. An assessment of radiographic and histological standards of dental development in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). IN McNamara, K.J. and Minugh-Purvis, N. (eds.) Human Evolution Through Developmental Change, Johns Hopkins University Press, pp. 281-304.
- Latham, AG, Herries, A., Quinney, P., Sinclair, A., and Kuykendall, K.L. 1999. The Makapansgat Australopithecine Site from a Speleological Perspective. IN Pollard, A.M. (ed.), Geoarchaeology: exploration, environments, resources. Geological Society, London, special Publications, 165: 61-77.
- Brimacombe CS, Kuykendall KL, Nystrom P. 2018. Epiphyseal fusion and dental development in Pan paniscus with comparisons with Pan troglodytes. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 167(4).;1–11.
- McKee, J. K., and Kuykendall, K.L., 2016. The Dart deposits of the Buxton Limeworks, Taung, South Africa, and the context of the Taung Australopithecus fossil. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 36(2)
- Boughner, J.C., Der, J., and Kuykendall, K.L., 2015. A multivariate approach to assess variation in tooth mineralization using free-lived and captive-raised chimpanzees (P. troglodytes). American Journal of Physical Anthropology 158:452-462.
- Brimacombe, C.S., Kuykendall, K.L., and Nystrom, P., 2015. Analysis of correlations between measures of skeletal development and dental mineralization in Pan troglodytes. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 158:279-287.
- Brimacombe, C.S., Kuykendall. K.L., and Nystrom, P., 2015. Epiphyseal fusion in Pan troglodytes relative to dental age. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 157:19-29.
- Kuykendall. K.L., and Elton, S. 2014. The human biology of the past. Annals of Human Biology 41(4):283-286, Special Issue (Guest co-editors): The Human Biology of the Past
- Villmoare, B. Kuykendall, K.L., Rae, T.C., and Brimacombe, C.S., 2013. Continuous dental eruption identifies Sts 5 as the developmentally oldest fossil hominin and informs the taxonomy of Australopithecus africanus. Journal of Human Evolution 65:798-80
- McKee, J.K., von Mayer, A., and Kuykendall, K.L., 2011. New species of Cercopithecoides from Haasgat, North West Province, South Africa. Journal of Human Evolution 60:83-93.
- Dayal, M.R., Kegley, A.D.T., Strkalj, G., Bidmos, M.A., and Kuykendall, K.L. 2009. The history and composition of the Raymond A. Dart Collection of Human Skeletons at the University of the Witwatersrand, South Africa, American Journal of Physical Anthropology,140:324-335.
- Dayal, M.R., Steyn, M. & Kuykendall, K.L. 2008. Stature estimation from bones of South African whites, South African Journal of Science, vol. 104, no. 3 & 4, pp. 124-128.
- Kuykendall, K.L., and Rae, T.C. 2008. Presence of the maxillary sinus in fossil Colobinae (Cercopithecoides williamsi) from South Africa. Special Issue: Paranasal Sinuses: The last frontier in craniofacial biology. The Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology, vol 291 (11):1499-1505.
- Adams, J.W., Herries, A.I.R., Kuykendall, K.L., and Conroy, G.C. 2007. Taphonomy of a South African cave: geological and hydrological influences on the GD 1 fossil assemblage at Gondolin, a Plio-Pleistocene paleocave system in the Northwest Province, South Africa. Quaternary Science Reviews 26:2526-2543.
- Hopley, P.J., Weedon, G.P., Marshall, J.D., Latham, A.G., Kuykendall K.L. 2007. High- and low-latitude orbital forcing of hominin habitats in the Plio-Pleistocene of South Africa. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 256:419-432.
- Hopley, P.J., Marshall, J.D., Weedon, G.P., Latham, A.G., Herries, A.I.R. Herries, and Kuykendall, K.L. 2007. Orbital-forcing and the spread of C4 Grasses in the late Neogene: Stable isotope evidence from South African speleothems. Journal of Human Evolution 53:620-634.
- Herries, A.I.R., Adams, J., Kuykendall, K.L., and Shaw, J. 2006. Speleology and magnetobiostratigraphic chronology of the GD2 locality of the Gondolin hominin-bearing palaeocave deposits, North West Province, South Africa. Journal of Human Evolution 51:617-631.
- Herries, A.I.R., Reed, K.E., Kuykendall, K.L., and Latham, A.G. 2006. Speleology and magnetobiostratigraphic chronology of the Buffalo Cave fossil site, Makapansgat, South Africa. Quaternary Research 66:233-245.
- Steinberg, N., Bidmos, M.A., and Kuykendall, K.L. 2005. Patellar measurements of South African Whites as sex assessors. Human Biology 56:69-74.
- Crawford T., McKee, J., Kuykendall, K.L., Latham, A.G., and Conroy, G.C. 2004. Recent paleoanthropological excavations of In Situ deposits at Makapansgat, South Africa - A first report. Collegium Antropologicum 28 (SUPPL. 2), 43-57.
- Latham, A.G., Herries, A.I.R., and Kuykendall, K.L. 2003. The formation and sedimentary infilling of the Limeworks Cave, Makapansgat, South Africa. Palaeontological Africana 39:69-82.
- Latham, A.G., Herries, A.IR., Sinclair, A.G.M., and Kuykendall, K.L. 2002. Re-examination of the lower stratigraphy in the Classic Section, Limeworks site, Makapansgat, South Africa. Human Evolution, 17 (3-4): 207-214
- Herries, A.I.R., Latham, A.G., and Kuykendall, K.L. 2001. The use of ‘SRT’ in sampling the Makapansgat Limeworks hominid palaeocave, South Africa. Antiquity 75:251-252.
- Kuykendall, K.L. 2001. On radiographic and histological methods for assessing dental development in chimpanzees: Comments on Beynon et al. (1998) and Reid et al. (1998). Journal of Human Evolution,40: 67-76.
- Menter, C.G., Kuykendall, K.L., Keyser, A.W., and Conroy, G.C. 1999. First record of hominid teeth from the Plio-Pleistocene site of Gondolin, South Africa. Journal of Human Evolution 37: 299-307.
- Schwartz, G.T., and Kuykendall, K.L. 1996 Enamel structure and development. Evolutionary Anthropology 5(5):150-151.
- K.L. Kuykendall 1996. Dental development in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes): The timing of tooth calcification stages. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 99:135-157.
- Kuykendall, K.L., and Conroy, G.C. 1996. Permanent tooth calcification in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes): Patterns and polymorphisms. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 99:159-174.
- Conroy, G.C., and Kuykendall, K.L. 1995. Paleopediatrics: or when did human infants really become human? American Journal of Physical Anthropology 98:121-131.
- Kuykendall, K.L., Toich, C.A., and McKee, J.K. 1995. Preliminary analysis of the Fauna from Buffalo Cave, Northern Transvaal, South Africa. Palaeontologia Africana 32:27-32.
- Kuykendall, K.L., Mahoney, C.J., and Conroy, G.C. 1992. Probit and survival analysis of tooth emergence ages in a mixed-longitudinal sample of the chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes). American Journal of Physical Anthropology 89:379-399
- Kuykendall. K. L., 2015. Using the Dental Maturity Score to understand variation in chimpanzee dental maturity. SSHB Proffered Papers Meeting, Southampton.
- Kuykendall, K. L., 2015. Dental maturity score in chimpanzees (poster). American Journal of Physical Anthropology 156:195-196. 84th Annual Meeting of the American Association of Physical Anthropologists, St. Louis, MO USA.
- Kuykendall, K.L., A. Reid, K.L. Lewton, B. Villmoare, and Brink, J. 2013. The South African Palaeocave Survey: A GIS approach to regional site survey (poster). British Cave Research Association Symposium, Keyworth, UK.
- Kuykendall, K.L., A. Reid, K.L. Lewton, B. Villmoare, and Brink, J. 2013. The South African Palaeocave survey: preliminary results using a regional GIS approach in palaeoanthropology (podium). Dearne Valley Archaeology Day, Wath upon Dearne, Rotherham, UK.
- Kuykendall, K.L., B. Villmoare, and Brink, J. 2012. The heritage of lime mining and palaeoanthropology in South Africa: A GIS approach to regional site survey (poster). Digital Humanities Symposium – Virtualisation and Heritage, University of York, UK. Rae, T.C.,
- Kuykendall, K.L., and Koppe, T., 2011. Different biomechanical regimes do not affect craniofacial pneumatization in fossil hominins (poster). 80th Annual Meeting of the American Association of Physical Anthropologists, Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA.
- Kuykendall, KL and Seymour, L 2009. Inspiring solutions or square pegs in round holes? Critical reflections on the use of e-learning to support Undergraduate Dissertations in Archaeology (podium). Teaching & Learning in Archaeology 2009, The Higher Education Academy, Subject Centre for History, Classics and Archaeology. Birkbeck College, London.
- Williams, C.J., and Kuykendall, K.L. 2009. A preliminary assessment of linear measurements for root growth in permanent molar teeth of the chimpanzee and fossil hominids (poster). The Palaeoanthropology Society, Chicago, USA.
- Dayal, M.R., Kegley, A.D.T., Strkalj, G., Bidmos, and Kuykendall, K.L. 2009. The Raymond A. Dart Collection of Human Skeletons: history, inventory and demographic assessment (poster). The American Association of Physical Anthropologists, Chicago, USA.
- Kuykendall, K.L. 2008. Inquiry-based approaches in Palaeoanthropology: teaching modern humans old tricks (poster). Learning Through Enquiry Alliance (LTEA) Conference 2008: Inquiry in a Networked World, University of Sheffield, CILASS.
- Chambers, E.N., McKee, J.K., and Kuykendall, K.L. 2008. Oxygen isotope analysis of tooth enamel carbonate from Plio-Pleistocene South African fossil sites (poster). Annual Meeting of the American Association of Physical Anthropologists, Columbus, Ohio USA.
- Crawford, T.C., Kuykendall, K.L., McKee, J.K., and Conroy, G. C. 2008. An analysis of the dental and mandibular morphology of the Makapansgat hominids (poster). Annual Meeting of the American Association of Physical Anthropologists, Columbus, Ohio USA.
- Kuykendall, K.L. 2008. Metrical and developmental comparison of a mandibular second molar from Gondolin: a case for hyper-robust Paranthropus in southern Africa? (abstract). Annual meeting of the Society for the Study of Human Biology, Oxford University, UK.
- Kuykendall, K.L., and Rae, T.C. 2007. Presence of the maxillary sinus in the fossil Colobine Cercopithecoides williamsi from South Africa: An assessment using Computed Tomography (abstract). Annual meetings of the Palaeoanthropology Society, Philadelphia, PA.
- Kuykendall, K.L., 2006. Life history in Australopithecus and Paranthropus (abstract). African Genesis Symposium, University of the Witwatersrand. Johannesburg, South Africa
- Kuykendall, K.L. 2004. Growth, development and life history in ‘gracile’ and ‘robust’ australopithecines (abstract). Annual Meetings of the Palaeoanthropology Society, McGill University, Montreal, Canada
- Crawford, T.C., McKee, J.K., Conroy, G.C., Kuykendall, K.L., and Latham, A.G. 2004. Fossil excavations of the Makapansgat Member 2 and adjacent breccias (abstract). 73rd Annual Meeting of the American Association of Physical Anthropologists, Tampa, FLA, USA. AJPA Suppl. 38:80.