Dr Anthony Haynes
Reader in Inorganic Chemistry
Telephone: +44 (0) 114 222 9326
|Haynes Group Website|
Dr. Haynes obtained his BSc from the University of Exeter in 1986. After obtaining his PhD from the University of Nottingham in 1989, he became a BP Chemicals Research Fellow at the University of Sheffield until 1993, when he was appointed the BP Chemicals Lecturer in Homogeneous Catalysis. In 1998 he was appointed as Lecturer at the University of Sheffield. From this post he was promoted to Senior Lecturer (2002) and Reader (2009).
Professional Qualifications & Memberships
Homogeneous Catalysis, Organometallic Chemistry, Carbonylation, Reaction Mechanisms, Kinetics, Isotopic Labelling, High Pressure Infrared Spectroscopy, Ligand effects.
Transition Metal Chemistry; Homogeneous Catalysis
The Haynes group investigates mechanistic aspects of homogeneous transition metal catalysed reactions, particularly industrially important processes such as methanol carbonylation and alkene hydroformylation. Synthetic, spectroscopic, kinetic and computational methods are used to study the structure and reactivity of organometallic complexes and their roles in catalysis.
Mechanisms of rhodium and iridium catalysed methanol carbonylation
The catalytic carbonylation of methanol to acetic acid is one of the most significant industrial applications of homogeneous transition metal catalysis. We have a long-standing research collaboration with BP Chemicals, who operate methanol carbonylation plants worldwide, and introduced a new process(Cativa TM) in 1995 that uses a promoted iridium/iodide catalyst. Highlights of our mechanistic studies include the first spectroscopic detection of a highly reactive Rh-methyl intermediate in the rhodium-catalysed process and elucidation of the role of promoters in the iridium-based system. We recently showed that the rate of migratory CO insertion in [Ir(CO)2I3Me]- is dramatically increased by isomerisation to place a CO ligand trans to methyl.
Ligand effects on oxidative addition and migratory CO insertion
We are interested in how the rates of key steps in catalytic cycles can be influenced by the electronic and steric properties of "spectator" ligands, e.g. phosphines, imines and N-heterocyclic carbenes. Strongly donating ligands tend to promote oxidative addition and retard migratory CO insertion, whereas sterically bulky ligands tend to have the opposite effects on these steps. In a recent study of the mechanism of rhodium/xantphos-catalysed methanol carbonylation it was found that the key intermediates contained xantphos coordinated as a tridentate "pincer" ligand and the nucleophilicity of the metal centre is enhanced by a Rh---O interaction.
Our experimental studies are complimented by theoretical calculations, carried out in collaboration with Dr. Anthony Meijer in this department. We are interested in modelling trends in organometallic reactivity and spectroscopic properties, e.g. vibrational spectra of metal carbonyl complexes.
The department is well-equipped with modern instrumentation for NMR spectroscopy, X-ray crystallography, mass-spectrometry and chromatography. In addition, the group has dedicated FTIR instruments for kinetic measurements, including high pressure and stopped-flow IR cells.
1. (a) JACS, 1991, 113, 8567; (b) JACS, 1993, 115, 4093.
Undergraduate and postgraduate taught modules
- Grigoropoulos A, McKay AI, Katsoulidis AP, Davies RP, Haynes A, Brammer L, Xiao J, Weller AS & Rosseinsky MJ (2018) Encapsulation of Crabtree's Catalyst in Sulfonated MIL‐101(Cr): Enhancement of Stability and Selectivity between Competing Reaction Pathways by the MOF Chemical Microenvironment. Angewandte Chemie, 130(17), 4622-4627.
- Grigoropoulos A, Mckay AI, Katsoulidis AP, Davies RP, Haynes A, Brammer L, Xiao J, Weller AS & Rosseinsky MJ (2018) Encapsulation of Crabtree's Catalyst in Sulfonated MIL‐101(Cr): Enhancement of Stability and Selectivity between Competing Reaction Pathways by the MOF Chemical Microenvironment. Angewandte Chemie - International Edition, 57(17), 4532-4537. View this article in WRRO
- Repper SE, Haynes A, Ditzel EJ & Sunley GJ (2017) Infrared spectroscopic study of absorption and separation of CO using copper(I)-containing ionic liquids. Dalton Transactions, 46, 2821-2828. View this article in WRRO
- Grigoropoulos A, Whitehead GFS, Perret N, Katsoulidis AP, Chadwick FM, Davies RP, Haynes A, Brammer L, Weller AS, Xiao J & Rosseinsky MJ (2016) Encapsulation of an organometallic cationic catalyst by direct exchange into an anionic MOF. Chem. Sci., 7(3), 2037-2050. View this article in WRRO
- Haynes A, Elliott PIP, Haak S, Meijer AJHM & Sunley GJ (2013) Reactivity of Ir(III) carbonyl complexes with water: alternative by-product formation pathways in catalytic methanol carbonylation. Dalton Transactions, 42(47), 16538-16546. View this article in WRRO
- Birbeck JM, Haynes A, Adams H, Damoense L & Otto S (2012) Ligand effects on reactivity of cobalt acyl complexes. ACS Catalysis, 2(12), 2512-2523.
- Williams GL, Parks CM, Smith CR, Adams H, Haynes A, Meijer AJHM, Sunley GJ & Gaemers S (2011) Mechanistic study of rhodium/xantphos-catalyzed methanol carbonylation. Organometallics, 30(22), 6166-6179.
- Conifer CM, Law DJ, Sunley GJ, Haynes A, Wells JR, White AJP & Britovsek GJP (2011) Dicarbonylrhodium(I) complexes of bipyridine ligands with proximate H-bonding substituents and their application in methyl acetate carbonylation. European Journal of Inorganic Chemistry(23), 3511-3522.
- Lorenzini F, O'Hara E, Qian SM, Marchetti F, Birbeck JM, Haynes A, Blake AJ, Saunders GC & Marr AC (2009) The structural characterization and hydroformylation activity of the tri-rhodium complex [Rh3(μ2-dppm)2(μ2-CO)3(κ1-CO)3]BF4. Inorganic Chemistry Communications, 12(10), 1071-1073.
- Haynes A (2009) Iridium Complexes in Organic Synthesis.Edited by Luis A. Oro and Carmen Claver.. Angewandte Chemie International Edition, 48(33), 5993-5993.
- Haynes A, Meijer AJHM, Lyons JR & Adams H (2009) Identification of the reactive cis,mer isomer of [Ir(CO)2I3Me]-: relation to the mechanism of iridium-catalyzed methanol carbonylation.. Inorg Chem, 48(1), 28-35.
- Best J, Wilson JM, Adams H, Gonsalvi L, Peruzzini M & Haynes A (2007) Reactivity of rhodium(I) iminophosphine carbonyl complexes with methyl iodide. Organometallics, 26(8), 1960-1965.
- Baber RA, Haddow MF, Middleton AJ, Orpen AG, Pringle PG, Haynes A, Williams GL & Papp R (2007) Ligand stereoelectronic effects in complexes of phospholanes, phosphinanes, and phosphepanes and their implications for hydroformylation catalysis. Organometallics, 26(3), 713-725.
- Elliott PIP, Haslam CE, Spey SE & Haynes A (2006) Formation and reactivity of Ir(III) hydroxycarbonyl complexes.. Inorg Chem, 45(16), 6269-6275.
- McConnell AC, Pogorzelec PJ, Slawin AMZ, Williams GL, Elliott PIP, Haynes A, Marr AC & Cole-Hamilton DJ (2006) The synthesis, characterisation and reactivity of 2-phosphanylethylcyclopentadienyl complexes of cobalt, rhodium and iridium. Dalton Transactions(1), 91-107.
- Wilson JM, Sunley GJ, Adams H & Haynes A (2005) Oxidative addition of MeI to cationic Rh(I) carbonyl complexes with pyridyl bis(carbene) ligands. Journal of Organometallic Chemistry, 690(24-25), 6089-6095.
- Haynes A, Haslam CE, Bonnington KJ, Parish L, Adams H, Spey SE, Marder TB & Coventry DN (2004) Facile alkene insertion into a rhodium(III)-acetyl bond: Potential catalysts for CO/alkene copolymerization. Organometallics, 23(25), 5907-5909.
- Maitlis PM, Haynes A, James BR, Catellani M & Chiusoli GP (2004) Iodide effects in transition metal catalyzed reactions.. Dalton Trans(21), 3409-3419.
- Vickers PW, Pearson JM, Ghaffar T, Adams H & Haynes A (2004) Kinetics and thermodynamics of C-Cl bond activation by [Ir(CO)2Cl2]-. Journal of Physical Organic Chemistry, 17(11), 1007-1016.
- Haynes A, Maitlis PM, Stanbridge IA, Haak S, Pearson JM, Adams H & Bailey NA (2004) Oxidative addition of methyl iodide to [Rh(CO)2I]2: synthesis, structure and reactivity of neutral rhodium acetyl complexes, [Rh(CO)(NCR)(COMe)I2]2. Inorganica Chimica Acta, 357(10), 3027-3037.
- Haynes A, Maitlis PM, Morris GE, Sunley GJ, Adams H, Badger PW, Bowers CM, Cook DB, Elliott PIP, Ghaffar T , Green H et al (2004) Promotion of iridium-catalyzed methanol carbonylation: mechanistic studies of the cativa process.. J Am Chem Soc, 126(9), 2847-2861.
- Gaunt JA, Gibson VC, Haynes A, Spitzmesser SK, White AJP & Williams DJ (2004) Bis(imino)carbazolide complexes of rhodium: Highly nucleophilic ligands exerting a dramatic accelerating effect on MeI oxidative addition. Organometallics, 23(5), 1015-1023.
- Martin HC, James NH, Aitken J, Gaunt JA, Adams H & Haynes A (2003) Oxidative addition of MeI to a rhodium(I) N-heterocyclic carbene complex. A kinetic study. Organometallics, 22(22), 4451-4458.
- Wilkin OM, Maitlis PM, Haynes A & Turner ML (2003) Mid-IR spectroscopy for rapid on-line analysis in heterogeneous catalyst testing. Catalysis Today, 81(3), 309-317.
- Gonsalvi L, Gaunt JA, Adams H, Castro A, Sunley GJ & Haynes A (2003) Quantifying steric effects of alpha-diimine ligands. Oxidative addition of MeI to rhodium(I) and migratory insertion in rhodium(III) complexes. Organometallics, 22(5), 1047-1054.
- Gonsalvi L, Adams H, Sunley GJ, Ditzel E & Haynes A (2002) Steric and electronic effects on the reactivity of Rh and Ir complexes containing P-S, P-P, and P-O ligands. Implications for the effects of chelate ligands in catalysis.. J Am Chem Soc, 124(45), 13597-13612.
- Chauby V, Daran JC, Serra-Le Berre C, Malbosc F, Kalck P, Gonzalez OD, Haslam CE & Haynes A (2002) A mechanistic investigation of oxidative addition of methyl iodide to [Tp*Rh(CO)(L)]. Inorganic Chemistry, 41(12), 3280-3290.
- Haynes A, Maitlis PM, Quyoum R, Pulling C, Adams H, Spey SE & Strange RW (2002) Structure and reactivity of polymer-supported carbonylation catalysts. J Chem Soc, Dalton Transactions(12), 2565-2572.
- Tilset M, Fjeldahl I, Hamon JR, Hamon P, Toupet L, Saillard JY, Costuas K & Haynes A (2001) Theoretical, thermodynamic, spectroscopic, and structural studies of the consequences of one-electron oxidation on the Fe-X bonds in 17-and 18-electron Cp*Fe(dppe)X complexes (X = F, Cl, Br, I, H, CH3). J Am Chem Soc, 123(41), 9984-10000.
- Haynes A (2001) Two Metals are Better Than One. Education in Chemistry, 38(4), 99.
- Ghaffar T, Charmant JPH, Sunley GJ, Morris GE, Haynes A & Maitlis PM (2000) Methane formation during the iridium/iodide catalysed carbonylation of methanol. Inorganic Chemistry Communications, 3(1), 11-12.
- Gonsalvi L, Adams H, Sunley GJ, Ditzel E & Haynes A (1999) A dramatic steric effect on the rate of migratory CO insertion on rhodium. J Am Chem Soc, 121(48), 11233-11234.
- Yang J, Haynes A & Maitlis PM (1999) The carbonylation of methyl iodide and methanol to methyl acetate catalysed by palladium and platinum iodides. Chemical Communications(2), 179-180.
- Ghaffar T, Adams H, Maitlis PM, Sunley GJ, Baker MJ & Haynes A (1998) Spectroscopic identification and reactivity of [Ir(CO)3I2Me], a key reactive intermediate in iridium catalysed methanol carbonylation. Chemical Communications(9), 1023-1024.
- Haynes A, Pearson JM, Vickers PW, Charmant JPH & Maitlis PM (1998) Model reactions of a carbonylation catalyst: phosphite induced migratory CO insertion in [MeIr(CO)2I3]-. Inorganica Chimica Acta, 270(1-2), 382-391.
- Haynes A, McNish J & Pearson JM (1998) Cis-trans isomerism in [M(CO)2I4]- (M = Rh, Ir): Kinetic, mechanistic and spectroscopic studies. J Organomet Chem, 551(1-2), 339-347.
- Muir JE, Haynes A & Winter MJ (1996) Methyl to alkylidene migration within trans-[WMe(=CHPh)(CO)2(η-C5H5)]. Chemical Communications(15), 1765-1766.
- Maitlis PM, Haynes A, Sunley GJ & Howard MJ (1996) Methanol carbonylation revisited: Thirty years on. J Chem Soc Dalton Transactions(11), 2187-2196.
- Griffin TR, Cook DB, Haynes A, Pearson JM, Monti D & Morris GE (1996) Theoretical and experimental evidence for SN2 transition states in oxidative addition of methyl iodide to cis-[M(CO)2I2]- (M=Rh, Ir). J Am Chem Soc, 118(12), 3029-3030.
- Monti D, Frachey G, Bassetti M, Haynes A, Sunley GJ, Maitlis PM, Cantoni A & Bocelli G (1995) The migratory insertion of carbon monoxide in pentamethylcyclopentadienyliridium(III) complexes. Structural effects on reactivity and mechanism for rhodium and iridium systems. Inorganica Chimica Acta, 240(1-2), 485-493.
- Pearson JM, Haynes A, Morris GE, Sunley GJ & Maitlis PM (1995) Dramatic Acceleration of Migratory Insertion in [Melr(CO)2I3]- by Methanol and by Tin(II) iodide. J Chem Soc Chemical Communications(10), 1045-1046.
- Ellis PR, Pearson JM, Haynes A, Adams H, Bailey NA & Maitlis PM (1994) Oxidative Addition of Alkyl Halides to Rhodium(I) and Iridium(I) Dicarbonyl Diiodides: Key Reactions in the Catalytic Carbonylation of Alcohols. Organometallics, 13(8), 3215-3226.
- Haynes A, Mann BE, Morris GE & Maitlis PM (1993) Mechanistic Studies on Rhodium Catalyzed Carbonylation Reactions: Spectroscopic Detection and Reactivity of a Key Intermediate, [MeRh(CO)2I3]-. J Am Chem Soc, 115(10), 4093-4100.
- Bassetti M, Monti D, Haynes A, Pearson JM, Stanbridge IA & Maitlis PM (1992) Relative Reaction Rates for Rhodium and Iridium: Oxidative Addition of Methyl Iodide to M(I) and Migratory Insertion in M(III) Methyl Carbonyl Complexes. Gazzetta Chimica Italiana, 122(9), 391-393.
- Haynes A, Ellis P, Byers P & Maitlis P (1992) Fe(CO)5 in CO cylinders. Chemistry in Britain, 28(6), 517-517.
- Haynes A, Mann BE, Gulliver DJ, Morris GE & Maitlis PM (1991) Direct Observation of MeRh(CO)2I3-, the Key Intermediate in Rhodium Catalyzed Methanol Carbonylation. J Am Chem Soc, 113(22), 8567-8569.
- Haynes A, George MW, Haward MT, Poliakoff M, Turner JJ, Boag NM & Green M (1991) A Mechanism for the Photochemical Conversion of FpSi2Me5 to FpSiMe3 (Fp = (η5-C5H5)Fe(CO)2). Infrared Evidence for an Intermediate Iron Silylene Complex. J Am Chem Soc, 113(6), 2011-2020.
- Haynes A, Poliakoff M, Turner JJ, Bender BR & Norton JR (1990) The Photochemistry of Dinuclear Osmium Carbonyl Complexes; Characterisation of Os2(CO)8 using Matrix Isolation. J Organomet Chem, 383(1-3), 497-519.
- Haynes A & Legon AC (1988) rs-type Coordinates in Weakly Bonded Dimers: Application to Linear Dimers, B.....HCN, where B = CO, N2 and HCN. J Mol Struct, 189(1-2), 153-164.
- Dixon AJ, Firth S, Haynes A, Poliakoff M, Turner JJ & Boag NM (1988) The Photochemistry of Cyclopentadienyl Platinum Carbonyl Dimers; Characterisation of [Pt2(µ-CO)(η5-C5R5)2] (R = H, Me) using Matrix Isolation and Fast Time-Resolved Infrared Spectroscopy. J Chem Soc Dalton Transactions(6), 1501-1507.
- Haynes A (2017) Transition Metal Catalysed Methanol Carbonylation In Kamer PCJ, Vogt D & Thybaut JW (Ed.), Contemporary Catalysis: Science, Technology and Applications (pp. 795-822). London: RSC.
- Haynes A (2013) Carbonylation Reactions In Reedijk J & Poeppelmeier K (Ed.), Comprehensive Inorganic Chemistry II: From Elements to Applications (pp. 1-24). Elsevier
- Haynes A (2010) Catalytic Methanol Carbonylation In Gates BC & Knözinger H (Ed.), Advances in Catalysis (pp. 1-45).
- Haynes A (2006) Acetic acid synthesis by catalytic carbonylation of methanol In Beller M (Ed.), Catalytic Carbonylation Reactions (pp. 179-205).
- Haynes A (2006) Commercial Applications of Iridium Complexes in Homogeneous Catalysis In Crabtree RH & Mingos DMP (Ed.), Comprehensive Organometallic Chemistry III (pp. 427-444). Elsevier
- Haynes A & Maitlis PM (2006) Syntheses Based on Carbon Monoxide In Chiusoli GP & Maitlis PM (Ed.), Metal-catalysis in industrial organic processes (pp. 114-162). RSC
- Haynes A (2005) The Use of High Pressure Infrared Spectroscopy to Study Catalytic Mechanisms In Heaton B (Ed.), Mechanisms in Homogeneous Catalysis: A Spectroscopic Approach (pp. 107-150). Wiley VCH
- Wilkin OM, Allen RWK, Maitlis PM, Tippetts JR, Turner ML, Tesar V, Haynes A, Pitt MJ, Low YY & Sowerby B (2002) High throughput testing of catalysts for the hydrogenation of carbon monoxide to ethanol In Derouane EG, Parmon V, Lemos F & Ribeiro FR (Ed.), Principles and Methods for Accelerated Catalyst Design and Testing (pp. 299-303).
- Haynes A, Maitlis PM, Quyoum R, Adams H & Strange RW (2001) Structure and reactivity of polymer-supported carbonylation catalysts In Sherrington DC & Kybett AP (Ed.), Supported Catalysts and their Applications (pp. 166-175).
- Haynes A & Davies PR (2000) Chemical Marriage Brokers In Lister T (Ed.), Cutting edge chemistry (pp. 55-76). RSC
- Haynes A & Davies PR (1999) Chemical Mariage Brokers In Hall N (Ed.), The Age of the Molecule (pp. 73-96). RSC
Conference proceedings papers
- Cavallo L & Haynes A (2002) Steric and electronic effects in the rhodium-catalyzed carbonylation reactions. Abstr Pap Am Chem Soc, Vol. 224 (pp U734-U734)
- Norton JR, Bender BR, Wiser D, Haynes A, Poliakoff M & Turner JJ (1989) Os2(CO)8, an apparent intermediate in the olefin and acetylene exchange-reactions of diosmacyclobutanes. Abstr Pap Am Chem Soc, Vol. 198 (pp 329-INOR)