Professor Carolyn Axtell
PhD, MSc, BSc (Hons)
Professor of Work Psychology
+44 114 222 3267
Full contact details
Sheffield University Management School
Carolyn Axtell is a Professor at the Institute of Work Psychology. Her areas of expertise are: virtual/remote working; the impact of new technology on work; employee well-being; the organisation of work/job design.
She gained a PhD in Work Psychology from the University of Sheffield, after completing an MSc in Occupational Psychology which she also studied at the University of Sheffield.
Carolyn completed her BSc (Hons) in Psychology at the University of Hertfordshire. She is a Chartered Occupational Psychologist and a member of British Psychological Society (Division of Occupational Psychology).
- Work Psychology: Understanding Human Behaviour in the Workplace. Pearson.
- Work Psychology: Understanding Human Behaviour in the Workplace. Pearson.
- What Works for whom in which Circumstances? An Integrated Realist Evaluation Model for Organisational Interventions. Scandinavian Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 8(1).
- Reconciling general transformational leadership and safety-specific transformational leadership: a paradox perspective. Journal of Safety Research.
- Unpacking virtual work’s dual effects on employee well-being: an integrative review and future research agenda. Journal of Management.
- Testing middle range theories in realist evaluation : a case of a participatory organisational intervention. International Journal of Workplace Health Management, 15(6), 694-710.
- Organisational interventions to improve employees' health and wellbeing: A realist synthesis. Applied Psychology, 71(3), 1058-1081.
- Developing initial middle range theories in realist evaluation : a case of an organisational intervention. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 18(16).
- Voicing for safety in the workplace: A proactive goal-regulation perspective. Safety Science, 131.
- Professional status and norm violation in email collaboration. Team Performance Management, 26(1/2), 1-15.
- Big data and employee wellbeing : walking the tightrope between utopia and dystopia. Social Sciences, 8(12).
- Promoting Well-Being in Virtual Work. Academy of Management Proceedings, 2019(1), 10956-10956.
- The Nature of Relationships in e-Internships: A Matter of the Psychological Contract, Communication and Relational Investment. Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 34(2), 113-121.
- Effort and Reward Effects: Appreciation and Self-Rated Performance in e-Internships. Social Sciences, 6(4).
- Understanding the relationship between experiencing workplace cyberbullying, employee mental strain and job satisfaction: a dysempowerment approach. International Journal of Human Resource Management, 28(7), 945-972.
- Design, development and validation of a workplace cyberbullying measure (WCM). Work and Stress, 30(4), 293-317.
- Revisiting group-based technology adoption as a dynamic process: the role of changing attitude-rationale configurations. MIS Quarterly: Management Information Systems, 40(3), 775-784.
- Revisiting Group-Based Technology Adoption As a Dynamic Process: The Role of Changing Attitude-Rationale Configurations. MIS Quarterly: Management Information Systems, 40(3), 775-784.
- Can Job Redesign Interventions Influence a Broad Range of Employee Outcomes by Changing Multiple Job Characteristics? A Quasi-Experimental Study. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 21(3), 284-295.
- How to run successful e-internships: a case for organizational learning. Development and Learning in Organizations, 30(2), 18-21.
- Going global in small steps: E-internships in SMEs. Organizational Dynamics, 45(1), 55-63.
- Group Norms in Virtual Work: New Directions. Academy of Management Proceedings, 2016(1), 15106-15106.
- (Re)Applying social psychology to organizational work, well-being, and leadership. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 46(1), 3-6.
- The work-related affordances of business travel: a disaggregated analysis of journey stage and mode of transport. Work, Employment & Society, 29(6), 950-968.
- Variability in the use of mobile ICTs by homeworkers and its consequences for boundary management and social isolation. Information and Organization, 25(4), 222-232.
- Exploring the impact of workplace cyberbullying on trainee doctors. Medical Education, 49(4), 436-443.
- e-Internships: prevalence, characteristics and role of student perspectives. Internet Research, 24(4), 457-473.
- The Role of Norms in Virtual Work A Review and Agenda for Future Research. JOURNAL OF PERSONNEL PSYCHOLOGY, 12(1), 1-6.
- Acceptability of workplace bullying: A comparative study on six continents. Journal of Business Research, 66(3), 374-380.
- The Role of Norms in Virtual Collaboration. Academy of Management Proceedings, 2012(1), 14124-14124.
- Job Design and the Employee Innovation Process: The Mediating Role of Learning Strategies. Journal of Business and Psychology, 27(2), 177-191.
- Call for Papers: “The Role of Norms in Virtual Work”. Journal of Personnel Psychology, 10(2), 96-96.
- Call for Papers: “The Role of Norms in Virtual Work”. Journal of Media Psychology, 23(2), 108-108.
- Mobile phones during work and non-work time: A case study of mobile, non-managerial workers. Information and Organization, 21(1), 41-56.
- The mediating role of job characteristics in job redesign interventions: A serendipitous quasi-experiment. J ORGAN BEHAV, 31(1), 84-105.
- To infinity and beyond?: Workspace and the multi-location worker. New Technology, Work and Employment, 24(1), 60-75.
- Mobile technologies in mobile spaces: Findings from the context of train travel. International Journal of Human Computer Studies, 66(12), 902-915.
- Enhancing customer service: Perspective taking in a call centre. EUR J WORK ORGAN PSY, 16(2), 141-168.
- The neglect of spatial mobility in contemporary studies of work: The case of telework. New Technology, Work and Employment, 22(1), 34-51.
- Promoting innovation: A change study. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 79(3), 509-516.
- From a distance. People Management, 39-40.
- Virtual Misunderstanding. International Journal of Productivity and Performance Management, 33(4), 375-376.
- Virtual Opportunities for Misunderstandings. The Professional Manager, 13(1).
- Promoting Role Breadth Self-Efficacy Through Involvement, Work Redesign and Training. Human Relations, 56(1), 113-131.
- Familiarity breeds content: The impact of exposure to change on employee openness and well-being. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 75(2), 217-231.
- Seeing Another Viewpoint: Antecedents and Outcomes of Employee Perspective Taking. Academy of Management Journal, 44(6), 1085-1100.
- Seeing another viewpoint: Antecedents and outcomes of employee perspective taking. ACAD MANAGE J, 44(6), 1085-1100.
- <title>Intelligent decision support tool for supply chain planning</title>. SPIE Proceedings.
- Designing a Safer Workplace: Importance of Job Autonomy, Communication Quality, and Supportive Supervisors. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 6(3), 211-228.
- Designing and evaluating new ways of working: the application of some sociotechnical tools. Human Factors and Ergonomics In Manufacturing, 11(1), 1-18.
- Shopfloor innovation: Facilitating the suggestion and implementation of ideas. J OCCUP ORGAN PSYCH, 73, 265-285.
- Quantifying the Effects of Trust in Supply Chains During Promotional Periods.
- Change and innovation in modern manufacturing practices: an expert panel survey of U.K. companies. Human Factors and Ergonomics In Manufacturing, 10(2), 121-137.
- Information technology: A study of performance and the role of human and organizational factors. Ergonomics, 40(9), 851-871.
- The dynamics of work organization, knowledge and technology during software development. INT J HUM-COMPUT ST, 46(1), 81-103.
- Predicting immediate and longer-term transfer of training. Personnel Review, 26(3), 201-&.
- Changing work systems.. J Hum Ergol (Tokyo), 26(2), 107-113.
- Software development: some critical views. BEHAV INFORM TECHNOL, 16(6), 359-362.
- Problems integrating user participation into software development. INT J HUM-COMPUT ST, 47(2), 323-345.
- Software development: Knowledge-intensive work organizations. BEHAV INFORM TECHNOL, 15(4), 237-249.
- National approaches to wellbeing interventions: The UK Management Standards as an example In Wall T, Cooper C & Brough P (Ed.), The SAGE Handbook of Organizational Wellbeing (pp. 368-382). SAGE Publications Ltd
- Organizational interventions – fitting the intervention to the context to ensure the participatory process In Kelloway K & Cooper C (Ed.), A Research Agenda for Workplace Stress and Wellbeing (pp. 191-210). Edward Elgar Publishing
- The Psychology of Dispersed Work In Arnold J, Coyne I, Randall R & Patterson F (Ed.), Work Psychology: Understanding Human Behaviour in the Workplace (pp. 431-452). Harolow, UK: Pearson.
- Virtuality in E-Internships: A Descriptive Account, Lecture Notes in Information Systems and Organisation (pp. 219-233). Springer International Publishing
- Participatory interventions in call centres In Nielsen K & Noblet A (Ed.), Organizational Interventions for Health and Well-being: A Handbook for Evidence-Based Practice Routledge
- The Challenge of Remote Working, The Oxford Handbook of Personnel Psychology (pp. 564-585). Oxford University Press (OUP)
- The lonely life of the mobile engineer?
- Building Better Workplaces through Individual Perspective Taking: A Fresh Look at a Fundamental Human Process, International Review of Industrial and Organizational Psychology 2008 (pp. 149-196).
- Changes in Modern Manufacturing Practices In Karwowski W (Ed.), International Encyclopaedia of Ergonomics and Human Factors (pp. 2065-2069). London: Taylor and Francis.
- Virtual Teams: Collaborating across Distance, International Review of Industrial and Organizational Psychology, 2004 (pp. 205-248).
- Tools and Methods to Support the Design and Implementation of New Work Systems, The New Workplace (pp. 331-346). Wiley
- Interviewing and Being Interviewed - Delegates Chapter London: MacMillan.
- Interviewing and Being Interviewed - Tutor's Notes London: MacMillan.
Conference proceedings papers
- An integrated realist evaluation model to evaluate organisational interventions. Academy of Management Proceedings, Vol. 2021(1) (pp 10830-10830)
- A Tool for Assessing User Experience of Fit of a Virtual Workplace (pp 22-34)
- Quantifying the benefits of trust in supply chain partnerships. AUTOMATED SYSTEMS BASED ON HUMAN SKILL 2000 (pp 175-178)
- The interplay between cognitive and organizational factors in software development.. INTERACT (pp 32-37)
- Unpacking the duality of well-being in virtual work: An integrative conceptual model.. Boston, USA.
- Employee Wellbeing in the Digital Age: Promise or Illusion?. Surrey, UK.
- Big data and Employee Wellbeing: Findings from a Seminar Series.. Surrey, UK.
- Virtual Work Research: Crossing Boundaries. Atlanta, Georgia, USA.
- Job redesign in a call centre.. Dublin, Ireland.
- Status Effects on Reactions to Communication Norm Violations. Academy of Management Conference, Anaheim, California.
- Norms in virtual work: The impact of status and perceived norm violations in email communications. European Association of Work & Organisational Psychology Conference.
- Well being and the home-based, self-employed teleworker. European Association of Work & Organisational Psychology Conference.
- Perceived norm violations in email communications: The impact of status on recipient reactions. Academy of Management Conference.
- State of the art and agenda for research on norms in virtual collaboration. Academy of Management Conference.
- Workplace cyber bullying: The impact of witnessing and resilience. IWP International Conference.
- Multi-Actor Perspectives on Localisation: Standardisation Tensions in an ICT Implementation. Academy of Management Conference.
- The Wellbeing of the Mobile Workforce. GigaOm.
- Familiarity breeds complacency: the effect of clarity and perspective taking on misunderstandings in a virtual team. SIOP (Society for Industrial & Organisational Psychology) Conference.
- Working Hours, Work-Related Travel and the Corrosion of Non-Work Sociality. IWP International Conference.
- Employer Influence on Job Crafting: A Qualitative Investigation. IWP International Conference.
- Why do job redesign interventions affect wellbeing?. IWP International Conference.
- How acceptable is bullying? Cultural explanations for trends in 15 countries. American Academy of Management Conference.
- How acceptable is bullying? Cultural explanations for trends in 15 countries. 2009 Academy of Management Meeting.
- Employee innovation behaviors: The development of a measure.
- Does one's culture influence how emotional labour is performed with customers, coworkers and supervisors?. Sixth International Conference on Emotions and Worklife (EMONET VI).
- Through the Looking-Glass of Emotional Labour: Alternative Lenses and Perspectives. Sixth International Conference on Emotions and Worklife (EMONET VI).
- All Aboard! Trains as Mobile Offices. BPS Division of Occupational Psychology Conference.
- Reducing Misunderstandings in virtual teams: enhancing the power of perspective taking. XIIIth European Congress of Work and Organisational Psychology.
- The communication dynamics of mobile telework. The Sixth European Conference in Organisational Knowledge Learning and Capabilities.
- Individual innovation behaviours: the development of a measure and examination of antecedents.
- Managing the Remote Worker. CIPD Human Resource Development Conference.
- Two degrees of mobile telework: comparisons and analysis (abstract). BPS Occupational Psychology Conference.
- Problems for User Involvement: A Human and Organizational Perspective..
- Research group
Over the years, Carolyn has worked with a range of organisations within both the public and private sector.
These research projects have broadly related to either evaluating the impact of new technologies and new ways of working or helping organisations develop new work practices.
Carolyn’s core interests are in virtual/telework, employee well-being, work design and empathy/perspective taking.
She has been invited to speak at conferences on the topic of virtual and mobile work. Carolyn is also on the editorial boards for the Journal of Occupational and Organisational Psychology and the Journal of Business and Psychology.
- Teaching activities
Carolyn primarily teaches on the MSc in Occupational Psychology/MSc Work Psychology.
She teaches topics related to technology mediated work and wellbeing at work.
Carolyn bases her lecture content on leading edge research and incorporates activities, discussion and different media to enhance student learning.